TriMet

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TriMet
TriMet logo.svg
Overview
Locale Portland metropolitan area, Oregon
Transit type Commuter rail
Light rail
Local bus
Streetcar
Number of lines Light rail: 4
Commuter rail: 1
Local bus: 79[1]
Streetcar: 2 (operated on behalf of the City of Portland under contract)[2]
Number of stations 87 light rail; 5 commuter rail[1]
Daily ridership 312,100 (4th qtr 2013 weekday average)[3]
Website trimet.org
Operation
Began operation December 1, 1969[4]
Number of vehicles 127 light rail cars[5][1]
4 commuter rail cars
603 buses[1]
Technical
System length Light rail: 52.6 miles (84.7 km)
Commuter rail: 14.7 miles (23.7 km)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8½ in) (standard gauge)

TriMet, more formally known as the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon, is a public agency that operates mass transit in a region that spans most of the Portland metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Oregon. Created in 1969 by the Oregon legislature, the district replaced five private bus companies that operated in the three counties; Multnomah, Washington, and Clackamas. TriMet started operating a light rail system named MAX in 1986, and opened new lines in 1998 (Westside), 2001 (Airport), 2004 (Interstate Ave.), and 2009 (Clackamas), as well as a commuter rail line in 2009. It also operates the City of Portland-owned Portland Streetcar system.

In addition to rail lines, TriMet provides the region's bus system, as well as LIFT paratransit service. There are 603 buses in TriMet's fleet that operate on 79 routes.[1] In Fiscal Year 2013, the entire system averaged almost 316,700 rides per weekday[1] and operates buses and trains between the hours of approximately 5 a.m. and 2 a.m. with no "night owl" service. TriMet's annual budget for FY2014 is $489 million, with over half of revenues coming from a district-wide payroll tax.[1] The district is overseen by a seven-person board of governors appointed by the state's governor. In 2014, the agency has around 2,500 employees.[6]

General information[edit]

TriMet is "a municipal corporation of the State of Oregon", with powers to tax, issue bonds, and enact police ordinances and is governed by a seven-member board of directors appointed by the Governor of Oregon.[7] It has its own boundary, which currently encompasses an area of about 532 square miles (1,380 km2).[1] The TriMet district serves portions of the counties of Multnomah, Washington, and Clackamas; it extends from Troutdale to Forest Grove east to west, and from Sauvie Island to Oregon City and Estacada north to south.

For more than 30 years the agency called itself Tri-Met, but it formally dropped the hyphen from its name in 2002, as part of a new corporate identity strategy involving a redesigned logo and new color scheme for its vehicles and other media.[8]

A now-obsolete closed-circuit television bus schedule service.
A digital bus schedule at a stop at on the Portland Transit Mall.

TriMet was formed in 1969 after disputes between the Portland city council and Rose City Transit Company, the private company that previously operated the bus system serving the city (but not its suburbs).[4] The new public agency was created by an ordinance of the Portland city council, under provisions of a law enacted by the 1969 Oregon Legislature, and took over all of Rose City Transit's service and fleet effective December 1, 1969.[9] Bus service in the suburban portions of the metropolitan area was operated by four smaller private companies which had a common union and were collectively known as the "Blue Bus" lines: Portland Stages, Tualatin Valley Buses, Intercity Buses and Estacada-Molalla Stages. These were taken over by TriMet on September 6, 1970.[10] Eighty-eight buses owned by the four suburban companies were transferred to TriMet,[11] but many were found to be in poor condition[12] and the TriMet board soon took action to replace them with new buses.

Since September 2012, TriMet has used a "flat" fare system, with a single price (for each category of rider: adult, youth, senior or disabled) regardless of the length of the trip, rather than a distance-based fare system. However, the single-fare tickets permit unlimited transfers to other routes within a two-hour period.[13] Previously, the TriMet district was divided into three fare zones, with fares based on the number of zones in which a passenger traveled.[14] Zone 1 consisted of downtown Portland and extending about one to two miles (3 km) out. Zone 2 was a ring around Zone 1 out two to three more miles. Zone 3 wrapped around Zone 2 and consisted of the rest of the system within the suburbs of Portland. Within Zone 1 was Fareless Square, an area in and around downtown within which all rides were free. The zone was created in 1975 and expanded in 2001, but in 2010 it became applicable to light-rail and streetcar service only, no longer to bus service, and renamed the "Free Rail Zone",[15] and in September 2012 it was discontinued entirely.[16]

TriMet's first paint scheme was this orange and white, worn by all vehicles from 1971 until 1980 and by a portion of the fleet (the oldest buses) until 1991.

TriMet tickets and passes are also valid on the Portland Streetcar, which is owned by the City of Portland but operated mostly by TriMet personnel under a contract with the city.[2]

In Fiscal Year 2013, TriMet operated a total of 603 buses on 79 lines, 127 MAX light rail cars on four lines, and 253 LIFT paratransit vehicles.[1] MAX and 12 of the bus lines are marketed as "Frequent Service" lines, scheduled to operate at headways of 17 minutes or better for most of the service day, seven days a week.[1]

TriMet connects to several other mass transit systems:[17]

TriMet also links to various local shuttle services operated by the following: Ride Connection, which serves Banks, Gaston, King City and North Plains; the Swan Island Transportation Management Association; the Tualatin Transportation Management Association; Intel; Nike; and Oregon Health & Science University, including the Portland Aerial Tram.

Long-range transportation planning for the metropolitan area is provided by Metro, an elected regional government. Metro also has statutory authority to take over the day-to-day operations of TriMet, but has never exercised that power, as past studies of such a merger have found it to be problematic.[19]

Rail lines[edit]

MAX train traveling on the Yellow line (Interstate Avenue)

TriMet runs the MAX Light Rail (short for Metropolitan Area Express) system, and contracts with Portland and Western Railroad to operate the Westside Express Service (WES) commuter rail line. Fares on MAX (as well as WES) are the same as TriMet bus fares, and fare collection uses a proof-of-payment system (or honor system) with ticket vending machines at each station. Fare inspectors patrol the system randomly. Incidents of violence on the system have led to calls for more security,[20] and some have argued that more thorough checking of fares would improve riders' overall feeling of safety, but there are currently[when?] no plans to make any major changes to the fare collection system used on MAX.[citation needed]

TriMet trains operate using reporting mark TMTC.

TriMet's rail lines include:

From 1991 until 2013, TriMet also operated the Portland Vintage Trolley service, which ran on a portion of the MAX system on most weekends. It was reduced to only seven dates per year in 2011 and was discontinued entirely in December 2013.[21]

See also: Portland Streetcar (operated mostly by TriMet, and partially funded by TriMet, but not a TriMet service)

Bus service[edit]

A bus stop with frequent service.

As of February 2014, TriMet was operating 79 bus routes.[1] Of these, 12 were designated as "Frequent Service Lines", which the agency defines as having a headway of 17 minutes or less during weekday rush hours.[1] Each route is identified by both a number and a name. The numbers are mostly in the range 1–99, but there are currently four routes with three-digit numbers.[22] From 1969 until 1973, TriMet bus routes were named but not numbered, a practice inherited from Rose City Transit and the "Blue Bus" lines, but route numbers were assigned to all routes in August 1973.[23][24]

The bus system includes 17 transit centers, facilities served by multiple bus routes, and 11 of these are at MAX stations. See List of TriMet transit centers. TriMet buses began carrying bicycles on the front in 1992, on a trial basis on eight routes;[25] the experiment was judged a success and within three years the entire bus fleet had been fitted with bike racks.[26] Each rack can hold two bikes.

Fleet[edit]

Buses[edit]

1991 Gillig 30-foot
2009 New Flyer D40LFR

TriMet's fleet includes 603 buses, in lengths of either 40 or 30 feet (12 or 9 meters).[27][28] Currently, about three-fourths of TriMet's buses are low-floor vehicles. The agency's fleet of paratransit vehicles included 253 minibuses and 15 vans as of February 2014.[1]

TriMet does not currently operate any 60-foot (18 m) articulated buses. In 1982, the agency introduced 87 such buses,[29] manufactured by Crown-Ikarus, a now-defunct partnership between Ikarus, of Hungary, and Crown Coach, of California, but experienced numerous problems with them,[30] and has not purchased any more articulated buses. The last such buses were retired in 1999. However, over the intervening years the agency has introduced and expanded its MAX light rail system, which also uses higher-capacity, articulated vehicles. In 1997, the TriMet board decided that all buses purchased in the future should be low-floor type and equipped with air-conditioning.[31] The decision was for a gradual phase-out of high-floor, non-air-conditioned buses as they reach the ends of their normal lifespan (about 18–20 years) and TriMet anticipates that by 2017 all buses will have low floors without steps.[31][32]

Two hybrid electric buses entered service in 2002,[33][34][35] but in 2008 TriMet stated that the buses had not performed sufficiently better than its newest diesel buses to justify the estimated 50-percent-higher purchase cost, and that consequently the agency had no plans to purchase additional hybrid buses at that time.[36] The two 2001-built hybrid buses were retired in 2012.[35] However, with hybrid technology having improved since that earlier purchase, TriMet acquired four new hybrid buses in 2012 and placed them into service in January 2013 on line 72,[35][37] a long, mostly level north–south route.

Since October 30, 2006, all TriMet buses and paratransit minibuses have been fueled by a B5 biodiesel blend.[38] Plans to increase to a B10 or higher mix were later put on hold as a result of cost increases and problems experienced in a trial use of B10 blend in about one-quarter of the fleet.[39]

In 2008 TriMet ordered 40 New Flyer D40LFR buses,[40] which model features restyled ends, and these entered service in 2009. These buses offer better fuel efficiency and quieter operation than previous New Flyer buses while maintaining high parts compatibility. The restyled look replaces the square-shaped headlights and front windows with round headlights and a more rounded windshield. In fall 2012, 55 new buses built by Gillig began to enter service.[41] In 2013, another 70 Gillig buses were purchased, the first six of which entered service in late July.[42] Sixty more Gillig buses gradually entered service over the summer of 2014,[28] and another 30 of the same type (numbered in the 3300s) followed soon afterward, beginning to enter service in October 2014.[43]

TriMet's buses operate out of three garages: Powell Garage to the east, Merlo Garage on the west side, and the Center Street Garage in inner Southeast Portland.

Fleet number
range
Make Model Length Year built
1401–1463 Gillig Phantom 40' 1990
1601–1643 Gillig Phantom 30' 1990–1991
1901–1910 Flxible Metro 30' 1992
2001–2022 New Flyer D40LF 40' 1997
2101–2165 Gillig Phantom 40' 1997
2201–2318 New Flyer D40LF 40' 1998–1999
2501–2560 New Flyer D40LF 40' 2000–2001
2601–2655
2701–2725
2801–2839
New Flyer D40LF 40' 2002 (2600 series), 2003 (2700 series), 2005 (2800 series)
2901–2940 New Flyer D40LFR 40' 2009
3001–3051 Gillig BRT 40' 2012
3052–3055 Gillig BRT (series hybrid-electric) 40' 2012
3101–3170 Gillig BRT 40' 2013
3201–3260 Gillig BRT 40' 2014[28]
3301–3330 Gillig BRT 40' 2014[43]

Light rail (MAX)[edit]

Main article: MAX Light Rail

There are 127 light rail vehicles, of three general types: TriMet Type 1, Type 2/Type 3 (effectively identical) and Type 4.[44] The first few cars of the latest type began to enter service in August 2009.[45]

Portland MAX Light Rail Cars
TriMet
designation
Car numbers Manufacturer Model no. First used No. of seats/
overall capacity
Quantity
Type 1 101-126 Bombardier none 1986 76/166 26
Type 2 201-252 Siemens SD660 1997 64/166 52
Type 3 301-327 Siemens SD660 2003 64/166 27
Type 4 401-422 Siemens S70 2009 68/172[46] 22

Note on capacities:

  • The capacities given are for a single car; a two-car train has double the capacity.

Commuter rail (WES)[edit]

Four rail cars built by Colorado Railcar operate on the commuter rail line between Beaverton and Wilsonville.

Timeline[edit]

Items in the following timeline lacking individual citations are taken mostly from TriMet's Rider Insider newsletter, November/December 2004 issue:

  • 1969 Tri-Met takes over for the nearly bankrupt Rose City Transit Company. The system has 175 buses and a daily ridership of about 65,000.
  • 1970 Tri-Met takes over the "Blue Bus" companies, the four companies which had been providing bus service to and within Portland's suburbs,[12] adding another 88 buses to the agency's fleet.
  • 1973 Route numbers (or Line numbers) are adopted for the first time; previously, routes had been designated only by names.[23][24]
  • 1974 The first shelters at bus stops are installed.
  • 1975 The "Fareless Square" is created in downtown Portland, with the goal of reducing short automobile trips within the city core and attracting more riders. Fares outside the Square are 35 cents.[47] The zone-based fare system was discontinued at that time,[47] but was reinstated less than four years later[48] and remained in use until 2012.
  • 1977/78 The 22-block Portland Transit Mall opens on downtown's Fifth and Sixth Avenues.[49][50] The mall includes bus-only lanes and provides a hub to make it easier for riders to make connections.
  • 1978 After 3½ years using a "flat" fare system, a zonal fare structure is reinstated, with three fare zones.[48]
  • 1981 24-hour recorded schedule information becomes available over the phone.
One of TriMet's articulated buses, in service 1982–99.
  • 1982 Tri-Met introduces articulated buses for the first time.[29] The Crown-Ikarus buses prove to be sufficiently trouble-plagued that the agency later sues the manufacturer to recover expenses tied to excessive repairs;[51] a settlement was reached in 1987.
  • 1982 In September, Tri-Met introduces a proof-of-payment (or "self-service") fare system for all service,[52] but discontinues it in June 1984, due to fare evasion, high equipment repair costs and other problems.[53]
  • 1986 As part of a package of budget cuts,[54] Tri-Met discontinues its all-night "Owl" service,[55] making Portland the second largest U.S. city without all-night transit service. Seven regular (daytime) bus routes also were eliminated.[55]
  • 1986 The 15-mile (24 km) long MAX light rail line between Portland and Gresham opens. It reintroduces rail transit service to the Portland area, missing since the 1950s.
  • 1989 Tri-Met is named the best large transit system in North America by the American Public Transit Association.[56]
  • 1992 The first bike racks are installed on the fronts of some Tri-Met buses, as part of a one-year trial project.[25]
  • 1995 Tri-Met's website goes online, hosted by local ISP Teleport (which eventually becomes acquired by OneMain.com, later to become part of Earthlink). At the time when Internet access was less ubiquitous, Tri-Met also offered a dial-up information service through Teleport using a Unix shell and Lynx.
  • 1996 Tri-Met begins to equip its bus fleet with vehicle tracking system equipment, to enable monitoring of buses in service, using GPS technology.[57]
  • 1997 The first low-floor buses and light-rail cars go into service.[58][59]
  • 1998 Westside MAX (now known as the Blue Line between Portland and Hillsboro) opens. Tri-Met also establishes bus lines that come every 15 minutes or sooner everyday, lessening the need to consult a schedule when using them.
  • 1999 Satellite-assisted bus arrival time displays (later to be named Transit Tracker) are installed at select major bus stops in North Portland and downtown.
  • 2001 Fareless Square is expanded to a small portion of Northeast Portland between Lloyd Center and the Steel Bridge. Airport MAX (the Red Line) begins service on September 10 after a public/private partnership, prompted by a proposal from Bechtel Corporation, enables its construction years ahead of TriMet's plans for the use of public funds. Bechtel received exclusive development rights to 120 acres (486,000 m²) near the entrance to Portland International Airport. The original MAX line began to be referred to as the MAX Blue Line upon the opening of the Red Line. Bus sector symbols began to be phased out from maps and publications.
  • 2002 With the September schedule change, Tri-Met launches a new corporate identity strategy. It is renamed TriMet (without a hyphen) and a new logo and blue, white and yellow livery are introduced.[8] An improved automated phone service is introduced.
  • 2004 Interstate MAX (the Yellow Line) opens along Interstate Avenue. The fleet has grown to 638 buses, 208 paratransit vehicles, and 105 trains with a daily ridership of over 300,000.
  • 2005 TriMet introduces biodiesel fuel into its fleet, using a B5 blend (5 percent pure biodiesel, 95 percent petroleum diesel), initially on LIFT (paratransit) minibuses only. Use of B5 biodiesel was expanded to the entire bus fleet in late 2006.[38]
  • 2007 The Portland Mall, on 5th and 6th Avenues, is shut down for rebuilding and southward extension (to PSU), including adding a second light-rail alignment through downtown. The rebuilding, to take over 2 years, is part of the MAX Green Line project, but will also replace all infrastructure for buses on the already 29-year-old transit mall.[60] Most bus routes serving downtown are detoured to other streets until 2009.
  • 2009 The 14.7-mile (23.7 km) WES Commuter Rail opens on February 2. WES (Westside Express Service) provides service between Beaverton and Wilsonville with stations in Tigard and Tualatin in between.[4]
  • 2009 In May, the Portland Mall reopens for buses, and testing and training runs for the new Mall MAX tracks begin, for opening August 30.[61]
  • 2009 Due to the national recession's effect on the agency's finances, the board approves a series of service reductions, to take effect in September.[62] The board votes on August 12 to discontinue Fareless Square for bus service beginning in January 2010, while retaining fare-free rides in the downtown area on MAX and the Portland Streetcar.[63]
  • 2009 On August 30, MAX service on the transit mall is introduced, with the shifting of the Yellow Line to the new alignment.[64] September 12 brings the opening of the Green Line, also using the new transit-mall tracks, running from downtown (PSU) to Clackamas Town Center.[65] It is TriMet's first light rail line serving Clackamas County.[66]
  • 2011 Construction starts on Tilikum Crossing, the first construction work on the MAX Orange Line from Portland to Milwaukie.[67]
  • 2012 TriMet purchases 55 new Gillig diesel buses to replace the aging fleet dating back to 1990. The last four of the new buses are hybrid-electrics estimated to be 20-50% more fuel-efficient[37] and produce 95% fewer emissions; they replaced hybrid buses that were in service since 2002.[35]
  • 2013 TriMet purchases 60 new Gillig diesel buses to replace the aging fleet dating back to 1990.

Communities served[edit]

The following cities and unincorporated communities (*) are in the TriMet service area:

TriMet buses and commuter rail also serve Wilsonville, Oregon, which is outside the TriMet district, in order to provide connections to transit services operated by SMART in that city.

The Boring area has been removed from the TriMet District effective January 1, 2013.[68]

Criticism and controversies[edit]

A broken TriMet ticket machine at the Beaverton Transit Center WES platform

Operator fatigue[edit]

An investigation by The Oregonian led to the revelation that some TriMet drivers work as many as 22 hours in a 24 hour period. There have also been 22 reported cases of drivers falling asleep at the wheel.[69][70][71]

Failure rate of MAX ticket vending machines[edit]

An investigation by several local Portland news outlets found that several of the MAX Light Rail ticket machines have extremely high failure rates. Many riders have claimed that they have received a fare evasion citation after boarding the MAX train without a fare after they have attempted to pay for a ticket. The official statement from TriMet is to ride to the next MAX station, de-board the train and pay for a ticket there and wait for the next train. This response has been deemed unacceptable both by riders and bus/rail operators. TriMet has began replacing all of their older machines with newer machines, but the break-downs have persisted with newer machines.[citation needed]

Sanctioned for illegal employee negotiations behavior[edit]

On January 3, 2013 TriMet was found by The Oregon Employment Relations Board to be in violation of ORS 243.672 by restricting the ATU 757 from attending contract negotiation hearings. In retaliation to the ATU filing a ULP earlier in 2010, TriMet implemented a wage freeze requiring all employees to pay their increases in healthcare premiums and changing insurance plans after the union contract expired without first discussing it with the union.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "TriMet-At-a-Glance 2014" (PDF). TriMet. February 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-10. 
  2. ^ a b Austin, David (July 20, 2001). "Streetcar safety". The Oregonian, "Back on Track" special section, p. 20.
  3. ^ "American Public Transportation Association - Transit Ridership Report - Fourth Quarter 2013" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. February 26, 2014. p. 24. Retrieved 2014-03-28. 
  4. ^ a b c "The TriMet Story". History. TriMet. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 
  5. ^ Rose, Joseph (August 4, 2009). "TriMet launches sleek Type 4 trains into regular service on Thursday". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2009-08-16. 
  6. ^ "New TriMet Budget Promises Improved Service, Cuts To Employee Health Benefits". Oregon Public Broadcasting. March 12, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2014. 
  7. ^ Board of Directors. TriMet
  8. ^ a b Leeson, Fred (August 14, 2002). "Tri-Met is changing its stripes". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2009-08-16. 
  9. ^ "Tri-Met Takes Bus Control; Strike Averted" (December 1, 1969). The Oregonian, p. 1.
  10. ^ "Federman, Stan (September 2, 1970). "Tri-Met Action Averts Strike Of Bus Drivers; Agency To Assume Operation Of Four Suburban Blue Lines". The Oregonian, p. 1.
  11. ^ "Tri-Met To Get Blue Buses Sunday; New Suburban Runs To Start Tuesday" (September 5, 1970). The Oregonian, p.15.
  12. ^ a b "Tri-Met Takes Over Operation Of Blue Buses, Finds Rolling Stock In Bad Condition" (September 9, 1970). The Oregonian, p. 9.
  13. ^ "Fares: 2-Hour Ticket". TriMet. 2013. Retrieved August 14, 2013. 
  14. ^ Fare Zones. TriMet
  15. ^ "Better have that bus fare today; Fareless Square ends". Portland Tribune. January 3, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2013. 
  16. ^ Bailey Jr., Everton (August 30, 2012). "TriMet boosts most fares starting Saturday; some routes changing". The Oregonian. Retrieved August 14, 2013. 
  17. ^ Other Local Transit Services. TriMet. Retrieved 2009-10-02.
  18. ^ "Schedules & Routes". Columbia County Rider. 2014. Retrieved March 28, 2014. 
  19. ^ Stan Federman (January 18, 1988). "Pathway to altar for Tri-Met, Metro filled with financial, legal potholes". The Oregonian. 
  20. ^ S. Renee Mitchell (December 13, 2007). "TriMet Safety". The Oregonian. 
  21. ^ Tramways & Urban Transit, February 2014, p. 92. UK: LRTA Publishing Ltd.
  22. ^ "Bus Service". TriMet. Retrieved December 12, 2012. 
  23. ^ a b "Tri-Met directors discontinue little-used experimental route" (August 7, 1973). The Oregonian, p. 15.
  24. ^ a b "Take a number .... It's a winner" (August 28, 1973). Tri-Met advertisement in The Oregonian, Section 2, p. 6.
  25. ^ a b Walker, Dee J. (June 18, 1992). "Tri-Met to kick off one-year trial of bike project". The Oregonian, p. C6.
  26. ^ "People will bike, walk" (editorial, February 21, 1995). The Oregonian, p. B6.
  27. ^ "Bus Vehicle & Fleet Facts". TriMet. 2009. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved January 3, 2013. 
  28. ^ a b c "Our new buses are hitting the road! The first of 60 new buses went into service this morning". TriMet. June 5, 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-10. 
  29. ^ a b Federman, Stan (January 24, 1982). "Introduction of articulated buses kicks off Tri-Met expansion". The Oregonian, p. B1.
  30. ^ Federman, Stan (March 4, 1984). "No wonder the sour look: Tri-Met bendable buses 'lemons'". The Sunday Oregonian, p. 1.
  31. ^ a b Oliver, Gordon (June 26, 1997). "Tri-Met steers toward easy-access, air-conditioned fleet". The Oregonian, p. D1.
  32. ^ "The first batch of 70 new buses rolls into service Tuesday, July 23". July 22, 2013. Retrieved September 10, 2014. 
  33. ^ Boone, Jerry F. (May 6, 2002). "Tri-Met rolls out diesel-electric bus". The Oregonian.
  34. ^ Tribune staff (May 10, 2002). "PDX Update". Portland Tribune. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  35. ^ a b c d "Building a better bus". TriMet. 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  36. ^ Hansen, Fred (TriMet General Manager, op-ed column) (April 1, 2008). "TriMet stays innovative". Portland Tribune. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  37. ^ a b Oberman, Lily (January 31, 2013). "TriMet unveils new hybrid buses; transit union responds with safety concerns". The Oregonian. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  38. ^ a b "TriMet becomes state's #1 biodiesel fuel user". TriMet. October 30, 2006. Retrieved 2009-10-03. 
  39. ^ Budnick, Nick (May 15, 2008). "TriMet's biodiesel ambitions hit wall". Portland Tribune. Retrieved November 17, 2012. 
  40. ^ "New Flyer Receives Orders for Up to 1,234 Buses ...." (Press release). New Flyer Industries. June 26, 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-16. 
  41. ^ Rose, Joseph (October 3, 2012 (print edition October 4)). "TriMet rolls out new state-of-the-art buses in Portland on Thursday". The Oregonian. p. C2. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  42. ^ Rose, Joseph (July 23, 2013 (online date July 22)). "A new look and a new ping for TriMet's buses". The Oregonian. p. 1. Retrieved August 13, 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  43. ^ a b "TriMet’s newest fleet of buses begins to roll into service". TriMet. October 10, 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-12. 
  44. ^ "MAX Vehicle & Fleet Facts". TriMet. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  45. ^ Redden, Jim (August 6, 2009). "TriMet puts new light-rail cars on track". Portland Tribune. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  46. ^ "MAX: The Next Generation". TriMet. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  47. ^ a b Colby, Richard (January 12, 1975). "Tri-Met eliminates fare zones, offers free rides downtown". The Sunday Oregonian, p. A38.
  48. ^ a b Hortsch, Dan (August 27, 1978). "Tri-Met riders will start paying higher fares on Sept. 3". The Sunday Oregonian, p. B7.
  49. ^ "Mall makes it". (December 12, 1977). The Oregonian, p. A1.
  50. ^ "Mall enters future - and it works!" (March 19, 1978). The Sunday Oregonian, p. M11. Excerpt: "Although the Portland Mall has [now] been officially dedicated, it has been in full operation since December."
  51. ^ Federman, Stan (November 5, 1985). "Tri-Met sues over articulated bus defects". The Oregonian.
  52. ^ Federman, Stan (August 29, 1982). "All eyes will be on Tri-Met's new self-service plan". The Sunday Oregonian, p. C2.
  53. ^ Federman, Stan (June 16, 1984). "Inspectors bid goodbye to Tri-Met test". The Oregonian, p. C5.
  54. ^ Federman, Stan (May 23, 1986). "Tri-Met plans to lay off 81, cut bus lines". The Oregonian, p. A1.
  55. ^ a b Hayakawa, Alan R. (July 1, 1986). "Tri-Met approves $71.9 million budget". The Oregonian, p.B1.
  56. ^ "Transit professionals single out Tri-Met" (September 27, 1989). The Oregonian.
  57. ^ Oliver, Gordon (August 18, 1996). "Tri-Met adopts global technology to track bus fleet". The Oregonian, p. D1.
  58. ^ O'Keefe, Mark (September 1, 1997). "New MAX cars smooth the way for wheelchairs". The Oregonian, p. B12.
  59. ^ "Easy-access buses hit the streets in Portland" (December 15, 1997). The Oregonian.
  60. ^ Redden, Jim (January 12, 2007). "Bye-bye, bus mall as we know it". Portland Tribune. Retrieved November 17, 2012. 
  61. ^ Redden, Jim (May 21, 2009). "TriMet: Mall can be safe, orderly". Portland Tribune. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  62. ^ Rivera, Dylan (May 28, 2009). "TriMet adopts cuts, warns of more later". The Oregonian, p. B1.
  63. ^ Rivera, Dylan (August 12, 2009). "The days of a free bus ride are over". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  64. ^ Tribune staff (August 28, 2009). "New MAX line opens downtown". Portland Tribune. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  65. ^ Rivera, Dylan (September 12, 2009 (online); September 13, 2009 (print edition)). "Riders pack MAX Green Line on first day of service". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2009-09-27.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  66. ^ Redden, Jim (September 13, 2009). "Leaders heap praise on new MAX Green Line". Portland Tribune. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  67. ^ Rose, Joseph (June 29–30, 2011). "Construction begins on new light-rail bridge in Portland that will go up 'piece by piece'". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 2, 2012. 
  68. ^ Fuggetta, Emily (December 14, 2011). "TriMet board votes to approve Boring withdrawal". The Oregonian. Retrieved January 3, 2013. 
  69. ^ Rose, Joseph. "TriMet board member demands action in light of investigation by The Oregonian." Oregonian. 09 2013: n. page. Web. 10 Jan. 2013. http://www.oregonlive.com/roadreport/index.ssf/2013/01/trimet_board_member_demands_ac.html
  70. ^ Rose, Joseph. "TriMet driver fatigue: Reaction to The Oregonian's 'culture of exhaustion' investigation." Oregonian. 09 2013: n. page. Web. 10 Jan. 2013. <http://blog.oregonlive.com/commuting/2013/01/trimet_fatigue_reaction_to_the.html>.
  71. ^ Rose, Joseph. "TriMet overtime: 'Exhaustion has become part of the culture' at transit agency." Oregonian. 05 2013: n. page. Web. 10 Jan. 2013. <http://www.oregonlive.com/roadreport/index.ssf/2013/01/trimet_overtime_exhaustion_has.html>.

External links[edit]