Flag of Lebanon
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2009)|
|Use||National flag and ensign|
|Adopted||December 7, 1943|
|Design||On a red field a white Spanish fess charged with a green cedar.|
The flag of Lebanon (Arabic: علم لبنان) is formed of two horizontal red stripes enveloping a horizontal white stripe. The white stripe is to be two times a red one (ratio 1:2:1)—a Spanish fess. The green cedar in the middle touches each of the red stripes and its width is one third of the width of the flag.
It was designed to be a neutral flag, not allied to any one of Lebanon's religious groups. The red stripes symbolize the pure blood shed in the aim of liberation. The white stripe symbolizes peace, and the white snow covering Lebanon's mountains. The green cedar, (Species: Cedrus libani or Lebanon Cedar) symbolizes immortality and steadiness.
This cedar is referenced many times in the Bible: "The righteous flourish like the palm tree, and grow like a cedar in Lebanon" (Psalms 92:12). There is also some reference in W. Smith's 1980 book on the colours: "The red and white colours are those associated, respectively, with the Qaysites and Yemenites, opposing clans that divided Lebanese society between 634 and 1711 AD". However, that explanation is poorly known (not to mention quite unheard of) in the Lebanese tradition.
It is a common mistake to draw the branches of the cedar and the tree trunk in brown or black which could be seen as unconstitutional. The cedar should be fully green regarding the provisions in the Constitution.
Ancient flags of Lebanon
Flag used during Phoenician era 3000 BC – 200 AD (Including the currently known as Cyprus, Syria, Palestine, Tunisia and Lebanon)
Tanukh Flag 200 AD – 400 AD
Flags of clans during the Middle Ages
Flags of sultanates and emirates
Flag under the Mamluk Sultanate 1250 – 1517
French Mandate of Lebanon
Flag of the State of Greater Lebanon during the French mandate 1920–1943
During the French Mandate of Lebanon, the Lebanese flag was designed by the president of the Lebanese Renaissance Movement, the late Naoum Mukarzel. It was similar to the tricolour flag of France but with a Cedar in the middle.
The present Lebanese flag was adopted just prior to independence from France in 1943. Seeking independence, the actual flag was first drawn by member of parliament Henri Pharaon in the Chamber of deputies Saeb Salam's house in Mousaitbeh by the deputies of the Lebanese parliament. It was adopted on December 7, 1943, during a meeting in the parliament, where the article 5 in the Lebanese constitution was modified.
One theory is that since Henri Pharaon was a long-time consul in Vienna, Austria and was an avid friend and founder of the "Austro-Lebanese Association of Friendship", the colors could have been inspired by the red-white-red Flag of Austria. The Austrian flag is the second oldest in the world, dating to the 13th century when it first probably appeared after the Siege of Acre during the Third Crusade.
Variant flags of Lebanon
The following is a list of variant flags used in Lebanon
- The description of the flag is cited in the Lebanese Constitution, Chapter 1, Article 5.[dead link]
- "The symbols of the republic". Lebanese Presidency Official Site. Archived from the original on 2007-12-23. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
- Psalm 92:12 The righteous man will flourish like the palm tree, He
- "Flag of Lebanon". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
- "Henry Pharoun Is Slain at Home; Founder of Free Lebanon Was 92". The New York Times. 1993-08-07. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
- "Lubnān, Republic of Lebanon, Al-Jumhūriyyah al-Lubnāniyyah". Flags of The World. CRW. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Flags of Lebanon.|
- Lebanon at Flags of the World
- Lebanese Flag Accurate, high quality, & high resolution flags of Lebanon.
(Arabic: green flag)