Foreign relations of Djibouti
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Foreign relations of Djibouti are managed by the Djiboutian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. Djibouti maintains close ties with the governments of Somalia, Ethiopia, France and the United States. It is likewise an active participant in African Union and Arab League affairs. Since the 2000s, Djiboutian authorities have also strengthened relations with China.
With the Eritrean-Ethiopian War (1998–2000), Ethiopia channeled most of its trade through Djibouti. Though Djibouti is nominally neutral, it broke off relations with Eritrea in November 1998, renewing relations in 2000. Eritrea's President Isaias visited Djibouti in early 2001 and President Ismail Omar Guelleh made a reciprocal visit to Asmara in the early summer of 2001. While Djibouti’s President Ismail Omar Guelleh has close ties with Ethiopia’s ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), he has tried to maintain an even hand, developing relations with Eritrea. On June 10, 2008 clashes broke out in the Ras Doumeira region between Djibouti and Eritrea.
Diplomatic relations between the two countries was established in 1984. Relations between the countries are generally good. Both countries share ownership of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railroad; however, this utility is in need of repairs and upgraded capacity. The railroad is tied to the Port of Djibouti, which provides port facilities and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia. Disputes between the Afar and Issa people of Djibouti have the potential of involving Ethiopian citizens of these groups.
- The border between the two countries is based on the Franco-Ethiopian convention of 20 March 1897. A protocol signed by France and Ethiopia on 16 January 1954, stated that the demarcation of the boundary between the colony of Dibouti and Ethiopia as considered final, which became effective 28 February of that year. With the independence of Djibouti, there have been no significant issues over this border.
- Djibouti President Hassan Gouled Aptidon paid an official visit to Ethiopia in October 1991, when a Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation was signed between the two countries. Since 1991, the two countries have signed over 39 protocols agreements.
Djibouti's military and economic agreements with France provide continued security and economic assistance. Djibouti has been the host country for French military units since independence.
Djibouti officially recognised the independence of the Republic of Kosovo on 8 May 2010. On 22 March 2013 Djibouti and Kosovo established diplomatic relations and vowed to strengthen bilateral co-operation with one another.
As the headquarters of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development regional body, Djibouti has been an active participant in the Somalian peace process. It hosted the Arta conference in 2000, as well as the 2008-2009 talks between the Transitional Federal Government and the Alliance for the Reliberation of Somalia, which led to the formation of a coalition government. In 2011, Djibouti joined the African Union Mission to Somalia. Following the establishment of the Federal Government of Somalia in 2012, a Djibouti delegation also attended the inauguration ceremony of Somalia's new president.
Relations between Turkey and Djibouti encompass the political, economic and military sectors. In 2012, exports from Turkey to Djibouti were estimated at $30.7 million USD, with $387,000 in imports from Djibouti. Aggregate bilateral trade between the two nations also totaled $31 million in volume.
The U.S. and Djibouti have forged strong ties in recent years. Foreign Aid from the U.S. plays the lead role in Djibouti's economy. In 2002, United States units began operations from Djibouti with the aim of countering the possible threat of Islamic terrorism in the Horn of Africa.
In April 1977, the United States established a Consulate General in Djibouti and upon independence in June 1977 raised the status of its mission to an embassy. The first U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Djibouti arrived in October 1980. Over the past decade, the United States has been a principal provider of humanitarian assistance for famine relief, and has sponsored health care, education, good governance, and security assistance programs.
Djibouti has allowed the U.S. military, as well as other nations, access to its port and airport facilities. The Djiboutian Government has been very supportive of U.S. and Western interests, particularly during the Gulf crisis of 1990-91 and after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In 2002, Djibouti agreed to host a U.S. military presence at Camp Lemonnier, a former French Foreign Legion base outside the capital that now houses approximately 3,500 American personnel. U.S. service members organise and provide development and security assistance from the compound to administrations in the Horn of Africa and Yemen as part of the War On Terror. As a victim of past international terrorist attacks, President Guelleh continues to take a very proactive position against terrorism.
In 1996, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), a developmental organisation of seven countries in East Africa, established its headquarters in Djibouti City. IGAD's mandate is for regional cooperation and economic integration.
After the terror attacks of September 11, 2001, Djibouti joined the Global War on Terror. It is now home to the Camp Lemonnier military compound.
- List of diplomatic missions in Djibouti
- List of diplomatic missions of Djibouti
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (Djibouti)
- "Ethiopia - Djibouti relations", Ministry of Foreign Affairs website (accessed 9 October 2009)
- "Djibouti – Ethiopia Boundary", U.S. Department of State, International Boundary Study No. 154 – February 20, 1976
- Recognition is confirmed by Djibouti, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 2010-05-12
- "Republika e Kosovës dhe Republika e Xhibutit vendosin marrëdhëniet diplomatike". mfa-ks.net. Retrieved 2013-03-22.
- The Rise and Fall of the Somalia Airforce: A Diary Reflection
- "Somalia". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-03-22.
- "Somalia: Djibouti Peacekeepers Arrive in Mogadishu to Join Amisom". Garowe Online. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "Somalia: UN Envoy Says Inauguration of New Parliament in Somalia 'Historic Moment'". Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- Mohamed, Mahmoud (17 September 2012). "Presidential inauguration ushers in new era for Somalia". Sabahi. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "Relations between Turkey and Djibouti". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 19 June 2013.