|Nickname(s): Home of the Pow Wow Tree, Happy Rock|
|• Mayor||Wade Byers|
|• Total||2.48 sq mi (6.42 km2)|
|• Land||2.40 sq mi (6.22 km2)|
|• Water||0.08 sq mi (0.21 km2)|
|Elevation||57 ft (17.37 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||11,654|
|• Density||4,790.4/sq mi (1,849.6/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||Pacific (UTC-7)|
|GNIS feature ID||1136316|
Gladstone is a city located in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States. The population was 11,497 at the 2010 census. Gladstone is a four-square-mile (10 km²) suburban community twelve miles (19 km) south of Portland at the confluence of the Clackamas and Willamette rivers. To the south, across the Clackamas River, is Oregon City, across the Willamette is West Linn, to the north is Milwaukie.
There were several Indian groups living in the area that was to become Gladstone. Lewis and Clark did not visit the Gladstone-Oregon City region, but did have it described to them by the native people. Later explorers and traders brought diseases and epidemics that took a very heavy toll on the native population and the tribes dwindled to near extinction.
When Oregon City was founded and people began moving to the area, they petitioned their governments to remove the local aboriginals from the land, so that European settlers could have land to farm and live on. The government responded by rounding up the Indians and forcing them to leave their lands for a reservation. With the natives removed from the scene, the Gladstone area was ripe for settling. Today the only visible remains of the native presence is a large maple tree called "The Pow Wow Tree," which is listed as an Oregon Heritage Tree.
The earliest homesteads in the area were donation land claims. The Casons and the Rinearsons were the first settlers to receive their donation land claims in Gladstone. Peter M. Rinearson and his family owned the land between Jennings Lodge and the Clackamas River, and between the Willamette River and Portland Avenue. Fendal Cason, who came to Oregon in 1843, owned an area equal in size east of Portland Avenue. Cason went on to serve in the Oregon Territorial Legislature.
The Pow-Wow Tree marked the place where the different Indian tribes, mainly Clackamas and Multnomahs, met to make trading agreements, settle community affairs, and conduct wedding ceremonies. The tree still stands on Clackamas Boulevard. Adjacent to the Pow-Wow Tree was an Indian racetrack that Peter Rinearson later used as an exercise and training ground for the racehorses he bred. In 1861, it was used as a parade ring for the first State Fair held on the Rinearson property, with the Pow-Wow Tree marking the entrance.
Several small towns were established in this period, but only a few remained to become the cities of today, because of floods and fires.
Linn City was settled in the 1840s by Robert Moore who built four flour and lumber mills along the banks of the Willamette. Warehouses, homes, and mills were added until 1857, when a fire destroyed several of the buildings. Efforts at rebuilding the small town ceased when a flood came later that year and wiped out the rest of the buildings.
Founding of the city
Gladstone was founded by Judge Harvey Cross in the late 19th century, and formally incorporated on January 10, 1911. He laid out the city's first streets. Cross' home was built in the late 1840s by Fendal Cason, and Cross purchased it in 1862. The Cason-Cross House later became Cochran Mortuary, and as of 2008, Mr. Rooter, a plumbing service, occupies the space.
There is also a small park named after Cross, located at the same place one of the Indian tribes made its camp.
The first church
The Gladstone Church of Christ was established and organized in 1908 by Aaron Hayes Mulkey, with 55 members. Initially, it was of rough lumber construction with no floor or windows, with backless benches. The following year saw the erection of a new church on land donated by Harvey Cross.
In 1894, Oregon City author Eva Emery Dye persuaded Judge Cross that bringing the Chautauqua movement to the area would be of great benefit to the community and surrounding area. So Judge Cross granted a fifty-year lease of his land, named Gladstone Park, to the newly formed Willamette Valley Chautauqua Association for an annual summer assembly that offered lectures, concerts and theatrical performances. Gladstone's first outdoor Chautauqua was held on July 24–26, 1894. Gladstone's Chautauqua Park grew to be the third-largest permanent Chautauqua assembly park in the United States.
As time passed, however, better transportation, traveling vaudeville acts appearing in Portland, and the advent of radio meant that the Chautauqua's attendance began to dwindle. In 1927, the Willamette Valley Chautauqua Association was bankrupt. Judge Cross died on August 7, 1927, and shortly thereafter, Gladstone Park, including its buildings and Chautauqua Lake, were sold to the Western Oregon Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists. Since that time, the Seventh-day Adventists have held an annual camp-meeting on the site in July, with up to 20,000 attending on weekends. The Oregon Conference of Seventh-day Adventists headquarters was moved to the site in 2008.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2006)|
||This section possibly contains original research. (May 2008)|
Being bordered by rivers on two sides, there are only two primary thoroughfares to and from the city. Interstate 205 runs north-south along the eastern edge of the city. McLoughlin Boulevard (Oregon Route 99E) runs north-south through the western side of the city.
The old section of Gladstone is laid out on a grid of streets running north/south and east/west. East-west streets are named for colleges, while north-south streets are arranged in alphabetical order and have the same names as the north-south streets in Boston's Back Bay: Arlington, Berkeley, Clarendon, Dartmouth, Exeter, Fairfield, Gloucester, and Hereford. The alphabetical progression continues with Ipswich, Jersey and Kenmore, continuing the allusion to Boston's street names from its Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood adjacent to Back Bay. (See Kenmore Square.)
As of the census of 2010, there were 11,497 people, 4,540 households, and 3,009 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,790.4 inhabitants per square mile (1,849.6 /km2). There were 4,779 housing units at an average density of 1,991.3 per square mile (768.8 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 89.2% White, 0.9% African American, 1.0% Native American, 1.6% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 3.4% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.7% of the population.
There were 4,540 households of which 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 33.7% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.01.
The median age in the city was 39.2 years. 23.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.3% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.1% were from 25 to 44; 28.3% were from 45 to 64; and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.6% male and 51.4% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 11,438 people, 4,246 households, and 3,014 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,619.0 people per square mile (1,780.7/km²). There were 4,419 housing units at an average density of 1,784.5 per square mile (688.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 90.42% White, 0.72% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 2.11% Asian, 0.29% Pacific Islander, 3.04% from other races, and 2.82% from two or more races. 6.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 4,246 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.0% were non-families. 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.11.
In the city the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $46,368, and the median income for a family was $52,500. Males had a median income of $38,619 versus $28,300 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,388. About 6.6% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over.
Arts and culture
The annual Chautauqua Festival in August commemorates Gladstone's former status as a popular Chautauqua destination. The festival is held in Max Patterson Memorial City Park. KRYP is a Spanish language FM radio station that broadcasts from the city.
Gladstone is served by the Gladstone School District, which includes John Wetten Elementary School, Kraxberger Middle School, and Gladstone High School. In 2006, a bond was passed to allow approximately $40,000,000 worth of construction on the three schools. The majority (approx. 26 million) of the money will be going towards the high school.
The city operates a library that is part of the Library Information Network of Clackamas County. The city council has approved plans for a new $10 million library; but ballot measures backed by the group Save Gladstone have blocked financing and construction without specific voter approval. The necessary ballot measure will appear on the November 2012 ballot.
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- "Gladstone History". Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- Flora, Stephanie (2004). "Captains of 1843". Emigrants to Oregon in 1843. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
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- "Questions and Answers about the Gladstone School Bond". Retrieved January 24, 2009.[dead link]
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