|• Total||430.11 km2 (166.07 sq mi)|
|Elevation||521 m (1,709 ft)|
|Population (Dec 2013)|
|• Density||23/km2 (59/sq mi)|
|Localities||Betschwanden, Braunwald, Elm, Engi, Haslen, Linthal, Luchsingen, Matt, Mitlödi, Rüti, Schwanden, Schwändi, Sool.|
|Surrounded by||Flums (SG), Quarten (SG), Breil/Brigels (GR), Disentis/Mustér (GR), Silenen (UR), Spiringen (UR), Sumvitg (GR), Trun (GR), Waltensburg/Vuorz (GR)|
Effective from 1 January 2011, Glarus Süd incorporates the former municipalities of Betschwanden, Braunwald, Elm, Engi, Haslen, Linthal, Luchsingen, Matt, Mitlödi, Rüti, Schwanden, Schwändi and Sool.
The municipality comprises the upper Linth valley, and the entire Sernf valley. It encompasses altitudes from 504 m (1,654 ft) at Mitlödi to the summit of Tödi at 3,614 m (11,857 ft). Notable reservoir lakes are Limmernsee at 1,857 m (6,093 ft) and Garichtisee at 1,648 m (5,407 ft).
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Historical Population
- 5 Heritage sites of national significance
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transport
- 8 Climate
- 9 Culture
- 10 Notable people
- 11 Luchsinger
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Betschwanden is first recorded in 1240 in the phrase in Beswando.
Until 1395, Betschwanden was obliged to pay tithes and taxes to Säckingen Abbey. At the same time it was part of the parish of Glarus. The village church was built in the Romanesque style in the 14th century. It was rebuilt several times and flood control walls were added in 1779-80. The Art Nouveau and Gothic Revival elements were added in 1915 and restored in 1975-77. The exterior of the church was rebuilt in 2001.
When the Protestant Reformation arrived in Glarus, Betschwanden adopted the new faith. In 1528 it joined a Reformed parish with Braunwald, Hätzingen, Diesbach and Rüti. In 1942 Braunwald separated to form an independent parish.
Until the 19th century, alpine farming and herding was the primary source of income. A mill was built on the Diesbach river in 1778. Today it is a guest house for the rectory. A parish school opened in 1727. A secondary school opened in 1844. A spinning mill opened in 1843 and a warehouse was added in 1910; it is now a textile chemical factory. A station of the Schweizerische Nordostbahn (Swiss North-East Railway) opened in the village in 1879.
Braunwald is first mentioned in 1421 as Brunwald.
Elm is first mentioned in 1344 as Elme.
On September 11, 1881, an avalanche caused by excessive quarrying of slate killed 114 and buried 83 structures in the municipality.
Starting in 1905, an electric tram connected Elm to Schwanden. In 1969, it was replaced with a bus service.
Engi is first mentioned in 1350 as ze engi.
Haslen is first mentioned in 1289 as Burchard von Hasle.
Linthal is first mentioned in 1289 as Lintal.
Luchsingen is first mentioned in 1274 as Luchsingen.
Matt is first mentioned in 1273 as Mattun.
Mitlödi is first mentioned in 1320 as Mitlodi.
Rüti is first mentioned about 1340.
Schwanden is first mentioned in 1240 as de swando.
Schwändi is first mentioned in 1350 as Swendi.
Sool is first mentioned between 1303-07 as soler tagwan.
The former municipalities that now make up Glarus Süd have a total combined area of 430.11 km2 (166.07 sq mi).
The historical population is given in the following chart:
Heritage sites of national significance
There are thirteen Swiss heritage sites of national significance located in the new municipality. Braunwald is home to two, Bergeten which is the ruins of a medieval alpine camp and the Ortstockhaus. Elm has three, the Gross house, the Suworow house and the Zentner house all located in the village. Engi, Haslen, Linthal and Luchsingen each only have one, the Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen Des Kantons Glarus, Engi, the Spinnerei Daniel Jenny & Co, the Pantenbrücke (bridge) and the Sunnezyt House respectively. There are two in Matt, the Brummbach house and the Steggut house. Mitlödi has one, the Schiffmeister / Schönenberger house while Schwanden has the Industrial Archives of Glarus. There are three villages and two hamlets which appear on the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites, the villages of Elm, Diesbach and Rüti along with the hamlets of Steinibach and Adlenbach.
The major occupation in the area was agriculture, including sheepherding since 1000. In the 18th century, the wool industry (home-based) became an important economic factor. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, beef cattle were pastured in the Alps in summer for export to Italy.
The baths at Wichlen in the former municipality of Elm were in use since the middle ages and are first mentioned in 1547. They were very popular until they were buried by an avalanche in 1762. Many characteristic wooden structures have survived. In 1898, a new Kurhaus was opened, which flourished until World War I. Today, it is used as a retirement center.
Starting in 1861, slate was quarried from the Tschingelberg for school tablets and styluses.
The mineral water firm Mineralquellen Elm AG opened in Elm in 1929 and remains in operation today.
The Weesen to Linthal railway line traverses the municipality of Glarus Süd, serving the stations of Mitlödi, Schwanden, Nidfurn-Haslen, Leuggelbach, Luchsingen-Hätzingen, Diesbach-Betschwanden, Rüti GL, Linthal Braunwaldbahn and Linthal. The line is served by the Zürich S-Bahn service S25 to and from Zurich, which operates an hourly service the full length of the line calling at all the above stations. There is also an hourly St. Gallen S-Bahn service S6 to and from Rapperswil, which serves Mitlodi before terminating at Schwanden.
Between 1961 and 1990 the former municipality of Braunwald had an average of 161.3 days of rain per year and on average received 2,025 mm (79.7 in) of precipitation. The wettest month was August during which time Braunwald received an average of 206 mm (8.1 in) of precipitation. During this month there was precipitation for an average of 15.4 days. The month with the most days of precipitation was July, with an average of 16, but with only 199 mm (7.8 in) of precipitation. The driest month of the year was October with an average of 120 mm (4.7 in) of precipitation over 15.4 days.
Over the same time period the former municipality of Elm had an average of 156.1 days of rain per year and on average received 1,524 mm (60.0 in) of precipitation. The wettest month was August during which time Elm received an average of 171 mm (6.7 in) of precipitation. During this month there was precipitation for an average of 15.3 days. The month with the most days of precipitation was June, with an average of 15.9, but with only 152 mm (6.0 in) of precipitation. The driest month of the year was October with an average of 96 mm (3.8 in) of precipitation over 15.3 days.
|Climate data for Elm village (1981-2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||1.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−4.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||102
|Snowfall cm (inches)||87.3
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||11.2||10.0||13.5||12.7||15.0||15.7||15.1||15.3||12.2||10.4||11.9||11.8||154.8|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm)||9.1||8.4||8.5||5||0.9||0||0||0||0.1||1.1||6.1||9.4||48.6|
|Source: MeteoSwiss |
In 1981, the Wakker Prize was awarded to Elm for the development and preservation of its architectural heritage.
- Swiss ski mountaineer Rico Elmer was born in Elm.
- Arealstatistik Standard - Gemeindedaten nach 4 Hauptbereichen
- Swiss Federal Statistics Office – STAT-TAB Ständige und Nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Region, Geschlecht, Nationalität und Alter (German) accessed 18 August 2014
- Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis der Schweiz published by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (German) accessed 18 February 2011
- Betschwanden in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Braunwald in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Elm in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Engi in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Haslen in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Linthal in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Luchsingen in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Matt in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Mitlödi in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Rüti (GL) in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Schwanden in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Schwändi in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Sool in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB Bevölkerungsentwicklung nach Region, 1850-2000 (German) accessed 29 January 2011
- "Kantonsliste A-Objekte". KGS Inventar (in German). Federal Office of Civil Protection. 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- "S-Bahn trains, buses and boats". ZVV. Retrieved 2014-08-08.
- "S-Bahn St.Gallen Map". S-Bahn. Retrieved 2014-08-08.
- "Ziegelbrücke–Linthal". Bundesamt für Verkehr. Retrieved 2014-08-08.
- "Temperature and Precipitation Average Values-Table, 1961-1990" (in German, French, Italian). Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology - MeteoSwiss. Retrieved 8 May 2009., the weather station elevation is 1330 meters above sea level.
- "Climate Norm Value Tables". Climate diagrams and normals from Swiss measuring stations. Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss). Retrieved 23 January 2013. The weather station elevation is 958 meters above sea level.
- History of the Glarus Families - The Luchsingers
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