Djibouti is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the southeast. To the east is its coastline on the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. Rainfall is sparse, and most of the territory has a semi-arid or arid environment. Djibouti's major settlements include the capital Djibouti City, the port towns of Tadjoura and Obock, and the southern cities of Ali Sabieh and Dikhil. It is the 151st largest country in the world by land area, covering a total of 23,200 km2, of which 23,180 km2 is land and 20 km2 is water.
Djibouti shares 125 kilometres (78 mi) of border with Eritrea, 342 kilometres (213 mi) with Ethiopia, and 61 kilometres (38 mi) with Somalia (total 528 km or 328 mi). It has a strategic location on the Horn of Africa and the Bab el Mandeb, along a route through the Red Sea and Suez Canal. Djibouti's coastline serves as a commercial gateway between the Arabian Peninsula and the Horn region's interior. The country is also the terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia.
Garbi is a mountain in the west of Tadjourah Region. It has an elevation of 1680 metres (5,512 ft).
The Arrei Mountains are in the southern Ali Sabieh Region. The mountain range has an elevation of 1,301 metres (4,268 ft) above sea level, and is situated near the border with Ethiopia.
The Mabla Mountains are located in Obock Region. At 1780 m (5850 ft) above sea level, the mountains are situated behind the coastal plain where the Red Sea meets the Gulf of Aden, on the northern side of the Gulf of Tadjoura.
Hemed is a mountain in the western part of the Arta Region in south-central Djibouti. The summit is 1,103 metres (3,619 ft) above sea level.
The Boura Mountains' highest peak has an elevation of 1037 m (3,402 ft. The ecology of this landform is semi-desert. The altitude and size of the range affects its weather, with precipitation levels varying greatly and climatic conditions consisting of distinct zones.
The Grand Bara Desert covers parts of South Djibouti in Arta Region, Ali Sabieh Region and Dikhil Region. The majority of the Grand Bara Desert lies at a relatively low elevation, below 1,700 feet (560 m). Home of the popular Grand Bara footrace.
There is not much seasonal variation in Djibouti's climate. Hot conditions prevail year-round along with winter rainfall. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 32 to 41 °C (90 to 106 °F), except at high elevations. In Djibouti city, for instance, afternoon highs in April typically range from 28 °C (82 °F) to 34 °C (93 °F) in April. Nationally, mean daily minima generally vary between sites from about 15 to 30 °C (59 to 86 °F). The greatest range in climate occurs in eastern Djibouti, where temperatures sometimes surpass 41 °C (106 °F) in July on the littoral plains and fall below freezing point during December in the highlands. In this region, relative humidity ranges from about 40% in the mid-afternoon to 85% at night, changing somewhat according to the season.
Djibouti's climate ranges from arid in the northeastern coastal regions to semiarid in the central, northern, western and southern parts of the country. On the eastern seaboard, annual rainfall is less than 5 inches (131 mm); in the central highlands, it is about 8 to 11 inches (200 to 300 mm). Although the coastal regions are hot and humid throughout the year, the hinterland is typically hot and dry. The climate conditions are highly variable within the country and vary locally by altitude. Summers are very humid along the coast but dry in the highlands. Heat waves are frequent. Annual precipitation amounts vary greatly from one year to another. In general, rain falls more frequently and extensively in the mountains. Sudden and brutal storms are also known to occur. Wadis turn for a few hours into raging torrents tearing everything in their path, and their course is regularized[clarification needed]. Rainwater serves as an additional water supply for livestock and plants alongside seasonal watercourses.
The climate of the interior shows notable differences from the coastline. Especially when one rises, the temperature is pleasant: it is so in Arta, Randa and Day (where temperatures of 10 ° have been recorded).
Climate charts of different locations in Djibouti