Dengue vaccine is a vaccine to prevent dengue fever in humans. The development of vaccine fot dengue fever began as early as 1929 but has been hindered by incomplete knowledge of the disease pathogenesis and by the need to simultaneously create a stable immunity against all four dengue serotypes. Several vaccine candidates are in development including live attenuated, inactivated, DNA and subunit vaccines. As of June 2014 the most advanced vaccine is a live attenuated chimeric vaccine being developed by Sanofi Pasteur. It is in III phase clinical trials.
Sanofi Pasteur vaccine
The vaccine (YF-VAX) is based on a chimeric virus, which was derived from yellow fever vaccine attenuated strain 17D by replacing its PrM (pre-membrane) and E (envelop) structural genes with those from each of four dengue serotypes. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic in animal models and in the phase I, IIa human clinical trials. The vaccination series consists of three injections at 0, 6 and 12 months.
However, in the phase IIb trial in Thailand the vaccine was only 30.2% efficient in prevention of infection. This was mainly due to the lack of protection against DENV-2 serotype, which dominated during the trial.
In a phase III clinical trial conducted in Asia and completed in 2014 its overall efficiency was 56%. The serotype specific efficiency was about 54.5%, 34.7%, 65.2% and 72.4% for DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4, respectively in patients who received at least one injection of the vaccine. The vaccine reduced by about 80% the number of severe dengue cases.
In another phase III trial conducted in South America and completed in 2014 the overall vaccine efficiency was 60.8%. The serotype specific efficiency was about 50.3%, 42.3%, 74.0% and 77.7% for DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4, respectively. As in the first trial the vaccine reduced the number of severe dengue cases by about 80%.
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