2005 Cronulla riots

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Police observing crowds prior to confrontations

The 2005 Cronulla riots were a series of sectarian clashes and mob violence in Australia, originating in the Sydney suburb of Cronulla, New South Wales, and spreading, over the next few nights, to additional suburbs.

On 4 December 2005, a group of volunteer surf lifesavers were assaulted by a group of young men of Middle Eastern appearance, with several other violent assaults occurring over the next week. These incidents were widely commented on in the Sydney media and are considered to be a key factor in a racially motivated confrontation the following weekend.[1] Racial tensions were already prevalent among the two racial groups due to the Sydney Gang Rapes of 2000, among other social incidents, which likely contributed to the scale of the escalation, even though a later review by New South Wales Police found that the initial incident was no more significant, of itself, than other fights between the two racial groups.[1]

A crowd gathered on the morning of Sunday, 11 December 2005 and, by midday, approximately 5,000 people gathered at Cronulla beach to protest against the recent spate of violence against locals. However, fuelled by alcohol, the crowd turned to violence when a young man of Middle Eastern appearance was spotted on the beach. He was surrounded by a crowd outside a local hotel and attacked, along with similar attacks later that day. Retaliatory riots also took place that night and on subsequent nights, resulting in extensive property damage and several more assaults, including one stabbing and even some attacks against ambulance and police officers.[2]

The attacks were widely condemned by local, state and federal members of parliament, police, local community leaders, and residents of Cronulla and adjacent areas. A large number of arrests were made over the subsequent months, from both the initial riot on 11 December and the retaliatory riots held over the subsequent nights. Travel warnings for Australia were issued by some countries but have since been removed.

Background[edit]

New South Wales Police had been recording racial and ethnic tensions and incidents in and around Cronulla since October 2005.[3] There is also a history of conflict between Cronulla locals and those visiting from the Western suburbs ("Westies") with "bashings" common since the 1960s as part of a turf war between Westies and local surfies.[4][5] The previous summer, on Australia Day 26 January 2005 a non-racial riot occurred with around two to three thousand young people in the Cronulla area engaged in "civil disobedience", at one stage hurling missiles at police attempting to control the crowd.[3] Several of the youths who were arrested that day for assaulting police officers were draped in the Australian flag at the time.[6]

Just after 3pm on Sunday, 4 December 2005, police were called to North Cronulla Beach following a report of an assault on two off-duty surf lifesavers by four members of a group of eight Middle Eastern men.[3][7] A verbal exchange had taken place after three lifesavers approached a group of four young Lebanese men on Cronulla Beach with both groups accusing the other of staring at them. One of the Lebanese men reportedly responded to the accusations, "I'm allowed to; now fuck off and leave our beach", to which a lifesaver responded, "I come down here out of my own spare time to save you dumb cunts from drowning; now piss off, you scum".[3]

The verbal exchange escalated with one Lebanese youth attempting to defuse the situation. Another then threw a punch, missing, prompting a pushing match that escalated into a fight. One of the lifesavers was badly hurt after falling and striking his head.[3] One of the lifesavers later informed police that the four were part of a group of eight Lebanese that had been on the beach most of the day and that there had been no problems with their prior behaviour. Despite media reports to the contrary, no "Middle Eastern men converged on the area" and there were no more than the original eight present.[1][8]

What kind of grubs? Well I'll tell you what kind of grubs this lot were. This lot were Middle Eastern grubs.

Alan Jones, 5 December 2005, on 2GB radio[9]

One media report stated that there was already tension between the community and Lebanese youths before this event and people, particularly women, claimed to have been harassed, almost daily, by "groups of young Lebanese men" attempting to "pick them up" and describing the women as being "Aussie sluts".[10]

The events were reported widely across the Sydney media, particularly on talkback radio.[11] When a listener, Berta, commented to Alan Jones of Sydney's 2GB Radio that she had heard "really derogatory remarks" aimed at Middle Eastern people, Jones interrupted stating "We don't have Anglo-Saxon kids out there raping women in Western Sydney".[11] Jones also broadcast and endorsed one listener's suggestion that bikie gangs be brought down to Cronulla railway station to deal with "Lebanese thugs" and that the event be televised, arguing that despite their reputation bikie gangs do "a lot of good things". By Thursday, Jones had stirred significant discussion, and stated "I'm the person that's led this charge here. Nobody wanted to know about North Cronulla, now it's gathered to this."[12] Jones was later found to have breached the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) Code of Conduct section 1.3(a), as his comments were "likely to encourage violence or brutality and to vilify people of Lebanese and Middle-Eastern backgrounds on the basis of ethnicity".[12]

Police were concerned about the repercussions of these events. Later investigations revealed that over 270,000 individual text messages were transmitted inciting a racially motivated confrontation at North Cronulla Beach the following Saturday.[3]

Riots[edit]

Crowds gathered at North Cronulla amid Australian flags and anti-Lebanese fanfare.
"This Sunday every Fucking Aussie in the shire, get down to North Cronulla to help support Leb and wog bashing day...Bring your mates down and let's show them this is our beach and they're never welcome back"

"Just a reminder that Cronulla's 1st wog bashing day is still on this Sunday. Chinks bashing day is on the 27th and the Jews are booked for early January"

"Every fucking aussie.Go to Cronulla Beach Sunday for some Leb and wog bashing Aussie Pride ok"

"All leb / wog brothers. Sunday midday. Must be at North Cronulla Park. These skippy aussies want war. Bring ur guns and knives and lets show them how we do it."

—Series of widely circulated SMS text messages believed to have instigated the gathering at Cronulla, [2][3][13]

Over the course of Sunday, 11 December 2005, approximately 5,000 people gathered in and around North Cronulla Beach. Early in the morning, people began to gather and impromptu barbecues and "partying" took place.[2][14][15] However, at 12:59, a young man of "Middle Eastern appearance" was spotted on the beach and the crowds began "chanting stuff [and] yelling out things" before rushing him. The man attempted to avoid the crowd by quickly entering "Northies," a local pub, but the crowd forcibly dragged him out and attacked him. The police, having been in Cronulla since the early morning (including police helicopters and patrol boats), quickly intervened and resolved the situation.[2][3][14][15] A Cronulla High School teacher later claimed that the crowd had attacked the man after he had shouted "I'm going to blow youse all up".[10]
At 13:30 two women verbally argued with a small group; the police arrived and both parties left. However, an hour later, they again met and a scuffle ensued. At 13:45, another two boys from Bangladesh[2] were surrounded by the crowd, and had bottles thrown at them, with the crowd repeatedly chanting “Fuck off Lebs!,” with the boys subsequently escaping by car.[3] Chants and slogans such as “Fuck off Lebs!”, “We grew here, you flew here”, “Aussie Pride”, “Fuck off wogs!”, were repeated throughout the day by the crowd. The crowd also attacked the police by throwing beer bottles. Police vehicles were also prevented from entering the area.[13][14]
Around 14:00 another three males were assaulted on the beach with the crowd throwing sausages and beer bottles at them.[3]

Rumours had persisted throughout the day that an additional 600 people would arrive by train, mostly from the west of Cronulla, to join the crowds. At approximately 15:00 “two young men of Middle Eastern appearance” arrived at Cronulla train station with the crowd outside chanting “Fuck off wogs!”. The two men took refuge in the train. However, the crowd entered and began assaulting them; a police officer entered the train and cleared the crowd.[2][3]


At 15:20 two separate assaults took place; one involved a crowd attacking a man of “Middle Eastern appearance” and throwing beer bottles.[3] In this case an officer intervened and removed the victim as they were both struck by the bottle. A second assault took place outside a take away restaurant; three men were taken inside the restaurant as refuge and the diners already inside were moved towards the back. The glass doors and windows were broken and those inside were moved outside without incident.[3]

Injuries and arrests[edit]

By the end of the day 26 people were treated for injuries.[2][14] The 15:20 assault required both the victim and the police officer to receive hospital treatment.[3] A total of 16 were arrested and charged with 42 offences including: malicious damage, assaulting a police officer, affray, offensive conduct, resisting arrest and numerous driving offences.[7][14] One police officer was hit by a car and two ambulance officers were also amongst the injured as their ambulance, under mounted police escort, was surrounded and beer bottles were thrown, with one of the ambulance officers being hit on the head with a bottle and the other receiving lacerations on their arm.[3][7]

Crowds with police and ambulance in background

Evening retaliation[edit]

At 19:45 around 100 locals of Punchbowl (a suburb 20 kilometres [12 mi] to Cronulla’s northwest) gathered together at the local Punchbowl Park.[2][3] Additional groups, armed with baseball bats, also gathered at The Promenade and Arncliffe Park.[3] Between 20:30 and 21:00 the groups formed a convoy of “more than 40 cars” and drove down to the beaches “to get revenge” with many of the cars ending up in Maroubra.[2] At 22:45 police were ordered “not to approach convoys of men of Middle Eastern appearance”; however car details and registration details were to be recorded.[16] A local of Maroubra reported that each of the cars that arrived was “full, you know had four passengers.” The convoy was reportedly armed with bars and bats, knives, machetes and guns.[2][17][18] The group assaulted several people, knocking one unconscious and threatening another with rape, and damaged between 60 and 100 cars, setting at least one on fire.[2][17][18] Police in riot gear moved to contain the violence and the crowds responded by throwing bricks and glass.[18][19] Residents reported that in some streets “every car” had had their windows smashed, with glass covering the streets.[20] Police also confiscated 40 iron bars and arrested 14 people.[21]

A 26-year-old mechanic dubbed “Dan" was stabbed in the back three times and twice in the thigh with a 9.8-centimetre (3.9 in) blade at approximately 22:25.[18][22][23] The incident occurred outside Woolooware golf club when two cars carrying a group of males “described as being of Mediterranean or Middle Eastern appearance” approached the man and his friends. Dan and his friends attempted to flee from the group who were shouting “Get the Aussie dogs ... get the Aussie sluts”, Dan was knocked to the ground and was repeatedly kicked in the head. The attack ended when the knife snapped off in the victim's back.[22][23] He was taken to hospital in a serious condition as the blade had narrowly missed his spine and lungs.[18][19][23]

Jake Schofield was attacked by a group of four men of “Middle Eastern appearance”, the men beat Schofield repeatedly, stabbing him twice and hitting him with a piece of concrete before stealing his wallet and keys. The attack left him with a fractured eye socket and nose.[24]

A woman wearing a headscarf had her car stopped by a group of Caucasian males and was then abused and threatened by this group.[3]

Aftermath[edit]

Additional smaller riots occurred on the following nights in the suburbs of Marouba and Brighton-le-Sands as well as Cronulla.[25] Similar text messages had also turned up in other states including Queensland, Victoria and Western Australia.[25]

On 12 December, rioters had written various messages including; “Aussi [sic] to Die”, “Intifada”, “It’s war”, “Sunday cowards die, Soldiers rize [sic]”, “Never rest assie [sic] dog”, “Yous came by chains u convict dogs”, and “We fear no ozy [sic] pigs” before continuing to destroy cars and local shops.[26] Approximately 2000 people gathered inside Lakemba Mosque with another 800 gathered outside the evening after the riot.[27] Sheikh Shady Suleiman spoke to the crowd and called for calm.[27] However some were armed with Glock pistols which they displayed to the media.[17] At least some of the people gathered were reported to have planned to go on to Maroubra;[26] however the police blocked roads leading into Maroubra and 20 police cars surrounded the mosque.[26] The Uniting Church in Auburn,[25] a predominantly Tongan congregation,[25] was burned and those attending Christmas carols were abused and threatened.[25] More than 30 Molotov cocktails were also confiscated by police.[7]

800 police officers formed Operation Seta and were on patrol on the following nights, with up to 450 police officers blockading Cronulla on the night of 13 December[28] and an additional 11 people were arrested; five were arrested in relation to a replica pistol and six were arrested for property damage.[7][28][29] An additional seven people were injured including another police officer.[7] A husband and wife were taken to hospital after the wife was struck in the head and the husband tried to defend her, and another man was struck by a baseball bat and suffered a fractured forearm.[7]

Criminal prosecutions[edit]

By 19 July 2006, police had laid 285 charges against 104 people, 51 having been arrested as a result of the original Cronulla riot and 53 arrested from the retaliation riots.[30][31] These persons had been charged with, amongst other things: malicious damage, possession or use of a prohibited weapon, assaulting police, rioting, resisting arrest, threatening violence and affray.[31][32]

Ali Osman, 18, was charged with affray and assault occasioning actual bodily harm for the original attacks on the volunteer lifesavers on 4 December 2005 and was given 300 hours of community service for the assault and 200 hours for affray though they would be served concurrently.[33][34][35] Osman was the only person charged over the initial confrontation. The Magistrate, Jacqueline Trad (herself of Lebanese descent) told Sutherland Local Court that Osman had turned his back on his real country: "By this sort of conduct you turned your back on your family, your culture and your real country, all for the sake of some juvenile, impulsive and misplaced allegiance... Over the last 100 years or so, the ancestors of many citizens – mine included – came to this country seeking refuge from hatred, intolerance, violence or just simply the opportunity to improve their families' prospects."[36] Yahya Jamal Serhan was arrested over the stabbing of "Dan" on 12 December and charged with affray and maliciously inflicting grievous bodily harm and was sentenced to 13 months jail but was immediately released after having already spent nine months in custody awaiting trial.[22][37] Dan was angered and disappointed by the sentence, saying "I've got no feeling on the left hand side of my back where the knife broke off."[37] A second person, a 17-year–old, was also questioned by police.[30]

Marcus Kapitza, 28, was jailed for 12 months after pleading guilty to one charge of riot. On the day of the riot Kapitza wore a singlet with the words "Mohammed was a camel-raping faggot." He was also involved in the attack at the train station shouting "Fuck off! Fuck off the Lebs."[38]

Brent Lohman, 19, was also charged over the train station assault, and was sentenced to 11 months in jail.[39]

Two of the youths who attacked Jake Schofield turned themselves in to police and were charged with armed robbery, wounding, malicious wounding with intent, affray and assault occasioning actual bodily harm.[24] Two others, Wael Tahan and Mahmoud Eid, had been arrested on the night of the attack but were released without charge before being rearrested and charged with robbery in company, malicious wounding causing grievous bodily harm and affray.[40]

Jeffrey Ismail was also charged with sending two text messages under the pseudonym of John Gotti.[41]

A 16-year-old Lebanese immigrant, Ali Ammar, was arrested and jailed for seven months for stealing an Australian flag from the Brighton-le-Sands RSL club. Following his release, Ammar appeared on television to present an official apology and in 2007 he was sponsored by the RSL to walk the Kokoda track after the State President of the New South Wales RSL met him at a Reconciliation Conference.[42]

Strike Force Enoggera[edit]

Strike Force Enoggera was established on 13 December 2005, tasked with investigating the riots.[7][30][43] The strike force initially consisted of 28 members under the command of Superintendent Dennis Bray, but was later increased to 100 officers on 20 January 2006. During a radio interview New South Wales Police Commissioner Moroney claimed to have no video footage of the retaliatory attacks on 11 December; however it was later revealed that the police had had a video for five weeks, leading Moroney to sack Bray.[44] Bray was later reinstated to a lesser role, having been replaced by Detective Superintendent Ken Mckay.[45]

Responses[edit]

Media and community responses[edit]

We knew always there was racism, but we never knew it was to this extent. I mean, all your life you've been – you've been raised to be Australian. I mean, you carry the Australian flag. When you go to sports events and all that, you're happy to be Australian and all that. And all of sudden people reject you. “Go home!” They shout your names. Like, “Go home, you Middle Eastern Lebs,” or whatever. “Go home.” I mean, that's a shock to us. “Go home.” I mean, like, you get cut inside your heart, you know. Like you feel like you're not part of society no more.

—Eiad Diyab, a local of Punchbowl, talking to Four Corners., [2]

Brian Wilshire, a 2GB radio host, stated the following weekend on air: “Many of them have parents who are first cousins whose parents are first cousins, the result of this inbreeding—the result of which is uneducationable [sic] people ... and very low IQ”, comments he later apologised for.[46]

An anti-racism rally, attended by 2000 people, was held in Bourke Street, Melbourne.[46] Apologies for the initial riots at Cronulla were later issued on behalf of some local surf clubs, arguing their members rejected racism and violence. The initial gathering was justified as a protest against “ethnic gangs” with blame for the rioting and violence largely placed on alcohol and the agitation of far-right groups.[47] An apology from the Maroubra “Bra Boys” was also issued to leaders of the Islamic community as well as apologies from several others to Sydney’s Lebanese community, though the earlier “protest” part of the day was still defended.[48]

Writing a year after the riots, novelist Hsu-Ming Teo was worried that Australian multiculturalism was being eroded.[13] Stating that multiculturalism was one of Australia’s defining features that allowed it to broker differences with its geographical neighbours, and that it was almost unique in its ethnic and cultural origins: she suggested that in recent years multiculturalism had begun to be derided with politicians calling for one homogeneous non-divisible Australian culture citing, amongst others, the “popularity and success” of Pauline Hanson.[13]

The Common Dreams gatherings of religious progressives in Australia, New Zealand, and the South Pacific were another community response to these riots. Planning for a national conference of religious progressives (held in Sydney in 2007) was begun shortly after the riots, and the name "Common Dreams" was adopted to express the sense that religion should contribute to the creation and maintenance of the shared (common) dreams of people, irrespective of their ethnicity or religion. Rather than reinforce tendencies to form competing sectarian communities, religion could encourage people to share and pursue our common dreams for a just world.

Government responses[edit]

The New South Wales parliament convened on 15 December to pass laws giving police new powers[25][49] including: the ability to seize cars and mobile phones for up to seven days, close licensed premises and prohibit bringing alcohol into lock–down zones.[29][49] A new offence of “assault during a public disorder” was also introduced and both rioting and affray had their minimum sentences increased.[29][49] New South Wales Premier Morris Iemma called the attacks “disgusting, cowardly behaviour”[50] and condemned the rioters. He also called on the community leaders to use “their influence to get the hot heads to cool it.”[50]

New South Wales Police Commissioner Ken Moroney called the riots “absolutely totally un-Australian”,[14][15][51] saying that “I saw, in my 40 years of police service, some of the most disgraceful behaviour and conduct by adults that I’d ever seen.”[52] New South Wales Opposition leader Peter Debnam called it “a real disgrace” and called for a tougher police response.[14] Australian Prime Minister John Howard condemned the violence describing it as “sickening and deplorable”[32] but denied any racial undertones, saying the events were primarily an issue of law and order[32][49] — a view echoed by the Treasurer Peter Costello, who described the Sydney riots as "an example of hoodlums who got out of control.”[46] Federal opposition leader Kim Beazley described the attacks as “simply criminal behaviour, that’s all there is to it”.[32]

Economic impacts[edit]

Look at what a beautiful day it is. The weekend before Christmas. Over there should be absolutely packed, but there’s just a sea of empty tables.

—Daryl Peat, a restaurant and bar owner in Terrigal on the New South Wales Central Coast[53]

Many of the small businesses in and around Terrigal on the New South Wales Central Coast (two hours north of Cronulla) reported that a police lockdown of the beach caused business to drop to 10% of normal levels on a Saturday, with only 25% of Christmas shopping crowds turning up on the Sunday.[53] Tourism and Hospitality workers in the area were laid off or had their hours cut.[54] The New South Wales state government announced a A$250,000 tourism campaign after authorities in Great Britain, Canada, and Indonesia issued travel warnings to their citizens.[55]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Strike Force Neil, Cronulla Riots, Review of the Police Response Media Component Volume 1 of 4" (PDF). Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Liz Jackson (presenter) (13 March 2006). "Riot and Revenge". Four Corners. Season 2006. Transcript. ABC. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2006/s1590953.htm. Retrieved 25 December 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Strike Force Neil, Cronulla Riots, Review of the Police Response Media Component Volume 2 of 4" (PDF). Retrieved 23 March 2010. 
  4. ^ Collins, Jock. 2009. "Sydney's Cronulla riots: the Context and Implications". In Lines in the Sand: the Cronulla Riots, Multiculturalism and National Belonging, edited by G. Noble. Sydney: Institute of Criminology Press
  5. ^ Shaw, Wendy. 2009. "Riotous Sydney Take Three (Cronulla): Confessions of a Beach Survivor". In Lines in the Sand : the Cronulla Riots, Multiculturalism and National Belonging, edited by G. Noble. Sydney: Institute of Criminology Press
  6. ^ Massoud, Josh. 2005. "Police Injured in Clash". Daily Telegraph 27 January 2005 accessed: 5 July 2011
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "Strike Force Neil, Cronulla Riots, Review of the Police Response Media Component Volume 3 of 4" (PDF). pp. 7–20. Retrieved 24 December 2009. 
  8. ^ "Review of Emergency Powers to Prevent or Control Disorder" (PDF). Government of New South Wales. September 2007. Retrieved 22 January 2009. 
  9. ^ "Front Page – Jones and Cronulla". Media Watch. Season 2006. Episode 2. Transcript. 20 February 2006.
  10. ^ a b Sheehan, Paul (30 January 2006). "A hot, wet trail – yet police remain clueless in Cronulla". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2 December 2009. 
  11. ^ a b Marr, David (13 December 2005). "Alan Jones: I'm the person that's led this charge". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 2 December 2009. 
  12. ^ a b "Australian Communications and Media Authority, Investigation Report No. 1485". pp. 15–16. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c d Teo, Hsu-Ming (7 December 2006). "These days it’s harder to be different". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2 December 2009. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g AAP (11 December 2005). "Mob violence envelops Cronulla". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2 December 2009. 
  15. ^ a b c "Cronulla mob attacks beachgoers". ABC News Online. 11 December 2005. Archived from the original on 18 October 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2009. 
  16. ^ Clennell, Andrew (4 February 2006). "Riot order: avoid Middle Eastern men". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  17. ^ a b c Brown, Malcolm; Kennedy, Les; Wormald, Jared; Wainwright, Robert (13 December 2005). "Armed gangs on rampage". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  18. ^ a b c d e AAP (12 December 2005). "Retaliatory violence in Sydney’s south". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 25 December 2009. 
  19. ^ a b "Violence spreads to third Sydney suburb". ABC News Online. 12 December 2005. Archived from the original on 10 November 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  20. ^ AAP (11 December 2005). "Sydney’s racial tension spread". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  21. ^ "Major police presence at Lakemba Mosque". ABC News Online. 12 December 2005. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  22. ^ a b c Kennedy, Les (30 June 2006). "Painstaking police work leads to arrest over Cronulla knife attack". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 7 December 2009. 
  23. ^ a b c Braithwaite, David (26 May 2006). "’I felt knife snapped off in my back’". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 7 December 2009. 
  24. ^ a b AAP (27 January 2006). "Man in court over race riot texts". The Sydney Morning Herald (Melbourne). Retrieved 8 December 2009. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f Baden, Samantha; AAP (15 December 2005). "Police Guard churches as tension rises". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 December 2009. 
  26. ^ a b c Brown, Malcolm; Silkstone, Dan; Nicholson, Brendan (13 December 2005). "Fresh violence rocks Sydney". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  27. ^ a b Skelton, Russell (14 December 2005). "Message of peace not enough for hotheads". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  28. ^ a b AAP (14 December 2005). "Man bashed as police hit Sydney streets". ninemsn. Retrieved 2 December 2009. 
  29. ^ a b c AAP (15 December 2005). "Police get the power". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  30. ^ a b c AAP (13 July 2006). "Teen questioned over Cronulla reprisals". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 7 December 2009. 
  31. ^ a b Clennell, Andrew (19 July 2006). "Police tough on both sides of Cronulla riots". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 December 2009. 
  32. ^ a b c d "Police on alert after Sydney race riot". ABC News Online. 12 December 2005. Archived from the original on 9 November 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  33. ^ Kamper, Angela (29 September 2006). "Cronulla rioter gets 300 hours". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 17 December 2009. 
  34. ^ AAP (29 September 2006). "Teen avoids jail over Cronulla assault". The Daily Telegraph (Melbourne). Retrieved 17 December 2009. 
  35. ^ Jacobsen, Geesche (29 September 2006). "Riot spark ‘betrays migrants’". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 December 2009. 
  36. ^ Jacobsen, Geesche (30 September 2006). "Cronulla fighter betrayed our safe haven: magistrate". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 December 2009. 
  37. ^ a b AAP (12 April 2007). "Man walks free in riot reprisal case". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 18 December 2009. 
  38. ^ Kamper, Angela (24 October 2006). "Cronulla riot thug locked away". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 December 2009. 
  39. ^ "Teenager sentenced to jail for role in Cronulla riots". ABC News Online. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2009. 
  40. ^ AAP (24 January 2006). "Actions more than stupid: magistrate". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 9 December 2009. 
  41. ^ Kennedy, Les (6 December 2006). "Man in court over Cronulla revenge SMS". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  42. ^ Cronulla To Kokoda Compass 8 July 2007
  43. ^ "Strike Force Enoggera—A Review of policies, Practices and Procedures" (.PDF). The Sydney Morning Herald. 24 October 2006. Retrieved 9 December 2009. 
  44. ^ "NSW sacking sparks police disgust". ABC News Online. 21 January 2006. Retrieved 9 December 2009. 
  45. ^ AAP (21 January 2006). "Sacked strike force chief reinstated". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 9 December 2009. 
  46. ^ a b c Morton, Adam; Berry, Jamie (17 December 2005). "Riots? What riots? Still relaxed and comfortable". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 16 December 2009. 
  47. ^ Silkstone, Dan. 2005. "Opposing Sides Come Together to Apologise and Shake on it". The Age 15 December 2011 accessed: 10 May 2011
  48. ^ Ong, Tracy. 2005. "'Ashamed' Protest Leaders Sorry for Riot". The Australian 15 December 2005 Newsbank. Retrieved 10 May 2011
  49. ^ a b c d AAP (13 December 2005). "Emergency powers to stop riots". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  50. ^ a b Tracy Bowden (Reporter) (12 December 2005). "Sydney riots ‘disgusting, cowardly’, says Iemma". The 7.30 Report. Transcript.
  51. ^ "Mob mentality shameful: Police Commissioner". ABC News Online. 11 December 2005. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2009. 
  52. ^ Tracy Bowden (Reporter) (13 December 2005). "Police powers will restore Sydney order: Moroney". The 7.30 Report. Transcript.
  53. ^ a b McCarthy, Joanne (19 December 2005). "Victory for urban terrorists, says businessman". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 December 2009. 
  54. ^ Wade, Matt (19 December 2005). "Tourism braces for job losses if trouble persists". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 December 2009. 
  55. ^ "Man charged over Sydney messages". BBC News. 22 December 2005. Retrieved 17 December 2009. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 34°03′06″S 151°09′21″E / 34.05159°S 151.15574°E / -34.05159; 151.15574