Faruqi dynasty

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The successive capitals of Khandesh sultanate

The Faruqi dynasty (Urdu: فاروقی سلسله‎,Hindi: फ़ारूक़ी सल्तनत) was the ruling dynasty of the Khandesh sultanate from its inception in 1382 till its annexation by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1601. The founder of the dynasty, Malik Ahmad (also known as Malik Raja) participated in a rebellion against the Bahmani ruler Muhmmad Shah I in his early years. When he was compelled to flee from Deccan, he established in Thalner on the Tapti River (in present day Dhule district in Maharashtra). After receiving the grant of the fiefdoms of Thalner and Karanda (the present day Karwand, 19 km north of Thalner) from Firuz Shah Tughluq in 1370, he conquered the region around Thalner, which later became known as Khandesh (the land of the Khans).[1] By 1382, he started ruling independently. Malik Raja claimed his descent from the second Caliph Umar-al-Faruq. Hence, the dynasty founded by him was known as Faruqi dynasty. The next ruler, Nasir Khan conquered the Asirgarh fort and made it his capital. He founded the new capital Burhanpur in 1399. The most illustrious ruler of this dynasty was Adil Khan II. During his long reign, Burhanpur was transformed to a major centre for trade and textile production. In 1599, Akbar’s army occupied Burhanpur and on January 17, 1601 the citadel of Asirgarh also fell after a long siege. The last ruler Bahadur Shah surrendered to the Mughals. Khandesh became a Mughal Subah.

Malik Raja[edit]

The ancestors of Malik Ahmad Raja were amongst the most respectable nobles in the courts of Ala-ud-Din Khilji and Muhammad bin Tughluq. Malik Raja’s father Khan-i-Jahan Faruqi was a minister in the Delhi court.[2] In 1365, Malik Raja and some other chieftains of Berar and Baglana, joined a rebellion against the Bahmani ruler led by the governor of Daulatabad, Bahram Khan Mazindarani. It failed, and he was forced to flee from Deccan. He settled at Thalner. He helped Firuz Shah Tughluq during one of his hunting expeditions in Gujarat. In return he was first made an officer of two thousand horses and then in 1370, he was granted the fiefdoms of Thalner and Karanda. In the same year, he defeated the Raja of Baglana and forced him to agree upon paying annual tributes to the Delhi sultan. In exchange, Firuz Shah Tughluq gave him the title of Sipah-salar (governor) and raised him to the rank of a commander of three thousand horses. Within a few years he was able to muster twelve thousand horses and raise contributions from neighbouring rulers.[3]

By 1382, he became a completely independent ruler of the Khandesh. At the time of his accession, Khandesh was a backward region populated by a few thousand Bhils and Kolis. The only prosperous area in Khandesh was Asirgarh, populated by the rich cowherds, Ahirs. One of the first acts of Malik Raja was taking steps to develop the agriculture in his kingdom.

During his rule he was able to increase his area of control to such an extent that even the Gond Raja of Mandla was forced to pay tributes to him. Soon after his accession as an independent ruler, he attacked Gujarat and annexed Sultanpur and Nandurbar. Almost immediately, the governor of Gujarat Zafar Khan (Muzaffar Shah) retaliated and laid siege to Thalner. Malik Raja had to return all the territories annexed by him. He died on April 19 (April 28, according to Ferishta), 1399 and was buried in Thalner.[4]

Nasir Khan[edit]

Nasir Khan or Malik Nasir (also known as Garib Khan) was the elder son of Malik Raja, who succeeded him in 1399. He commenced his rule from Laling, as Thalner was under the control of his younger brother Malik Iftikar Hasan. Soon after his accession in 1400, he captured the fort of Asirgarh and killed its Ahir ruler, Asa Ahir. It became his capital till he shifted to Burhanpur, the new city founded by him. In 1417, with the help of Malwa sultan Hoshang Shah, he captured the fort of Thalner and imprisoned his brother Malik Iftikar (who was later granted asylum in Gujarat). Next, the combined forces of Khandesh and Malwa attacked Gujarat and occupied the Sultanpur fort. But soon, Gujarat sultan Ahmad Shah’s general Malik Turk repulsed the attack and Thalner was besieged. After swearing fealty to the Gujarat sultan, the siege was raised and Ahmad Shah honoured Malik Nasir with the title of Khan.

In 1429, he married off his daughter to the Bahmani prince Ala-ud-Din (Ala-ud-Din Ahmad Shah II), son of Ahmad Shah I. In the same year, Raja Kanha of Jhalawar fled from Gujarat and took refuge to Asirgarh. Later on his advice, Raja Kanha went to Bidar to ask help from the Bahmani sultan Ahmad Shah I. After initial advances in Nandurbar by the Raja along with the legions of Khandesh and Bahmani army, the Gujarat army defeated the combined forces.

In 1435, Nasir Khan supported by the Raja of Gondwana and some discontented Bahmani officials attacked and captured Berar. The Bahmani governor fled to Narnala. In retaliation, the Bahmani sultan Ala-ud-Din Ahmad Shah II’s army led by his general Malik-ut-Tujjar, first defeated him in Rohankhedaghat, then followed him to Burhanpur, ransacked the city and finally crushed his army in Laling. Nasir Khan died within a few days after this humiliating defeat on September 18 (September 19, according to Ferishta), 1437. He was also buried in Thalner.[4]

Miran Adil Khan I[edit]

Miran Adil Khan succeeded his father Nasir Khan. After the army of Gujarat reached Sultanpur for his help, Malik-ut-Tujjar raised the siege and went back. He accepted the suzerainty of Gujarat sultanate. He was probably assassinated in Burhanpur on April 30, 1441. He also was buried in Thalner by the side of his father[5]

Miran Mubarak Khan I[edit]

Miran Mubarak Khan succeeded his father. He did not attempt any conquest, except two campaigns against the Raja of Baglana. He died on June 5 (May 17, according to Ferishta), 1457[4] and buried in Thalner.

Miran Adil Khan II[edit]

Miran Adil Khan II, the eldest son of Miran Mubarak succeeded him. He was the most powerful ruler of the Khandesh Sultanate. He fortified Asirgarh and built the citadel of Burhanpur. After overpowering Gond Rajas of Gondwana and Mandla, he carried his conquest to Jharkhand and assumed the title of Shah-i-Jharkhand. He declared his independence from Gujarat and stopped paying tributes. As a result in 1498 Gujarat army entered Khandesh. Unable to cope, Adil Khan II agreed to pay the arrears. He died on September 28, 1501 (April 8, 1503 according to Ferishta). He was buried near his palace in Burhanpur.[4]

Daud Khan[edit]

As Adil Khan II died without any male issue, his younger brother Daud Khan succeeded him. Daud Khan was a weak ruler and dependent on two brothers, Hussain Ali and Yar ali. Hussain Ali was appointed his wazir and given the title of Malik Hisam-ud-Din. Due to his instigation, Daud decided to attack Ahmadnagar. But instead, the Ahmadnagar army marched into Khandesh. He asked sultan of Malwa to help him. Sultan of Malwa sent an army to dispel the army of Ahmadnagar but forced him to accept his subordination also. His uneventful rule ended with his death on August 28, 1508 (August 6, 1510 according to Ferishta).[4]

Ghazni Khan[edit]

After the death of Daud Khan, his son Ghazni Khan succeeded him but ruled for only 10 days (2 days, according to Ferishta) as he was poisoned to death by Hisam-ud-Din.[4]

Alam Khan[edit]

With the support of the rulers of Ahmadnagar and Berar, the nobles of Khandesh placed Alam Khan, a scion of Faruqi dynasty[6] on the throne. But the Gujarat sultan Mahmud Shah I opposed him and supported the claim of Adil Shah, the great grandson of Mailk Iftikar Hasan, brother of Malik Nasir and reached Thalner. Alam Khan had no other option but to flee from Burhanpur.[4]

Adil Khan III[edit]

On April 10, 1509 Adil Khan III was installed on the throne by Mahmud Shah I in Thalner and he assumed the title of Azim Humayun. Adil Khan III after shifting to Burhanpur sent Hisam-ud-Din to Thalner. On suspecting complicity on his part, he was called to Burhanpur and was killed outside the court. Soon, Ahmad Nizam Shah along with Alam Khan reached the border of Khandesh. On his request, his father-in-law Gujarat sultan Muzaffar Shah II sent a large army for his help. When Ahmad Nizam Shah retreated, he used the army to force the Raja of Baglana to pay a huge sum as a tribute. In 1517, he accompanied Muzaffar Shah in his campaign against Rana Sanga of Chittaur and Medini Rai, a rebel minister of Malwa. On August 25, 1520 he died of illness at Burhanpur.[7]

Miran Muhammad Shah I[edit]

Mran Muhammad Shah, eldest son of Adil Khan III succeeded his father. During his rule, Ala-ud-Din Imad Shah of Berar took refuge in his kingdom after being defeated by Burhan Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar. At the same time, after initial turmoil for succession caused due to the death of Mujaffar Shah, Bahadur Shah occupied the throne in Gujarat. On request from Miran Muhammad and Ala-ud-Din Imad Shah, he sent the combined forces of Gujarat, Khandesh and Berar to attack Ahmadnagar in 1528. The Daulatabad fort was captured and later, the combined forces retreated only after Burhan Nizam Shah agreed upon a humiliating treaty. In 1532, Miran Muhammad joined Bahadur Shah in his campaign against Malwa and Chittaur. In 1534, Mughal emperor Humayun after occupying Malwa and Gujarat reached Khandesh. But before he could attack Khandesh, he had to return to Agra because of the advancement of Sher Shah’s army in his territory. Bahadur Shah re-occupied Gujarat and sent Miran Muhammad along with Malwa governor Mallu Khan to re-occupy Malwa. Miran Muhammad occupied Mandu, the capital of Malwa. Here, on hearing the death of Bahadur Shah, he declared himself the sultan of Gujarat. On the way to Ahmedabad, he died due to illness on May 4, 1535 and buried in Burhanpur.[8]

Miran Mubarak Shah II[edit]

After the death of Miran Muhammad the nobles of Khandesh installed his son Raja on the throne. But Miran Mubarak, the brother of Miran Muhammad, soon deposed him. After the death of Bahadur Shah, the nobles of Gujarat decided to put Mahmud Khan (Mahmud Shah III), the son of Latif Khan (rebel brother of Bahadur Shah) on the throne. Miran Mubarak refused to hand over Mahmud Khan who was in his custody. The Gujarat army defeated him and took back Mahmud Shah. Again, when he supported a rebel Gujarat officer Imad-ul-Mulk, he had to face again the Gujarat army led by Mahmud Shah. Later, he signed a treaty with Gujarat and acquired the districts of Sultanpur and Nandurbar.

The last sultan of Malwa, Baz Bahadur after being defeated by Akbar in 1561, took refuge in Khandesh. The Mughal general Pir Muhammad Khan followed him to Khandesh, devastated the kingdom and overran Burhanpur. Miran Mubarak asked Tufal Khan of Berar for help. The joint army of Berar and Khandesh defeated Pir Muhammad Khan, re-occupied Malwa and re-instated Baz Bahadur. Miran Mubarak died on December 24, 1566.[4]

Miran Muhammad Shah II[edit]

Miran Muhammad Shah II succeeded his father Miran Mubarak. Immediately after his accession, a noble of Gujarat, Changiz Khan attacked and captured Nandurbar and proceeded towards Thalner. With the assistance sent by Tufal Khan, Miran Muhammad II defeated him and reoccupied the lost territories. Next, he claimed his stake to the throne of Gujarat and advanced towards Ahmedabad but was defeated very badly and finally Akbar annexed Gujarat in 1572 CE. In 1574 CE, Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar annexed Berar. Miran Muhammad II sent an army to support a pretender in Berar. In retaliation, Ahmadnagar army marched inside Khandesh, overran Burhanpur and followed him to Asirgarh. He had to pay a huge indemnity to buy peace with Ahmadnagar. He died of illness in 1576.[4]

Hasan Khan[edit]

Miran Muhammad II was succeeded by his minor son Hasan Khan, who was soon deposed by Raja Ali Khan, the brother of Miran Muhammad II.[9]

Raja Ali Khan, Adil Shah IV[edit]

In 1577, Akbar sent an expeditionary force to Khandesh to secure its sub-ordination. Raja Ali Khan was compelled to accept it. In 1586 CE, Akbar’s governor of Malwa Khan Azam invaded Berar. Raja Ali Khan joined hands with Ahmadnager and defeated him. In 1591 CE, Akbar sent Faizi to Khandesh and Ahmadnagar courts to invite them to accept Mughal suzerainty. Raja Ali Khan agreed to accept. Later, Raja Ali Khan was assigned a rank (mansab) of 5000. On February 5, 1597 he died in the battle of Sonpet between the Mughals and Ahmadnagar, while fighting on the Mughal side. His body was brought to Burhanpur for burial.[4]

Bahadur Shah[edit]

Raja Ali Khan was succeeded by his son Qadr Khan (or Khizr Khan according to Ain-i-Akbari[10]) who took the title of Bahadur Shah.[11] In a meeting with Akbar's emissary Abu'l Fazl, he refused to join Mughal army in person. Again, in January 1599 when prince Daniyal reached Burhanpur, he refused to meet him. Later, he took refuge in the Asirgarh fort and started preparation for war. On April 8, 1599 Akbar reached Burhanpur. He sent Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan to lay siege to Asirgarh and appointed Abul Fazl as governor of Khandesh. On December 10, 1600 Bahadur Shah surrendered to Akbar[12] but the fort was still held by his general Yakut Khan. Asirgarh fell to the Mughals only on January 17, 1601[13] Khandesh was annexed to the Mughal empire. Prince Daniyal was appointed viceroy of the Subah. Bahadur Shah was taken prisoner and he died later in Agra in 1624.[4]

Rulers of Faruqi Arab dynasty[edit]

Title/Name[14][15] Reign [14][15]
Malik Raja
ملک راجہ
1382 – 1399 C.E.
Independence from Bahmani Sultanate as Sultanate of Khandesh
Nasir Khan
ناصر خان
1399 – 1437
Miran Adil Khan I
میران عادل خان اول
1437 – 1441
Miran Mubarak Khan
میران مبارک خان
1441 – 1457
Miran Adil Khan II
میران عادل خان دوم
1457 – 1501
Daud Khan
داود خان
1501 - 1508
Ghazni Khan
غزنی خان
1508
Alam Khan
عالم خان
1508 – 1509
Adil Khan III
عادل خان تریہم
1509 – 1520
Miran Muhammad Shah I
میران محمد شاہ اول
1520 – 1537
Miran Mubarak Shah
میران مبارک شاہ
1537 – 1566
Miran Muhammad Shah II
میران محمد شاہ دوم
1566 – 1576
Hasan Khan
حسن خان
1576
Raja Ali Khan
راجہ علی خان
1576 – 1597
Bahadur Shah
بہادر شاہ
1597 - 1601 (died 1624)
Conquered by Emperor Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar of the Mughal Empire

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Jalgaon district gazetteer – history, Muslim period". 
  2. ^ No contemporary record is available about the ancestry of Malik Ahmad Raja. The version presented here is based on Ferishta who claims that he gathered this geanology from Mirza Ali Ispahani, who narrated it during a course of conversation while accompanying him to Burhanpur (when he was escorting the daughter of Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II for the marriage with Prince Danyial). But no noble in the Delhi Court ever had the title of Khan-i-Jahan. Another version is provided by Haji-ud-Dabir, who claims that according to historian Husam Khan Sultan Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah married his sister to a certain Muhammad, appointed him his Vazir, and gave him the title of Khawja Jahan and he was the father of Ahmad Raja. But this is contradicted by Sayiid Ali Tabataba, who claims that the title of Khawja Jahan was conferred to Ain-ud-Din, son of Muhammad. Shyam 1981, pp. 3–9
  3. ^ Majumdar 2006, pp. 169–70
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Dhulia district gazetteer – history, medieval period". 
  5. ^ The date of 8 Zil Hijja, 844 AH (April 30, 1441) has been given by Ferishta, while according to Haji-ud-Dabir the date is 12 Zil Hijja, 844 AH (May 4, 1441). Shyam 1981, pp. 21,159
  6. ^ The medieval historians are not unanimous about the ancestry of Alam Khan. While Ferishta and Sayyid Ali Tabataba state that he belonged to the Faruqi royal house, they do not supply any details about his parentage. Khwaja Nizamuddin Ahmad refers him as a Khanzadah and a son of one of the nobles of Burhanpur. Shyam 1981, p. 192
  7. ^ Shyam 1981, p. 32
  8. ^ Shyam 1981, p. 38
  9. ^ Shyam 1981, p. 58
  10. ^ Abu'l Fazl 1949, reprint 1993, p. 236
  11. ^ Shyam 1981, p. 81
  12. ^ The Akbarnama gives the date as 30 Azar, 1009 AH. Beveridge 1939, reprint 2000, p. 1166
  13. ^ The Akbarnama gives the date as 7 Bahman, 1009 AH. Beveridge 1939, reprint 2000, p. 1169
  14. ^ a b Majumdar 2006, p. 824
  15. ^ a b Shyam 1981, p. 200

References[edit]

  1. Abu'l Fazl (1949, reprint 1993), Ain-i-Akbari, Vol. II (tr. H.S. Jarrett, rev. J.N. Sarkar), The Asiatic Society, Calcutta  .
  2. Beveridge, H. (tr.) (1939, reprint 2000), The Akbarnama of Abu'l Fazl, Vol. III, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, ISBN 81-7236-094-0  .
  3. Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006), The Delhi Sultanate, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai .
  4. Shyam, Radhey (1981), The Kingdom of Khandesh, Idarah-i-Adabiyat-i-Delli, Delhi .

External links[edit]