Demographics of Djibouti

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Demographics of Djibouti
Population 810,179 (2014)
Growth rate 2.23% (2014)
Birth rate 25.27 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Death rate 8.23 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Life expectancy 62.4 years (2014)
 • male 59.93 years
 • female 64.94 years
Fertility rate 2.79 children born/woman (2010)
Infant mortality rate 53.31 deaths/1,000 infants (2012 est.)[1]
Age structure
0–14 years 35% (male 132,592/female 132,114)
15–64 years 61.7% (male 206,323/female 260,772)
65 and over 3.3% (male 11,349/female 13,924)
Sex ratio
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 1 male(s)/female
15–64 years 0.8 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.81 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality Djiboutian
Major ethnic Somali 60%
Afar 35%
Minor ethnic French
Arab
Ethiopian Total 5%
Language
Spoken Arabic (official), French (official), Somali and Afar

This article is about the demographics of Djibouti, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Djibouti is a multiethnic country. The two largest ethnic groups are the Somali (60%) and the Afar (35%). The Somali clan component is mainly composed of the Issas, in addition to smaller numbers of Gadabuursi. Both are sub-clans of the larger Dir; the Issas form part of the Madoobe Dir, while the Gadabuursi are part of the Madaluug Dir. The remaining 5% of Djibouti's population primarily consists of Arabs, Ethiopians and Europeans (French and Italians). Most local residents are urban dwellers; the remainder are pastoralists.[2]

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Djibouti

Djibouti is a multilingual nation. According to Ethnologue, the majority of the population speaks Somali (297,000 speakers) or Afar (99,200 speakers) as a first language, which are the mother tongues of the Somali and Afar ethnic groups, respectively. Both languages belong to the larger Afro-Asiatic family. There are two official languages in Djibouti: Arabic (Afro-Asiatic) and French (Indo-European). Arabic is of social, cultural and religious importance. In formal settings, it consists of Modern Standard Arabic. Colloquially, about 36,000 local residents speak the Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic dialect, also known as Djibouti Arabic. French was inherited from the colonial period and is the primary language of instruction. About 10,200 Djiboutians speak it as a first language. Immigrant languages include Omani Arabic (38,900 speakers), Amharic (1,400 speakers), Greek (1,000 speakers) and Hindi (600 speakers).[3]

Population[edit]

According to the 2010 revision of the UN's World Population Prospects, the total population was 889,000 in 2010 compared to 62,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 35.8%, 60.9% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.3% was 65 years or older.[4]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 62 46.8 51.2 2.0
1955 70 46.0 52.0 2.0
1960 85 45.4 52.5 2.0
1965 117 44.9 53.0 2.0
1970 162 45.8 52.2 2.1
1975 224 45.9 52.0 2.1
1980 340 45.3 52.5 2.2
1985 403 44.6 53.1 2.3
1990 562 44.2 53.4 2.4
1995 627 43.4 54.1 2.5
2000 732 41.3 55.9 2.7
2005 808 38.5 58.5 3.0
2010 889 35.8 60.9 3.3

Projections[edit]

The following are UN medium variant projections; numbers are in thousands:[4]

  • 2015 975
  • 2020 1,065
  • 2025 1,166
  • 2030 1,262
  • 2035 1,356
  • 2040 1,447
  • 2045 1,535
  • 2050 1,619

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events in Djibouti is incomplete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[4]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 3 000 2 000 1 000 50.0 28.3 21.7 7.80 222
1955-1960 4 000 2 000 2 000 50.7 25.7 25.0 7.80 203
1960-1965 5 000 2 000 3 000 51.2 23.8 27.4 7.80 185
1965-1970 7 000 3 000 4 000 50.3 21.6 28.6 7.60 169
1970-1975 9 000 4 000 5 000 47.8 19.4 28.4 7.20 154
1975-1980 13 000 5 000 8 000 45.2 17.4 27.8 6.80 141
1980-1985 16 000 6 000 11 000 44.0 15.5 28.6 6.60 125
1985-1990 21 000 7 000 14 000 43.1 14.5 28.6 6.40 117
1990-1995 24 000 8 000 16 000 40.1 13.4 26.7 5.85 109
1995-2000 23 000 8 000 15 000 34.4 12.2 22.2 5.11 100
2000-2005 24 000 9 000 15 000 31.2 11.3 19.9 4.52 91
2005-2010 25 000 9 000 16 000 29.4 10.5 18.9 3.95 82
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook,[5] unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

810,179 (July 2014 est.)

Median age[edit]

Total: 22.8 years
Male: 21.1 years
Female: 24.1 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

2.23% (2014 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 77.1% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population[edit]

DJIBOUTI (capital) 496,000 (2011)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.71 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Total population: 62.4 years
Male: 59.93 years
Female: 64.94 years (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

adult prevalence rate: 1.2% (2012 est.)
people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,700 (2012 est.)
deaths: 800 (2012 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Nationality[edit]

Djiboutien or Djiboutian

Major ethnic[edit]

Somali 60%, Afar 35%

Minor ethnic[edit]

French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italians 5%

Religions[edit]

Muslim 94%, Christian 6% (Catholic 0.9%,[6] other Christian 5.1%)

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Djibouti
French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.9%
male: 78%
female: 58.4% (2003 est.)

References[edit]

See also[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition".