Digambara (//; Sanskrit: दिगंबर, "sky-clad") is a sect of Jainism with nudist adherents that distinguished itself from the white-clad Śvētāmbara in about the 3rd century AD. The Digambar sect of Jainism rejects the authority of the Jain Agama compiled by Sthulabhadra. They believe that by the time of Dharasena, the twenty-third teacher after Gandhara Indrabhuti Gautama, knowledge of only one Anga was there. This was about 683 years after the Nirvāṇa of Mahavir. After Dharasena's pupils Puspadant and Bhutabali, even that was lost.
According to Digambar tradition, Mahavira, the last jain tirthankara, never married. He renounced the world at the age of thirty after taking permission of his parents. The Digambara believe that after attaining enlightenment, Mahavira was free from human activities like hunger, thirst, and sleep. Monks in the Digambar tradition do not wear any clothes. They carry only a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers and a water gourd. One of the most important scholar-monks of Digambara tradition was Acharya Kundakunda. He authored Prakrit texts such as Samayasar and Pravachansar. Samantabhadra and Siddhasena Divakara were other important monks of this tradition.
Every Digambara monk is required to follow 28 vows (vrats) compulsory.
|#||28 Vows of Digambara Monk|
|1-5||Five great vows (Mahavrat)|
|6-10||Five vows of vigilance|
|11-15||Strict Control on five senses|
|16-21||Performing six essential duties|
|22||To be nude (digambara)|
|23||To consume food & water once in a day|
|24||Not to use tooth powder to clean teeth|
|25||Not to take bath|
|26||Eat food only in standing posture|
|27||Sleeping on the ground|
|28||To pull out hair by hand|
Five great vows
- Ahimsa - Not to hurt any living being by actions and thoughts.
- Satya - Not to lie in any circumstances.
- Asteya - Not to steal.
- Brahmacharya - Celibacy in action, words & thoughts.
- Aparigraha - Non-possession
Vows of Vigilance
Five vows of vigilance are control of speech, control of thought, regulation of movement, care in lifting things, and examining food and drink before consuming.
Six Essential Duties
|“||those whose, garment (ambara) is the element that fills the four quarters of space (dig)||”|
In the 10th century, Digambar tradition was divided into two main orders.
- Mula Sangh, which includes Sena gana, Deshiya gana and Balatkara gana traditions
- Kashtha Sangh, which includes the Mathura gana and Lat-vagad gana traditions
Shantisagar, belonged to the tradition of Sena gana. Practically all the Digambara monks today belong to his tradition, either directly or indirectly. The Bhattarakas of Shravanabelagola and Mudbidri belong to Deshiya gana and the Bhattaraka of Humbaj belongs to the Balatkara gana.
In Majjhima Nikaya, Buddha tells "Thus far, SariPutta, did I go in my penance? I went without clothes. I licked my food from my hands. I took no food that was brought or meant especially for me. I accepted no invitation to a meal." These are in conformity with the conduct of a digambara monk.
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