Death in Jainism

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Death in Jainism consist of a variety of concepts and reactions for the soul. Jainism considers death to be a mysterious event that can be experienced by ordinary souls and higher types of souls.[citation needed]

Types of Deaths[edit]

According to Jainism, there are 17 different types of death:[citation needed]

  • Avici-marana
  • Avadhimarana
  • Atyantika-marana
  • Vasaharta-marana
  • Valana-marana
  • Antahsalya-marana
  • Tadhava-marana
  • Bala-marana or Akama marana
  • Pandita-marana or Sakama marana
  • Balpandita-marana
  • Chadmastha-marana
  • Kevali-marana
  • Vaihayasa-marana
  • Guddhapristha-marana
  • Bhaktapratyakhyana-marana
  • Inginta-marana
  • Padopagamana-marana

Akama Marana & Sakama Marana[edit]

Out of all 17 types of Marana, there are two that are extremely important to Jainism:[citation needed]

Akama Marana which refers to someone who has attachment to life and doesn't want to die but dies when his life is over. Therefore, he has died helplessly and not on his own accord. According to Jainism, this person is often one who is willingly or unwillingly ignorant to the concepts of rebirth, other worlds, and liberation of the soul.

Sakama Marana which refers to someone who is not afraid of death and who accepts it willingly and at ease. They understand that there is no way to avoid death and that it is a natural process. Sakama Marana can be further divided into 4 types. These are Samadhi marana, anasana, santharo, and santhara.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cort, John E. Jains in the World: Religious Values and Ideology in India. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Laidlaw, James. Riches and Renunciation: Religion, Economy, and Society among the Jains. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.
  • Shah, Natubhai. Jainism: The World of Conquerors. 2 vols. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 1998.