Saab JAS 39 Gripen
|JAS 39 Gripen|
|Swedish Air Force JAS 39 Gripen|
|Role||Fighter, attack and reconnaissance aircraft|
|Design group||Industrigruppen JAS, FMV|
|First flight||9 December 1988|
|Introduction||1 November 1997|
|Primary users||Swedish Air Force
South African Air Force
Czech Air Force
Hungarian Air Force
|Number built||Approx. 247[Nb 1]|
|Program cost||US$ 13.54 billion (2006)[Nb 2]|
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen (English: Griffin[Nb 4]) is a lightweight single-engine multirole fighter aircraft manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab. It was designed to replace the Saab 35 Draken and 37 Viggen in the Swedish Air Force (Flygvapnet). The Gripen has a delta wing and canard configuration with relaxed stability design and fly-by-wire flight controls. It is powered by the Volvo RM12, and has a top speed of Mach 2. Later aircraft are modified for NATO interoperability standards and to undertake in-flight refuelling.
In 1979, the Swedish government began development studies for an aircraft capable of fighter, attack and reconnaissance missions to replace the Saab 35 Draken and 37 Viggen. A new design from Saab was selected and developed as the JAS 39, first flying in 1988. Following two crashes during flight development and subsequent alterations to the aircraft's flight control software, the Gripen entered service with the Swedish Air Force in 1997. Upgraded variants, featuring more advanced avionics and adaptations for longer mission times, began entering service in 2003.
In order to market the aircraft to export customers, Saab has formed several partnerships and collaborative efforts with multiple overseas aerospace companies. One example of such efforts was Gripen International, a joint partnership between Saab and BAE Systems formed in 2001. Gripen International was responsible for marketing the aircraft, and was heavily involved in the successful export of the type to South Africa; the organization was later dissolved amidst allegations of bribery being employed to secure foreign interest and sales. On the export market, the Gripen has achieved moderate success in sales to nations in Central Europe, South Africa and Southeast Asia. As of 2013, more than 247 Gripens have been built.[Nb 1]
A further version, designated Gripen JAS 39 E/F, is under development as of 2014; it has been referred to as Gripen NG or Super-JAS. The changes include the adoption of a new powerplant, the General Electric F414G, an active electronically scanned array radar, and significantly increased internal fuel capacity. Saab has proposed other derivatives, including a navalised Sea Gripen for carrier operations and an optionally-manned aircraft for unmanned operations. Sweden has ordered the Gripen NG and Brazil and Switzerland selected it for procurement.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Aircraft on display
- 7 Accidents and incidents
- 8 Specifications (JAS 39C/D Gripen)
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
By the late 1970s, Sweden needed a replacement for its ageing Saab 35 Draken and Saab 37 Viggen. The Swedish Air Force required an affordable Mach 2 aircraft with good short-field performance for a defensive dispersed basing plan in the event of invasion; the plan included 800 m long by 9 m wide rudimentary runways as stated in the Base 90 directives. One goal was for the aircraft to be smaller than the Viggen while equalling or improving on its payload-range characteristics. Early proposals included the Saab 38, also called B3LA, intended as an attack aircraft and trainer, and the A 20, a development of the Viggen that would have capabilities as a fighter, attack and sea reconnaissance aircraft. Several foreign designs were also studied, including the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, the Northrop F-20 Tigershark and the Dassault Mirage 2000. Ultimately, the Swedish government opted for a new fighter to be developed by Saab (Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolag).
In 1979, the government started a study calling for a versatile platform capable of "JAS", standing for Jakt (air-to-air), Attack (air-to-surface), and Spaning (reconnaissance), indicating a multirole, or swingrole, fighter aircraft that can fulfill multiple roles during the same mission. A number of Saab designs were accordingly reviewed, with the most promising being "Project 2105" (redesignated "Project 2108" and, later, "Project 2110"), recommended to the government by the Defence Materiel Administration (Försvarets Materielverk, or FMV). In 1980, Industrigruppen JAS (IG JAS, "JAS Industry Group") was established as a joint venture by Saab-Scania, LM Ericsson, Svenska Radioaktiebolaget, Volvo Flygmotor and Försvarets Fabriksverk, the industrial wing of the Swedish armed forces.
The preferred aircraft was a single-engine, lightweight single-seater, embracing fly-by-wire technology, canards, and an aerodynamically unstable design. The powerplant selected was the Volvo-Flygmotor RM12, a license-built derivative of the General Electric F404-400; engine development priorities were weight reduction and lowering component count. On 30 June 1982, with approval from the Riksdag, the FMV issued contracts to prime contractor Saab covering five prototypes and an initial batch of 30 production aircraft. To test avionics intended for the JAS 39, such as the fly-by-wire controls, a Viggen was converted to operate as a test aircraft, flying by January 1983. Through a public competition, the JAS 39 received the name Gripen (griffin),[Nb 4] which is the heraldry on Saab's logo.[Nb 5]
Testing, production and improvements
|Ground footage of the 1989 Gripen crash|
In 1982, Sweden placed the fixed-price order, worth SEK25.7 billion, for five prototypes and 30 JAS 39A single-seaters. The first Gripen was rolled out on 26 April 1987, marking Saab's 50th anniversary. Originally planned to fly in 1987, the first flight was delayed by 18 months due to issues with the flight control system. On 9 December 1988, the first prototype (serial number 39-1) took its 51-minute maiden flight with pilot Stig Holmström at the controls. During the test programme, concern surfaced about the aircraft's avionics, specifically the fly-by-wire flight control system (FCS), and the relaxed stability design. On 2 February 1989, this issue was dramatically highlighted with the crash of the prototype during an attempted landing at Linköping; the test pilot Lars Rådeström walked away with only a broken elbow. The cause of the crash was identified as pilot-induced oscillation, caused by problems to the FCS's pitch-control routine.
To rectify the problem, Saab and US firm Calspan introduced major software improvements to the aircraft. A modified Lockheed NT-33A was used to test these improvements, which allowed flight testing to resume within 15 months following the accident. The programme was again hindered when, on 8 August 1993, production aircraft 39102 was destroyed in an accident during an aerial display in Stockholm. Test pilot Rådeström lost control of the aircraft during a roll at low altitude, and the aircraft rapidly stalled, forcing him to eject. Saab later found the problem to be high amplification of the pilot's quick and significant stick command inputs. The ensuing investigations and flaw rectification delayed test flying by several months, resuming in December 1993.
The first order included an option for another 110, which became a firm order in June 1992. Batch II consisted of 96 one-seat JAS 39As and 14 two-seat JAS 39Bs. The JAS 39B variant is 66 cm (26 in) longer than the JAS 39A to accommodate a second seat, which also necessitated the deletion of the cannon and a reduced internal fuel capacity. By April 1994, five prototypes and two series-production Gripens had been completed; the only major decision remaining was to select a beyond-visual-range missile (BVR). A third batch was ordered in June 1997, composed of 50 upgraded single-seat JAS 39Cs and 14 JAS 39D two-seaters, known as ‘Turbo Gripen’, with NATO compatibility for exports. Batch III aircraft, delivered between 2002 and 2008, possess more powerful and updated avionics, in-flight refuelling capability via retractable probes on the aircraft's starboard side, and an on-board oxygen-generating system for longer missions. In-flight refueling was tested via a specially equipped prototype (39‐4) used in successful trials with a Royal Air Force VC10 in 1998.
During the 1995 Paris Air Show, Saab Military Aircraft and British Aerospace (BAe, now BAE Systems) announced the formation the joint-venture company Saab-BAe Gripen AB with the goal of adapting, manufacturing, marketing and supporting Gripen worldwide. The deal involved the conversion of the A and B series aircraft to the "export" C and D series, which developed the Gripen for compatibility with NATO standards. This cooperation was extended in 2001 with the formation of Gripen International to promote export sales. In December 2004, Saab and BAE Systems announced that BAE was to sell a large portion of its stake in Saab, and that Saab would take full responsibility for marketing and export orders of the Gripen. In June 2011, Saab announced that an internal investigation revealed evidence former partner BAE Systems had performed acts of corruption, including money laundering, in South Africa, a customer of the Gripen.
On 26 April 2007, Norway signed a NOK150 million joint-development agreement with Saab to cooperate in the development programme of the Gripen, including the integration of Norwegian industries in the development of future versions of the aircraft. In June of the same year, Saab also entered an agreement with Thales Norway A/S concerning the development of communications systems for the Gripen fighter; this order was the first to be awarded under the provisions of the Letter of Agreement signed by the Norwegian Ministry of Defence and Gripen International in April 2007. As a result of the United States diplomatic cables leak in 2010, it was revealed that US diplomats had become concerned with cooperation between Norway and Sweden on the topic of the Gripen, and had sought to exert pressure against a Norwegian purchase of the aircraft.
In December 2007, as part of Gripen International's marketing efforts in Denmark, a deal was signed with Danish technology supplier Terma A/S which allows them to participate in an industrial cooperation programme over the next 10–15 years. The total value of the programme is estimated at over DKK10 billion, and is partly dependent on a procurement of the Gripen by Denmark.
Controversies, scandals, and costs
Developing an advanced multi-role fighter was a major undertaking for Sweden. The predecessor Viggen, despite being less advanced and less expensive, had been criticized for occupying too much of Sweden's military budget and was branded "a cuckoo in the military nest" by critics as early as 1971. At the 1972 party congress of the Social Democrats, the dominant party in Swedish politics since the 1950s, a motion was passed to stop any future projects to develop advanced military aircraft. In 1982, the project passed in the Riksdag by a narrow of margin of 176 for and 167 against, with the entire Social Democratic voting against the proposal due to demands for more studies. A new bill was introduced in 1983 and a final approval was given in April 1983 with the condition that the project was to have a predetermined fixed-price contract, a decision that would later be criticized as unrealistic due to later cost overruns.
According to Annika Brändström, in the aftermath of the 1989 and 1993 crashes during the aircraft's development, the Gripen risked a loss of credibility and the weakening of its public image. There was public speculation that failures to address technical problems exposed in the first crash had directly contributed to the second crash and thus would have been avoidable. Brändström observed that elements of the media had called for greater public accountability and explanation of the project; ill-informed media analysis had also proved to distort public knowledge of the Gripen. The sitting Conservative government was quick to initiate efforts to maintain political support for the Gripen and endorse the aircraft – Minister of Defense Anders Björck issued a public reassurance that the project was very positive for Sweden.
In relation to the marketing efforts of the Gripen to multiple countries, including South Africa, Austria, the Czech Republic and Hungary, there were reports of widespread bribery and corruption by BAE Systems and Saab. In 2007, Swedish journalists reported that BAE had paid bribes equivalent to millions of dollars, and was followed by investigative reporting on BAE Systems in the UK and South Africa. Following criminal investigations in eight countries, only one individual in Austria, Alfons Mensdorf-Pouilly, was prosecuted for bribery. The scandal tarnished the international reputation of the Gripen, BAE Systems, Saab, and Sweden.
The Gripen's cost has been subject to frequent attention and speculation. In 2008, Saab announced reduced earnings for that year, partly attributing this to increased marketing costs for the aircraft. In 2008, Saab disputed Norway's cost calculations for the Gripen NG as overestimated and in excess of real world performance with existing operators. A 2007 report by the European Union Institute for Security Studies stated the total research and development costs of Gripen to be €1.84 billion. According to a study by Jane's Information Group in 2012, the Gripen's operational cost was the lowest among several modern fighters; its cost was estimated at $4,700 per flight hour. According to the Swedish Ministry of Defense, the cost estimation of the full system, comprising 60 Gripen E/F, amounts to SEK 90 billion distributed over the period 2013–42. The Swedish Armed Forces estimates that the option of maintaining 100 aircraft of the C/D-model until 2042 would cost SEK 60 billion, while the option of buying aircraft from a foreign supplier would cost SEK 110 billion.
A two-seat aircraft, designated "Gripen Demo", was ordered in 2007 as a testbed for various upgrades. It was powered by the General Electric F414G, a development of the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet's engine. The Gripen NG's maximum take off weight was increased from 14,000 to 16,000 kg (30,900–35,300 lb), internal fuel capacity was increased by 40 per cent by relocating the undercarriage, which also allowed for two hardpoints to be added on the fuselage underside. Its combat radius was 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) when carrying six AAMs and drop tanks. The PS-05/A radar is replaced by the new Raven ES-05 active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, which is based on Selex ES's Vixen AESA radar family. The Gripen Demo's maiden flight was conducted on 27 May 2008. On 21 January 2009, the Gripen Demo flew at Mach 1.2 without reheat to test its supercruise capability. The Gripen Demo served as a basis for the Gripen E/F, also referred to as the Gripen NG (Next Generation) and MS 21.
Saab performed study work on an variant of the Gripen capable of operating from aircraft carriers in the 1990s. In 2009, Saab launched the Sea Gripen project in response to India's request for information on a carrier-borne aircraft. Brazil may also potentially require new carrier aircraft. Following a meeting with Ministry of Defence (MoD) officials in May 2011, Saab agreed to establish a development center in the UK to expand on the Sea Gripen concept. In 2013, Saab's Lennart Sindahl stated that development of an optionally-manned version of the Gripen E capable of flying unmanned operations was being explored by the firm; further development of the optionally-manned and carrier versions would require the commitment of a customer.
Sweden awarded Saab a four-year contract in 2010 to improve the Gripen's radar and other equipment, integrate new weapons, and lower its operating costs. In June 2010, Saab stated that Sweden planned to order the Gripen NG, designated as JAS 39E/F, and was to enter service in 2017 or earlier dependent on export orders. On 25 August 2012, following Switzerland's decision to buy 22 of the E/F variants, Sweden announced it planned to buy 40–60 Gripen E/Fs. The Swedish government approved the decision to purchase 60 Gripen Es on 17 January 2013, with the first deliveries pushed back to 2018. In July 2013, assembly began on the first pre-production aircraft. The first flight of the pre-production E aircraft is expected in 2015, with the first production aircraft delivered in 2018. In March 2014 Saab revealed the detailed design and indicated it planned to receive military type certification in early 2018.
The Gripen is a multirole fighter aircraft, intended to be a lightweight and agile aerial platform incorporating advanced, highly-adaptable avionics. It has canard control surfaces which contributes a positive lift force at all speeds, while the generous lift from the delta wing compensates for the rear stabilizer producing negative lift at high speeds, increasing induced drag. By being intentionally instable and employing digital fly-by-wire flight controls to maintain stability; this removes many flight restrictions, improves manoeuvrability, and reduces drag. The Gripen also has good short takeoff performance, being able to maintain a high sink rate and strengthened to withstand the stresses of short landings. The canards can move to help stabilize the aircraft. The Gripen has a pair of air brakes on the sides of the fuselage at the tail; the canards angle downward to act as air brakes and decrease landing distance.
In order to enable the Gripen to have a long service life, projected to be roughly 50 years, the aircraft was designed to have low maintenance requirements; major systems such as the RM12 engine and PS-05/A radar are of a modular construction, this approach was to reduce operating cost and increase reliability. The Gripen was designed to be flexible as it had been anticipated that newly developed sensors, computers, and armaments would need to be integrated as technology advances. The aircraft was estimated to be roughly 67% sourced from Swedish or European suppliers and 33% from the United States.
One key aspect of the Gripen program that Saab have been keen to emphasize has been technology-transfer agreements and industrial partnerships with export customers. The Gripen is typically customized to customer requirements, enabling the routine inclusion of local suppliers in the manufacturing and support processes. A number of South African firms provide components and systems – including the communications suite and electronic warfare systems – for the Gripens operated by South African Air Force. Operators also have access to the Gripen's source code and technical documentation, allowing for upgrades and new equipment to be independently integrated. Some export customers intend to domestically assemble the Gripen; it has been proposed that Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer may produce Gripens for other export customers as well.
Avionics and sensors
All of the Gripen's avionics are fully integrated using total of five MIL-STD 1553B digital data buses, described as 'sensor fusion'. The total integration of the avionics makes the Gripen a "programmable" aircraft, allowing software updates to be introduced over time to increase performance and additional operational roles and equipment. The ADA programming language was adopted for the Gripen, and is used for the primary flight controls on the final prototypes from 1996 onwards and all subsequent production aircraft. The Gripen's software is continuously being improved to add new capabilities, as compared to the preceding Viggen which was updated only in an 18-month schedule.
Much of the data generated from the onboard sensors and by cockpit activity is digitally recorded throughout the length of an entire mission. This information can be replayed in the cockpit or easily extracted for detailed post-mission analysis using a this data transfer unit that can also be used to insert mission data to the aircraft. The Gripen, like the Viggen, was designed to operate as one component of a networked national defence system, which allows for automatic exchange of information in real-time between Gripen aircraft and ground facilities. According to Saab, the Gripen features "the world's most highly developed data link". The Gripen's Ternav tactical navigation system combines information from multiple onboard systems such as the air data computer, radar altimeter, and GPS to continuously calculate the Gripen's location.
The Gripen entered service using the PS-05/A pulse-doppler X-band multi-mode radar, developed by Ericsson and GEC-Marconi, which is based on the latter's advanced Blue Vixen radar for the Sea Harrier that also served as the basis for the Eurofighter's CAPTOR radar. The all-weather radar is capable of locating and identifying targets 120 km (74 mi) away, and automatically tracking multiple targets in the upper and lower spheres, on the ground and sea or in the air. It can guide several beyond visual range air-to-air missiles to multiple targets simultaneously. Saab stated the PS-05/A is able to handle all types of air defense, air-to-surface, and reconnaissance missions.
The future Gripen E/F shall make use of a new active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, Raven ES-05, based on Selex ES's Vixen AESA radar family. Amongst other improvements, the new radar is to be capable of scanning over a greatly increased field of view and improved range. In addition, the new Gripen integrates the Skyward-G infrared search and track (IRST) sensor, which is capable of passively detecting thermal emissions from air and ground targets in the aircraft's vicinity. The sensors of the Gripen E are claimed to be able to detect low-radar-cross-section (RCS) targets at beyond visual range. Targets are tracked by a "best sensor dominates" system, either by onboard sensors or through the Transmitter Auxiliary Unit (TAU) data link function of the radar.
The primary flight controls are compatible with the HOTAS control principle – the centrally mounted stick, in addition to flying the aircraft, also controls the cockpit displays and weapon systems. A triplex, digital fly-by-wire system is employed on the Gripen's flight controls, with a mechanical backup for the throttle. Additional functions, such as communications, navigational and decision support data, can be accessed via the up front control panel, directly above the central cockpit display.
The Gripen includes the EP-17 cockpit display system, developed by Saab to provide pilots with a high level of situational awareness and reduces pilot workload through intelligent information management. The Gripen features a sensor fusion capability, information from onboard sensors and databases is combined, automatically analysed, and useful data is presented to the pilot via a wide field-of-view head-up display, three large multi-function colour displays, and optionally a helmet mounted display system (HMDS).
Of the three multi-function displays (MFD), the central display is for navigational and mission data, the display to the left of the center shows aircraft status and electronic warfare information, and the display to the right of the center has sensory and fire control information. In two-seat variants, the rear seat's displays can be operated independently of the pilot's own display arrangement in the forward seat, Saab has promoted this capability as being useful during electronic warfare and reconnaissance missions, and while carrying out command and control activities. In May 2010, Sweden began equipping their Gripens with additional onboard computer systems and new displays. The MFDs are interchangeable and designed for redundancy in the event of failure, flight information can be presented on any of the displays.
Saab and BAE developed the Cobra HMDS for use in the Gripen, based on the Striker HMDS used on the Eurofighter. By 2008, the Cobra HMDS was fully integrated on operational aircraft, and is available as an option for export customers; it has been retrofitted into older Swedish and South African Gripens. The HMDS provides control and information on target cueing, sensor data, and flight parameters, and is optionally equipped for night time operations and with chemical/biological filtration. All connections between the HMDS and the cockpit were designed for rapid detachment, for safe use of the ejection system.
All in-service Gripens as of January 2014 are powered by the Volvo RM12 turbofan engine, a license-manufactured derivative of General Electric F404 ; changes include increased performance and improved reliability to meet single engine use safety criteria, as well as a greater resistance to bird strike incidents. Several subsystems and components were also redesigned to reduce maintenance demands. By November 2010, the Gripen had accumulated over 143,000 flight hours without a single engine-related failure or incident; Rune Hyrefeldt, head of Military Program management at Volvo Aero, stated "I think this must be a hard record to beat for a single-engine application".
The JAS 39E and F variants currently under development are to adopt the F414G powerplant, a variant of the General Electric F414. The F414G can produce 20% greater thrust than the current RM12 engine, enabling the Gripen to supercruise (maintain speed beyond the sound barrier without the use of afterburners) at a speed of Mach 1.1 while carrying an air-to-air combat payload. In 2010, Volvo Aero stated it was capable of further developing its RM12 engine to better match the performance of the F414G, and claimed that developing the RM12 would be a less expensive option. Prior to Saab's selection of the F414G, the Eurojet EJ200 had also been under consideration for the Gripen; proposed implementations included the use of thrust vectoring.
Equipment and armaments
The Gripen is compatible with a number of different armaments, beyond the aircraft's single 27 mm Mauser BK-27 cannon (deleted on two-seat variants), including air-to-air missiles such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder, air-to-ground missiles such as the AGM-65 Maverick, and anti-ship missiles such as the RBS-15. In 2010, the Swedish Air Force's Gripen fleet completed the MS19 upgrade process, enabling compatibility with a range of weapons, including the long-range MBDA Meteor missile, the short-range IRIS-T missile and the GBU-49 laser-guided bomb. Speaking on the Gripen's selection of armaments, Saab's campaign director for India Edvard de la Motte stated that: "If you buy Gripen, select where you want your weapons from. Israel, Sweden, Europe, US… South America. It’s up to the customer".
In flight, the Gripen is typically capable of carrying up to 14,330 lb (6.50 t) of assorted armaments and equipment. Equipment includes external sensor pods for reconnaissance and target designation, such as Rafale's LITENING targeting pod, Saab's Modular Reconnaissance Pod System, or Thales' Digital Joint Reconnaissance Pod. The Gripen has an advanced and integrated electronic warfare suite, capable of operating in an undetectable passive mode or to actively jam hostile radar; a missile approach warning system passively detects and tracks incoming missiles. Equipment for performing long range missions, such as an aerial refueling probe and onboard oxygen generation system (OBOGS), was integrated upon the Gripen C/D.
Saab describes the Gripen as a "swing-role aircraft", stating that it is capable of "instantly switching between roles at the push of a button". The human/machine interface changes when switching between roles, being optimized by the computer in response to new situations and threats. The Gripen is also equipped to use a number of different communications standards and systems, including SATURN secure radio, Link-16, ROVER, and satellite uplinks.
Usability and maintenance
During the Cold War, the Swedish Armed Forces were to be ready to defend against a possible invasion from the Soviet Union. This scenario required combat aircraft to be dispersed in order to maintain an air defence capacity. Thus, a key design goal during the Gripen's development was the ability to take off from snow-covered landing strips of only 800 metres (2,600 ft); furthermore, a short-turnaround time of just ten minutes, during which a team composed of a technician and five conscripts would be able to re-arm, refuel, and perform basic inspections and servicing inside that time window before returning to flight.
During the design process, great priority was placed on facilitating and minimising aircraft maintenance; in addition to a maintenance-friendly layout, many subsystems and components require little or no maintenance at all. Aircraft are fitted with a Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) that monitors the performance of various systems, and provides information to technicians to assist in servicing it. Saab operates a continuous improvement programme, information from the HUMS and other systems can be submitted for analysis. According to Saab, the Gripen provides "50% lower operating costs than its best competitor".
A 2012 Jane's Aerospace and Defense Consulting study compared the operational costs of a number of modern combat aircraft, concluding that Gripen had the lowest cost per flight hour (CPFH) when fuel used, pre-flight preparation and repair, and scheduled airfield-level maintenance together with associated personnel costs were combined. The next cheapest, the F-16 Block 40/50, had a 49% higher CPFH at an estimated $7,000 per hour.
The Swedish Air Force placed a total order for 204 Gripens in three batches. The first delivery occurred on 8 June 1993, when 39102 was handed over to the Flygvapnet during a ceremony at Linköping; the last was handed over on 13 December 1996. The air force received its first Batch II example on 19 December 1996. Instead of the fixed-price agreement of Batch I, Batch II aircraft were paid as a "target price" concept: any cost under/overruns would be split between FMV and Saab.
The JAS 39 entered service with the F 7 Wing (F 7 Skaraborgs Flygflottilj) on 1 November 1997. The final Batch three aircraft was delivered to FMV on 26 November 2008. This was accomplished at 10% less than the agreed-upon price for the batch, putting the JAS 39C flyaway cost at under US$30 million. This batch of Gripens was equipped for in-flight refuelling by specially equipped TP84s (known internationally as the C-130 Hercules) already in service. In 2007, a programme was started to upgrade 31 of the air force's JAS 39A/B fighters to JAS 39C/Ds. The SAF has a combined 134 JAS 39s in service in January 2013.
On 29 March 2011, the Swedish parliament approved the Swedish Air Force for a 3-month deployment to support the UN-mandated no-fly zone over Libya. Deployment of eight Gripens, ten pilots, and other personnel began on 2 April. Sweden's role to the no-fly zone involved conducting only aerial reconnaissance. On 8 June 2011, the Swedish government announced an agreement to extend the deployment for five of the Gripens. By October 2011, Gripens have flown more than 650 combat missions, almost 2,000 flight hours, and delivered approximately 2,000 reconnaissance reports to NATO. Journalist Tim Hepher suggested that operations over Libya may stimulate sales of several modern aircraft, such as the Gripen.
In November 2012, Lieutenant Colonel Lars Helmrich of the Swedish Air Force testified to the Riksdag regarding the Gripen E. He stated that the current version of the Gripen would be outdated in air to air combat by 2020. With 60 Gripens having been judged to be the minimum required to defend Swedish Airspace, the Swedish Air Force wants to have 60–80 Gripens upgraded to the E/F standard by 2020.
On 25 August 2012, the Swedish government announced that a procurement of 40–60 JAS 39E/F Gripens was expected, and planned to be in service by 2023. On 11 December 2012, the Riksdag approved the purchase of 40 to 60 JAS 39E/Fs, but with an option to cancel if at least 20 aircraft are not ordered by other customers. The government approved the deal for 60 Gripen Es on 17 January 2013, with deliveries scheduled from 2018 to 2027. On 3 March 2014, the Swedish defence minister stated that Swedish Air Force might need to order another 10 Gripen Es.
When the Czech Republic became a NATO member in 1999, the need to replace their existing Soviet-built MiG-21 fleet with aircraft compatible with NATO interoperability standards became apparent. In 2000, the Czech Republic began evaluating a number of aircraft, including the F-16, F/A-18, Mirage 2000, Eurofighter Typhoon and the Gripen. One major procurement condition was the industrial offset agreement, set at 150% of the expected purchase value. In December 2001, having reportedly been swayed by Gripen International's generous financing and offset programme, the Czech Government announced that the Gripen had been selected. In 2002, the deal was delayed until after parliamentary elections had taken place; alternative means of air defense were also studied, including leasing the aircraft.
On 14 June 2004, it was announced that the Czech Republic was to lease 14 Gripen aircraft, modified to comply with NATO standards. The agreement also included the training of Czech pilots and technicians in Sweden. The first six were delivered on 18 April 2005. The lease was for an agreed period of 10 years at a cost of €780 million; the 14 ex-Swedish Air Force aircraft included 12 single-seaters and two JAS 39D two-seat trainers. In September 2013, the Defence and Security Export Agency announced that a follow-up agreement with the Czech Republic had been completed to extend the lease by 14 years, until 2029; the leased aircraft shall also undergo an extensive modernisation process, including the adoption of new datalinks. The lease also has an option of eventually acquiring the fighters outright.
Following Hungary's membership of NATO in 1999, there were several proposals to achieve a NATO-compatible fighter force. Considerable attention went into studying second-hand aircraft options as well as modifying the nation's existing MiG-29 fleet. In 2001, Hungary received several offers of new and used aircraft from various nations, including Sweden, Belgium, Israel, Turkey, and the United States. Although the Hungarian government initially intended to procure the F-16, in November 2001 it was in the process of negotiating a 10-year lease contract for 12 Gripen aircraft, with an option to purchase the aircraft at the end of the lease period.
As part of the procurement arrangements, Saab had offered an offset deal valued at 110 per cent of the cost of the 14 fighters. Initially, Hungary had planned to lease several Batch II aircraft; however, the inability to conduct aerial refuelling and weapons compatibility limitations had generated Hungarian misgivings. The contract was renegotiated and was signed on 2 February 2003 for a total of 14 Gripens, which had originally been A/B standard and had undergone an extensive upgrade process to the NATO-compatible C/D 'Export Gripen' standard. The last aircraft deliveries took place in December 2007.
While the Hungarian Air Force operates a total of 14 Gripen aircraft under lease, in 2011, the country reportedly intended to purchase these aircraft outright. However, in January 2012, the Hungarian and Swedish governments agreed to extend the lease period for a further ten years; according to Hungarian Defence Minister Csaba Hende, the agreement represented considerable cost savings.
In 1999, South Africa signed a contract with BAE/Saab for the procurement of 26 Gripens (C/D standard) with minor modifications to meet their requirements.[verification needed] Deliveries to the South African Air Force commenced in April 2008. By April 2011, 18 aircraft (nine two-seater aircraft and nine single-seaters) had been delivered. While the establishment of a Gripen Fighter Weapon School at Overberg Air Force Base in South Africa had been under consideration, in July 2013 Saab ruled out the option due to a lack of local support for the initiative; Thailand is an alternative location being considered.
Between April 2013 and December 2013, South African contractors held prime responsibility for maintenance work on the Gripen fleet as support contracts with Saab had expired; this arrangement led to fears that extended operations may not be possible due to a lack of proper maintenance. In December 2013, Armscor awarded Saab a long-term support contract for the company to perform engineering, maintenance, and support services on all 26 Gripens through 2016. On 13 March 2013, South African Defense Minister Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula stated that "almost half of the SAAF Gripens" have been stored because of insufficient budget to keep them flying. In September 2013, the SAAF decided not to place a number of its Gripens in long-term storage; instead all 26 aircraft would be rotated between flying cycles and short-term storage. Speaking in September 2013, Brigadier-General John Bayne testified that the Gripen met the SAAF's minimum requirements, as the country faced no military threats.
In 2007, Thailand's Parliament authorized the Royal Thai Air Force to spend up to 34 billion baht (US$1.1 billion) as part of an effort to replace Thailand's existing Northrop F-5 fleet. In February 2008, the Thai Air Force ordered six Gripens (two single-seat C-models and four two-seat D-models) from Saab; deliveries began in 2011. Thailand ordered six more Gripen Cs in November 2010; deliveries began in 2013. Thailand may eventually order as many as 40 Gripens. In 2010, Thailand selected the Surat Thani Airbase as the main operating base for its Gripens. The first of the six aircraft were delivered on 22 February 2011.
Saab delivered three Gripens in April 2013, and three more in September 2013. In September 2013, Air Force Marshal Prajin Jantong stated that Thailand is interested in purchasing six aircraft more in the near future, pending government approval. Thai Supreme Commander General Thanasak Patimapragorn has stated that the air force intends for the Gripen's information systems to be integrated with Army and Navy systems; the armed forces will officially inaugurate the Gripen Integrated Air Defense System during 2014.
Potential and future operators
In October 2008, Brazil selected three finalists for its F-X2 fighter programme: the Dassault Rafale B/C, the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, and the Saab JAS 39E/F Gripen NG. The Brazilian Air Force had initial plans to procure at least 36 and possibly up to 120 later, to replace its Northrop F‐5EM and Dassault Mirage 2000C aircraft. It has been speculated that the Brazilian Navy may be interested in the Sea Gripen to replace its Douglas A-4KU Skyhawk carrier-based fighters.
On 2 February 2009, Saab submitted a tender for 36 Gripen NGs. On 5 January 2010, the media reported that the final evaluation report by the Brazilian Air Force placed the Gripen ahead of the other two contenders. The decisive factor was reportedly the overall cost, both in terms of unit cost, and operating and maintenance costs. Amid delays due to financial constraints, there were reports in 2010 that the Defense Ministry had chosen the Rafale, and reports in 2011 that President Dilma Rousseff had selected the F/A-18. On 18 December 2013, President Roussef announced the selection of the Gripen; a contract for 36 Gripen NG fighters is expected to be finalised in 10–12 months. According to Saab, Brazil is expected to order 28 single-seat (Gripen E) and 8 twin-seat (Gripen F) fighters.
Key factors in the decision were the domestic manufacturing opportunities, participation in the development of the Gripen NG and Sea Gripen, and potential exports to Africa, Asia and Latin America. As the Mirage 2000C fleet was retired in 2013 and Gripen E deliveries are expected to begin in 2018, Brazil intends to lease six to twelve Gripen C aircraft.
In 2007, Denmark signed a Memorandum of Understanding between the Defence Ministers of Sweden and Denmark to evaluate the Gripen as a replacement for Denmark's fleet of 48 F-16s. Denmark also requested the development of Gripen variants featuring more powerful engines, larger payloads, longer range, and additional avionics; this request contributed to Saab's decision to go ahead with development of the Gripen JAS E/F. Denmark has repeatedly delayed the purchase decision; in 2013, Saab indicated that the Gripen was one of four contenders for the Danish purchase. The others are Boeing's Super Hornet, Lockheed Martin's F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, and the Eurofighter. Denmark is a level-3 partner in the JSF programme, and has already invested US$200 million. The final selection will be in mid-2015 where 24 to 30 fighters are expected.
In July 2008, the Netherlands announced it would evaluate Gripen NG together with four other competitors; in response, Saab offered 85 aircraft to the Royal Netherlands Air Force in August 2008. On 18 December 2008, it was reported that the Netherlands had evaluated the F-35 as having a better performance-price relation than the Gripen NG. On 13 January 2009, NRC Handelsblad claimed that, according to Swedish sources, Saab had offered to deliver 85 Gripens for €4.8 billion, including pilot training and maintenance to the Dutch Air Force for 30 years, about 1 billion euro cheaper than budgeted for the F-35.
In January 2008, the Swiss Defence Material Administration invited Gripen International to submit bids to replace the nation's ageing F-5 fleet. Saab responded with an initial proposal on 2 July 2008; other contenders were the Dassault Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon. On 30 November 2011, the Swiss government announced its decision to buy 22 Gripen NG aircraft for 3.1 billion Swiss francs. In 2012, a confidential report of the Swiss Air Force's 2009 tests of the three contenders was leaked, which had rated the Gripen as performing substantially below both the Rafale and the Eurofighter. The Gripen was assessed as satisfactory for reconnaissance but unsatisfactory for combat air patrol and strike missions. The JAS 39C/D had been evaluated, while the Gripen NG had been bid. The parliamentary security commission found that the Gripen offered the most risks, but voted to go ahead as it was the cheapest option.
On 25 August 2012, the plan to order was confirmed by both the Swedish and Swiss authorities. The aircraft are expected to be delivered from 2018 to 2021 at a fixed price of CHF 3.126 billion ($3.27 billion) which includes development costs, mission planning systems, initial spares and support, training, and certification. The Swedish government also guaranteed the price, performance and operational suitability of the aircraft. 8 JAS 39Cs and 3 JAS 39Ds are to be leased from 2016 to 2020 to train Swiss pilots and allow the retirement of the F-5s. In 2013, Saab moved to increase Swiss industry offsets above 100% of the deal value after the Swiss parliament's upper house voted down the deal's financing. On 27 August 2013, the National Council's Security Commission approved the purchase, followed by the approval of the lower and upper houses of the parliament in September 2013. A national referendum on the order is to be held on 18 May 2014; analysts expected it to pass, even if a question of Swedish interference in the vote arose.
Saab's Head of exports Eddy de La Motte has stated that the Gripen's chances have improved as nations waver in their commitments to the F-35. Richard Aboulafia of the Teal Group has attributed difficulty securing export sales to the Swedish government's inability to offer the same sort of strategic partnership as some rival aircraft manufacturing nations. Speaking in September 2013, Saab's CEO Håkan Buskhe stated that he envisioned Gripen sales to reach 400 or 450 aircraft.
The Gripen was a contender for the Indian MRCA competition for 126 multirole combat aircraft. In April 2008, Gripen International offered the Next Generation Gripen for India's tender and opened an office in New Delhi in order to support its efforts in the Indian market. On 4 February 2009, Saab announced that it had partnered with India's Tata Group to develop the new Gripen variant to fit India's needs.
The Indian Air Force (IAF) conducted extensive field trials and evaluated Gripen's flight performance, logistics capability, weapons systems, advanced sensors and weapons firing. In April 2011, the IAF rejected Gripen's bid in favour of the Eurofighter Typhoon and the Dassault Rafale. Senior Indian Air Force officials, while happy with the improved capabilities of Gripen NG, identified its high reliance on US-supplied hardware, including electronics, weaponry and the GE F414 engine, as a factor that may hamper its export potential.
The Gripen C/D was one of contenders in competition for 48 new multirole fighters for the Polish Air Force started in 2001, the government previously planned to purchase 64 F-16A/B MLU. On 27 December 2002, the Polish Defence Minister announced the selection of the F-16C/D Block 50/52+. The third candidate was the Dassault Mirage 2000-5 Mk 2. According to Stephen Larrabee, the choice to go with the F-16 was heavily influenced by a lucrative offset agreement by Lockheed Martin, and the political emphasis placed on the strategic relationship between Poland, the US, and NATO. The Lockheed Martin's offer was valued at $3.5 billion and 170% offset, while the Swedish-British bid at €3.2 billion with 146% offset. Both Gripen International and Dassault Aviation described the decision as political. According to a former Polish military defence vice-minister, the JAS 39 offer was better, and had included research participation proposals.
On 18 January 2008, the Norwegian Ministry of Defence issued a Request for Binding Information (RBI) to the Swedish Defence Material Administration, who responded in April 2008 with an offer for 48 Gripens. On 20 November 2008, the Norwegian government announced that the F-35 Lightning II had been selected for the Royal Norwegian Air Force, stating that the F-35 is the only candidate meeting all of its operational requirements; media reports have claimed the requirements were tilted in the F-35's favour.
Saab and the Swedish defence minister Sten Tolgfors have criticised the selection, stating that there were flaws in Norway's cost calculations for the Gripen NG. The offer was for 48 aircraft over 20 years, but Norway had extrapolated it to operating 57 aircraft over 30 years, thus doubling the cost; Norway's operational cost projections also failed to relate to the operational costs of Sweden's Gripens. Norway also calculated with more attrition losses than what Sweden considered reasonable. According to Tolgfors, Norway's decision would complicate further export deals for the Gripen. In December 2010 leaked United States diplomatic cables revealed that the United States deliberately delayed Sweden's request for access to a US AESA radar until after Norway's selection. The cables also indicated that Norwegian consideration of the Gripen "was just a show" and that Norway had decided to purchase the F-35 due to "high-level political pressure" from the US.
- JAS 39A: initial version that entered service with the Swedish Air Force in 1996. A number have been upgraded to the C standard.
- JAS 39B: two-seat version of the 39A for tactical weapons training, more specialised missions and type conversion[clarification needed]. To fit the second crew member and life support systems, the internal cannon and one internal fuel tank were removed and the airframe lengthened 0.66 m (2 ft 2 in).
- JAS 39C: NATO-compatible version of Gripen with extended capabilities in terms of armament, electronics, etc. Can be refuelled in flight.
- JAS 39D: two-seat version of the 39C, with similar alterations as the 39B.
- Gripen NG: improved version tested with the two-seat technology demonstrator, named Gripen Demo, for the NG program. Changes from the JAS 39C/D are the more powerful F414G engine, Raven ES-05 AESA radar, increased fuel capacity and payload, two additional hardpoints, and other improvements.
- JAS 39E: single-seat production version developed from the Gripen NG program. Sweden has ordered the variant, with Switzerland and Brazil expected to place orders.
- JAS 39F: proposed two-seat version of the E variant. Eight to be ordered by Brazil.
- Sea Gripen: proposed carrier-based version based on the Gripen NG; its development was underway in 2011.
- Gripen UCAV: proposed unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) variant of the Gripen E.
- Czech Republic
- The Czech Air Force has 14 Gripens on lease; these include 12 single-seat C models and two two-seat D models, in operation in January 2013.
- The Hungarian Air Force operates 14 Gripens (12 C-models and two D-models) on a lease-and-buy arrangement as of January 2013.
- South Africa
- The South African Air Force (SAAF) ordered 26 aircraft; 17 single-seat C-models and nine two-seater D-models. The first delivery, a two-seater, took place on 30 April 2008. The South African Air Force has nine single-seaters and nine two-seaters in use as of January 2013.
- The Swedish Air Force originally ordered 204 aircraft, including 28 two-seaters. Sweden leases 28 of the aircraft, to the Czech and Hungarian Air Forces. The SwAF has 134 JAS 39s, including 50 JAS 39As, 13 JAS 39Bs, 60 JAS 39Cs and 11 JAS 39D Gripens in inventory in January 2013, with approximately 100 JAS 39C/D Gripens in operational use (including 31 A models refitted to the C level). The 60 original JAS 39Cs are to be retrofitted to the E level by 2023.
- The Royal Thai Air Force has ordered 12 JAS 39 Gripens (eight single-seat JAS 39C and four JAS 39D two-seaters). It had six JAS 39s, including four JAS 39Cs, and two JAS 39Ds in use as of January 2013. Nine were delivered in April 2013. Another three were delivered in September 2013. On 18 October, the Thai government announced their intentions to purchase another six Gripens.
- United Kingdom
- The Empire Test Pilots' School operates Gripens for training. ETPS instructor pilots and students undergo simulator training with the Swedish Air Force, and go on to fly the two-seater Gripen at Saab in Linköping, in two training campaigns per year (Spring and Autumn). The agreement was renewed in 2008.
Aircraft on display
- Second prototype JAS 39-2 is on display at the Swedish Air Force Museum, Linköping.
- Single seat JAS 39 serial 39113 is displayed at the F 7 Såtenäs wing.
- The Swedish government has donated one Swedish Air Force JAS 39A to Thailand for display at the Royal Thai Air Force Museum in Don Mueang, Bangkok.
Accidents and incidents
The first two crashes, in 1989 and 1993 respectively, occurred during public displays of the Gripen and resulted in considerable negative reporting in media. The first crash was filmed by a Sveriges Television news crew and led to calls from previous critics of the project to cancel development altogether. The second crash resulted in a minor scandal since it occurred during the 1993 Stockholm Water Festival in central Stockholm with tens of thousands of spectators present. A human tragedy was narrowly avoided as the aircraft crashed in an empty area on the island of Långholmen. The pilot ejected unscathed, but one woman was hospitalized for burns and 14 other individuals reported injuries of a "psychological nature". There was public criticism of the decision to display the Gripen over large crowds, and it was compared to the 1989 crash. Both the 1989 and 1993 crashes were related to flight control software issues.
Specifications (JAS 39C/D Gripen)
|A detailed and labeled cutaway drawing of the Gripen from Saab|
- Crew: 1 (2 for JAS 39D)
- Payload: 5,300 kg (11,700 lb)
- Length: 14.1 m (46 ft 3 in); two-seater: 14.8 m (48 ft 5 in)
- Wingspan: 8.4 m (27 ft 7 in)
- Height: 4.5 m (14 ft 9 in)
- Wing area: 30.0 m² (323 ft²)
- Empty weight: 6,800 kg (12,600 lb)
- Loaded weight: 8,500 kg (18,700 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 14,000 kg (31,000 lb)
- Powerplant: 1 × Volvo RM12 afterburning turbofan
- Wheel track: 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in)
- Maximum speed: Mach 2 (2,204 km/h, 1,372 mph) at high altitude
- Combat radius: 800 km (497 mi, 432 nmi)
- Ferry range: 3,200 km (1,983 mi) with drop tanks
- Service ceiling: 15,240 m (50,000 ft)
- Wing loading: 283 kg/m² (58 lb/ft²)
- Thrust/weight: 0.97
- Guns: 1× 27 mm Mauser BK-27 Revolver cannon with 120 rounds (single-seat models only)
- Hardpoints: 8 (three on each wing and two under fuselage) and provisions to carry combinations of:
- Rockets: 4× rocket pods, 13.5 cm rockets
- Related lists
- Comprising 204 (30 Batch I, 110 Batch II, 64 Batch III) Gripens delivered to Sweden, 26, South Africa, and 12, Thailand. This figure does not include those of the Empire Test Pilots School, or Czech and Hungarian Gripens, with the latter two having received ex-Swedish Air Force aircraft. Five development aircraft were built.
- The Defense Material Agency reported 99 billion Swedish krona for the program between 1982 and 2009, including expenses for weapons and simulators.
- IHS Jane's reports the unit cost as between US$50 and $60 million (2008 dollars).
- Literally "the Griffin", as the names of Swedish aircraft are in the definite form, like Viggen or Draken.
- Griffin is the symbolic animal on the coat of arms of Östergötland, the province in which Saab AB is headquartered (Linköping).
- "Sticker Shock: Estimating the Real Cost of Modern Fighter Aircraft" (PDF). Defense-Aerospace (communiqué). 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- Caffrey, Craig (11 June 2008). "Why 2009 could be the year of the Gripen". Defence, security report (analysis). Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on 16 September 2012.
- Nilsson, Axel (13 Jan 2012). "JAS 39 Gripen − Milestones". Projects. Swedish Defence Materiel Administration. Retrieved 12 Feb 2014. "Gripen is the Swedish word for Griffin"
- "Gripen Multirole Fighter: In Use". Saab. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "‘Super-Jas’ costlier than expected: report". The Local (SE). 27 July 2012. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Frawley 2002, p. 147.
- Altaya 2011, Características especiais: ‘O Gripen foi concebido conforme as diretivas da força aérea sueca – a Base 90 – que previa a utilização de pistas rudimentares de 800 m de comprimento e 9 m de largura… [The Gripen was conceived according to the Base 90 Swedish Air Force directives that foresaw the use of rudimentary runways 800m long and 9 m wide…]’
- Spick 2000, pp. 426–27.
- Björeman 2009, pp. 139–49.
- "Om anslaget Flygvapenförband: Forskning och utveckling" [On the appropriation Air Force First Aid: Research and development] (government bill) (in Swedish). SE: Riksdagen. 1977/78. 95.
- Williams 2003, p. 72.
- Green & Swanborough 1987, p. 225.
- JAS 39A, B 1992–, NU: SMB
- Williams 2003, p. 73.
- Cross 1986, p. 27.
- "Gripen: The Story So Far". Gripen International. Saab. Archived from the original on 27 January 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2010. "Swedish Parliament approves the program for the development of a new fighter aircraft"
- Flight International 1983, p. 64.
- Webster, "Blazon", Dictionary (definition) (online ed.), retrieved 20 July 2011
- Williams 2003, p. 88.
- Keijsper 2003, p. 12.
- Winchester 2004, p. 216.
- Flight International 1988, p. 3.
- Gaines 1989, p. 4.
- Flight International 1989, p. 3.
- Keijsper 2003, pp. 12, 21.
- Matláry & Ø̈sterud 2007, p. 150.
- Forsberg 1994, p. 223.
- Altaya 2011, Diversas versões ¶1a: “A necessidade de adaptar o Gripen às especificidades da Otan, para estimular as vendas no estrangeiro, levou ao desenvolvimento de uma nova versão chamada ‘Turbo Gripen’. Assim, o novo JAS 39C passou a fazer parte de um terceiro lote de produção [The need to adapt the Gripen to the Otan specificities, to stimulate foreign sales, led to the development of a new version called ‘Turbo Gripen’. Thus, the new JAS 39C became part of a third production batch]…”
- Altaya 2011, Diversas versões ¶1b: ‘A força aérea sueca foi progressivamente equipada com o monolugar JAS 39C a partir de setembro de 2002 [The Swedish air force was progressively equipped with the JAS 39C monoplace from September 2002].’
- Bjarke, Louise Wileen (27 November 2008). "Stark milstolpe av Gripenprojektet" [Strong milestone by the Gripen project] (press release) (in Swedish). Swedish Defence Materiel Administration. Retrieved 12 Feb 2013. "Kostnaden för hela delserien om 64 flygplan blev hela 1500 miljoner lägre än vad som avtalats […] nya vapensystem, spaningssensorer och förbättrad förmåga att samverka med andra nationer [The cost of whole series of 64 aircraft became 1.5 billion lower than what has been agreed […] new weapons systems, reconnaissance sensors and improved ability to interact with other nations]."
- Lorell 2002, p. 147.
- Eliasson 2010, p. 256.
- Lorell 2002, pp. 147–48.
- Reece, Damian (8 December 2004). "BAE cuts Saab stake after Gripen revamp". The Independent. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- Page, Lewis (20 June 2011). "Saab fingers BAE over South African fighter deal". The Register. United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Gripen – agreement in Norway" (Press release). Saab. 26 April 2007. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "Sweden 'tricked' in failed Norway Gripen bid". The Local (SE). 3 December 2010. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Gripen – A Catalyst for Danish Industry" (Press release). Saab. 4 December 2007. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "JAS-projektet" [JAS project]. P3 Dokumentär (radio broadcast) (in Swedish). Sveriges Radio. 23 March 2008. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013.
- "Regeringens proposition 1982/83:119 om riktlinjer för JAS-projektet" [on guidelines for the JAS project] (government bill) (in Swedish) (119). SE: Riksdagen. 1982–83.
- Björeman 2009, pp. 137–49.
- Brändström 2003, pp. 61, 72.
- Brändström 2003, pp. 57–62.
- Brändström 2003, pp. 58–62, 72–73.
- Leigh, David; Evans, Rob (7 February 2010). "BAE chiefs 'linked to bribes conspiracy'". The Observer (United Kingdom: The Guardian). Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013. "…lawyers for the Serious Fraud Office described what they said were BAE's systematic methods for making corrupt payments to foreign politicians and officials."
- Ekman, Ivar (11 May 2007). "Sweden's squeaky-clean image sullied by scandals". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "Greven som sätter punkt för JAS-härvan" [Count which closes the JAS-scandal] (in Swedish). SE: SVT. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Call for new South African arms deal investigation". News (United Kingdom: BBC). 17 June 2011. Archived from the original on 23 December 12. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Hawks reveals Arms deal bombshell". The Sunday Times (ZA). 31 July 2011. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- Lindstroem, Jakob; Rothwell, Steve (5 September 2008). Jasper, Chris, ed. "Saab Says ‘Turmoil’ in Swedish Budget Hurts Earnings". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- Hoyle, Craig (10 December 2008). "Saab launches attack on Norway's 'faulty' fighter analysis". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "Lessons learned from European defence equipment programmes" (PDF). Occasional Paper (69). European Union Institute for Security Studies. October 2007. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013.
- Joshi, Saurabh (4 July 2012). "Gripen operational cost lowest of all western fighters: Jane's". Strat Post. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- "Försvaret: Minst 60 Super-Jas behövs" [Defense: At least 60 Super-Jas needed]. Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish) (SE). 17 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Gripen Demo − Trail-blazing the future" (Press release). Saab. 19 June 2007. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Hoyle, Craig (23 April 2008). "Pictures: Saab reveals Gripen Demo aircraft". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Hoyle, Craig (25 April 2008). "Saab's Demo aircraft to highlight Gripen NG capabilities". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Gripen NG for the RNLAF" (PDF). JSF nieuws. Netherlands. August 2008. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- Schaerlaeckens, Leander (16 April 2009). "Gripen NG to carry new Finmeccanica-Selex radar". United Press International. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2010.
- Trimble, Stephen (7 July 2012). "Saab Gripen features new AESA radar". Flightglobal. Farnborough. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Saab's maiden flight with Gripen Demo" (Press release). Saab. 27 May 2007. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Hoyle, Craig (22 January 2009). "Saab celebrates 'supercruise' test success for Gripen Demo". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Sweetman, William ‘Bill’ (14 June 2010). "New Gripen Firms Up". Aviation Week. New York: Penton Media. ISSN 0005-2175. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- "Brazilian embarking upon F‐X2 fighter program". Defense Industry Daily. 7 April 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- Hoyle, Craig (14 May 2011). "Saab to complete Sea Gripen design work in UK". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Pocock, Chris; Donald, David (19 June 2013). "Defense Primes Discuss Fighter Updates at Paris 2013". AIN Online. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Sweden; Saab mulls development of Gripen UCAV". Defense Market Intelligence. 21 June 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Hoyle, Craig (16 March 2010). "Sweden funds new weapons, radar boost for Saab Gripen". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Switzerland Replacing Old F-5 Fighters with New Gripen". Defense Industry Daily. 12 September 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Hoyle, Craig (17 January 2013). "Swedish government approves 60-aircraft Gripen E programme". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- "Swedish government OKs purchase of 60 Saab Gripen jets". Reuter. 17 January 2013. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Donald, David (12 July 2013). "Gripen Fires Production Meteor; Gripen E Assembly Begins". AIN online. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- Hoyle, Craig (13 March 2014). "Saab reveals full Gripen E design, cost savings". Flight global. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Karlsson, Arne (1998), Kompendium till 4E1201 Flygteknik [Compendium to 4E1201 Aeronautical Engineering] (in Swedish), SE: KTH.
- Lindqvist & Widfeldt 2003, pp. 50–60, 133–37.
- "Technical Specifications". Gripen fighter system. Saab. 3 January 2013. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
- Green & Swanborough 1987, pp. 227–28.
- Williams 2003, pp. 81–82.
- Eliasson 2010, p. 125.
- "Fighter Aircraft Design: Then and Now". Gripen (blog). Saab. 10 December 2013. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Tran, Pierre (15 July 2008). "Buy Now, Save a Bundle on the F-35". Defense News. Springfield, VA: Gannett Government Media. ISSN 0884-139X.
- "Gripen and Switzerland: Industrial Partnership". Saab. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- Henk 2006, p. 73.
- "Facts on the Bilateral Cooperation Program between Thailand and Sweden by the Swedish Government" (PDF). Ministry for Foreign Affairs (Sweden). Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Trevisani, Paulo (20 December 2013). "New Gripen Fighter to Be Built at Brazil-Based Plant, Saab Executive Says". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- O'Dwyer, Gerald (24 December 2013). "Swedish Government Looks to Add Value to Gripen-E Sale Talks". Defense News. Springfield, VA: Gannett Government Media. ISSN 0884-139X. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Frédriksen 2001, p. 280.
- Frisberg 1998, p. 288.
- "Mission" (PDF). The Gripen. Saab. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Ep-17 Gripen Display System". Saab. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Eliasson 2010, p. 126.
- Sherman, Ron (1 October 2002). "The Gripen's NATO-ized Nins". Aviation Today. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Lake 2008, p. 2.
- Williams 2003, p. 74.
- Signal 1994, p. 32.
- Joshi, Saurabh (10 September 2009). "Gripen hardsells new AESA radar, low cost for MMRCA". Strat Post. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2010.
- "Other Sensors". The Gripen Solution. Saab. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- "Gripen Sensors Claim Counter-Stealth Performance", Aviation week, 17 March 2014.
- Lundqvist, Anders (31 October 2007). "Saab History of Aircraft Data Links" (PDF). Smart lab. SE: Saab. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "PS 05/A – Fighter Radar Total Situation Awareness". Saab. 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Reaktionsmotor 12 – både vacker och stark" [Reaction Engine 12 – both beautiful and strong]. Tech World (in Swedish). IDG. 8 January 2013. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014.
- "Human Machine Interface" (JPEG). The Gripen (product sheet). Saab. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Saab to develop new Gripen avionics". United Press International. 26 May 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Larsson & Ekrot 2008, p. 1.
- Larsson & Ekrot 2008, pp. 2, 4.
- Flight International 1994, p. 15.
- "Gripen surpasses 100,000 flight hours – Volvo Aero’s engine safest in the world". Volvo Aero. 31 January 2008. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Karlberg, Lars Anders (19 November 2010). "Volvo vill trimma Gripens motor" [Volvo wants to trim the Gripen's engine]. Ny Teknik (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 10 January 2014.
- "Eurojet aims EJ200 variant at thrust vectored Gripen". Flightglobal. 27 May 1998. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Hoyle, Craig (7 October 2008). "NATO exercises test Gripen credentials". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Waligorski, Martin (April 2000). "JAS 39 Gripen in Detail – Underwing Stores and Armament". IPMS (Stockholm). Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2006.
- The View from Sweden. "Saab Gripen". Combat Aircraft Monthly (supplement) (Shepperton, Middlesex: Ian Allan Publishing). December 2010.
- "Litening III targeting pod". South African Air Force. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- "Survivability". The Gripen Solution. Saab. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "Versions". The Gripen Solution. Saab. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "Communications". The Gripen Solution. Saab. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- Spick 2000, p. 426.
- Williams 2003, p. 82.
- Chant & Taylor 1999, p. 48.
- "Maintenance Ground Support System". Saab. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- Sandberg, Anna; Strömberg, Ulrika (1999). "Gripen: with focus on availability, performance and life support cost over the product life cycle". Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering 5 (4): 325–35. ISSN 1355-2511.
- "Gripen uses Dubai as launchpad for world sales". Flight daily news. Flightglobal. 7 December 2003. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 2014 Jan 19. "…the 204 Gripens on order from the Royal Swedish Air Force"
- Elliott 1993, p. 30: ‘The first Saab JAS 39 Gripen for the Swedish air force was handed over to the Defence Material Administration on the 8 June at Saab's Linkoping site.’
- Keijsper 2003, p. 30.
- Eden 2004, p. 390.
- Spick 2000, p. 431.
- "Contract Finalized on Gripen’s Future" (Press release). Saab. 17 October 2007. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- World Military Aircraft Inventory. "2013 Aerospace". Aviation Week & Space Technology (New York: Penton Media). January 2013. ISSN 0005-2175.
- Hoyle, Craig (4 April 2011). "Libya: Sweden sends Gripens to join Unified Protector". Flight international. Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013. "A lead package of three JAS 39 Gripen C single-seat fighters left Ronneby air base in Sweden on 2 April and arrived in Sigonella later the same day […] The remaining five Gripens arrived at Sigonella the following day, with the Swedish air force expecting to declare its aircraft operationally ready on 6 April. […] Up to 130 Swedish personnel will be involved, including 10 Gripen pilots."
- "Sweden reaches new deal on Libya mission". The Local (SE). 8 June 2011. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Silwer, Anders (24 October 2011). "Sista uppdraget över Libyen" [Last mission over Libya]. Flygvapenbloggen (Air Force Inspector) (in Swedish). SE. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013.
- Hepher, Tim (4 April 2011). "How Libya is a showcase in the new arms race" (special report). Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Kleja, Monica (8 November 2013). "Gripen has to be modernized to meet air battles". Ny Teknik. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Öppen utfrågning om nästa generation JAS Gripen" [Open hearing on the next generation of the JAS Gripen] (in Swedish). SE: Riksdagen. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Det här tjänar skattebetalarna på" [This serves taxpayers] (in Swedish). SE: SVT. 28 August 2012. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013.
- "Swedish jet fighter maker Saab receives order to upgrade jets". Europe Online. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Försvarsministern vill miljardsatsa på flygvapnet" (Defence Minister wants a billion bet on the Air Force).
- "Tjeckien tar in JAS-offert" [Czech Republic receives the JAS quote]. Dagens Industri (in Swedish). 17 October 2000. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Spreen 2007, p. 77.
- "Tjeckien stoppar Jas-köp" [Czech Republic concludes Jas buy]. Dagens Industri (in Swedish). 13 September 2002. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "Tjeckien leasar Jas" [Czech leases Jas]. Dagens Industri (in Swedish). 16 June 2004. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Bjarke, Louise Wileen (2005-08-31). "Gripenleverans klar på rekordtid" [Gripen delivery ready in record time] (press release) (in Swedish). Defence Materiel Administration (Sweden). Retrieved 2014-02-12. "Den första leveransen, av sex flygplan, skedde den 18 april… [The delivery of the first six aircraft took place on 18 April…]"
- "Czechs to extend Swedish Gripen fighter jet lease". Hosted news (Google). Agency France-Presse. 26 August 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- The Gripen Family. "Saab Gripen". Combat Aircraft Monthly (supplement) (Shepperton, Middlesex: Ian Allan Publishing). December 2010.
- "Tjeckien: Ja till Gripen" [Czech Republic: No Gripen]. Ny Teknik (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- "Ungern på väg rata JAS" [Hungary on the road rata JAS]. Dagens Industri (in Swedish). 28 August 2001. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "Jas-avtalet värt 5 mdr" [Jas agreement worth 5 billion]. Dagens Industri (in Swedish). 12 November 2011. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Larrabee 2003, p. 24.
- Stohl & Grillot 2009, p. 46.
- Larrabee 2003, p. 25.
- "Stridsflygplan JAS 39 C/D" [Fighter aircraft JAS 39C/D] (in Swedish). Försvarsmakten. 21 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-01-20. Retrieved 12 Feb 2014.
- "Gripen överlämnad till Ungern" [Gripen handed over to Hungary]. Hällekis‐Kuriren (press release) (in Swedish). Defence Materiel Administration (Sweden). 2006-03-30. Retrieved 2014-02-12. "…nio flygplanen kommer att ske successivt fram till december 2007 […nine aircraft will take place in stages up until December 2007]."
- "Indien vill inte ha Gripen" [India does not want Gripen]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014.
- "Sweden approves 10-year extension of Hungary Gripen lease". BBJ (HU). 24 January 2012. "The government of Sweden approved and ratified a ten-year extension of Hungary’s lease of Gripen fighter aircraft last week, daily Nepszabadsag said on Tuesday. […] Hungarian Defence Minister Csaba Hende said earlier that extending the lease until 2026 would save the state HUF 63bn."
- Hoyle, Craig (8 May 2008). "South Africa fields first Gripen fighter". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Wingrin, Dean (10 April 2011). "SAAF takes delivery of three more Gripens". Defence Web. ZA. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Jennings, Gareth (17 July 2013). "Lack of 'positive response' forces Saab to axe South Africa-based Gripen school". Jane's. (subscription required (. ))
- Martin, Guy (17 July 2013). "SAAF has no Gripen support contract". ZA: Defence Web. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "SAAF receives Gripen support contract", Defence Web (ZA), 20 December 2013.
- Hartley, Wyndham (13 March 2013). "Almost Half of SA’s Gripens ‘in Storage’". Business Day (ZA). Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Heitman, Helmoed-Römer (5 September 2013). "SAAF to rotate Gripens". Jane’s. Retrieved 18 December 2013. (subscription required (. ))
- "Arms Deal Commission hears fighter jets met Air Force requirements". ZA: SABC. 2 September 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Keck, Zackary (13 September 2013). "Thailand's Air Force: A Leading Power in ASEAN?". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Hoyle, Craig (15 February 2008). "Thailand signs contract for six Saab Gripen fighters". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Hoyle, Craig (23 November 2010). "Thailand signs for more Gripen fighters, anti-ship missiles". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Acharya 2009, p. 163.
- "Signing of Gripen 39 C/D Purchase Agreement" (PDF). Royal Thai Air Force. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- Waldron, Greg (23 February 2011). "Thailand's first six Gripens arrive in Asia". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "Gripenplan träffades av blixtnedslag" [Gripen aircraft was hit by lightning]. Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish) (SE). 5 September 2013. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "Thailand vill köpa fler Gripen" [Thailand wants to buy more Gripen]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). SE. 22 October 2013. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Gripen for ETPS, Partnership for Excellence". Saab. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- Trimble, Stephen (6 October 2008). "Brazil names three finalists for F-X2 contract, rejects three others". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Le Brésil choisit le Gripen E" [Brazil chooses the Gripen E], 24 heures (in French) (CH), 18 December 2013.
- "Saab wins Brazil's F-X2 fighter contest with Gripen NG". Flightglobal. 18 December 2013. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Jennings, Gareth (18 December 2013), "Brazilian F‐X2 gives fresh impetus to Saab’s Sea Gripen concept", Jane's Defence Weekly (London: Jane’s)
- "Saab offers Gripen to Brazil" (Press release). Saab. 2 February 2009. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- "FAB prefere caça sueco a francês" [Brazilian air force prefers Swedish fighter to French]. Folha de São Paulo (in Portuguese) (Folha da Manhã). 5 January 2010. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- "Mantega diz que país não tem dinheiro para comprar caças" [Mantega says the country has no money to buy fighters]. Economia (in Portuguese) (UOL). 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "Amorim espera decisão de caça no 1º semestre" [Amorim awaits decision on fighter in the first semester] (in Portuguese). Reuters. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "Após redução de preço, Lula e Jobim teriam escolhido Rafale" [After price reduction, Lula and Jobim would have chosen Rafale]. Notícias (in Portuguese) (Terra). 4 February 2010. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Le Brésil préfère le F-18 au Rafale de Dassault" [Brazil prefers the F‐18 to Dassault’s Rafale]. Le Parisien (in French). 9 February 2011. Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Após mais de dez anos, Dilma escolhe caças suecos para a FAB" [After more than 10 years, Dilma chooses swedish fighters to FAB]. Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese) (Folha da manhã). 18 December 2013. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Coelho, Janet Tappin (4 February 2014), "Saab confirms twin seat Gripen F development for Brazil", IHS Defence Weekly (Rio de Janeiro: Jane’s), retrieved 12 Feb 2014, "Saab has confirmed to IHS Jane's that Brazil's aerospace industry will be given the opportunity to develop a two-seater version of the Gripen NG".
- "Rio 2016 Olympics: Sweden to lend Brazil fighter jets". India Today (Rio de Janeiro). 21 December 2013. "The jets will be loaned to Brazil by the Swedish Air Force, since the 36 purchased won't be ready for delivery until 2023 […] Company Vice President Lennart Sindahl, in an interview with Brazilian daily O Globo, said Saab will set up a factory in São Jose dos Campos, São Paulo state, to produce the Gripen jets. According to Sindahl, after manufacturing the 36 jets bought by Brazil, the plant could go on to build planes for export to Latin America, Africa and Asia."
- "New Gripen variants studied by Saab". Flightglobal. 27 June 2006. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Fighter jet decision postponed – again". The Copenhagen Post. 22 October 2009. Archived from the original on 23 October 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
- "Saab says Gripen in running for Danish fighter deal". Economic Times (IN). 15 March 2013. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013.
- O’Dwyer, Gerard (2013-09-01), "Denmark Prioritizes Jobs in New Fighter Competition", Defense News (Helsinki), "…when the Danish government convenes to select a replacement […] for its aging F-16 fleet in mid-2015. […] expected to purchase 24 to 30 new fighters […] Denmark has so far invested around $200 million in the JSF development…"
- "Holland utvärderar Gripen" [Holland evaluates Gripen]. Dagens Industri (in Swedish). 7 July 2008. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009.
- "The Netherlands shows interest in Gripen" (Press release). Saab. 25 August 2008. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Trimble, Stephen (19 December 2008). "Dutch military report ranks F-35 superior to rivals". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "De Vries: JSF is beter dan Gripen" [De Vries: JSF is better than Gripen]. Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (in Dutch). 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009.
- "Saab verrast met prijs opvolger F-16" [Saab surprises with price for F-16 successor]. NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). 13 January 2009. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- O'Dwyer, Gerald (24 January 2008). "Gripen Invited to Tender for Swiss Contract". Defense News. Springfield, VA: Gannett Government Media. ISSN 0884-139X. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- Tran, Pierre (14 July 2008). "Saab's Gripen Flies Out for Swiss Trials". Defense News. Springfield, VA: Gannett Government Media. ISSN 0884-139X.
- Wall, Robert (11 November 2009). "Updated Swiss Fighter Bids Are In". Aviation Week (New York: Penton Media). ISSN 0005-2175.
- "Schweiz köper 22 Jas Gripen" [Switzerland buys 22 JAS Gripen] (in Swedish). SE: Sveriges Television. 30 November 2011. Archived from the original on 1 December 2011.
- "Sweden to buy 40–60 next generation Saab Gripen jets". Reuters. 25 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Oppliger, C, Lt Col GS (November 2009). "SAF/OT&E Flight Test Effectiveness Report NFA Evaluation 2008/2009" (PDF). Newsnetz. CH: SAF. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- Plattner, Titus (12 February 2012). "Ce qu’Ueli Maurer a caché" [What Ueli Maurer hid]. Le Matin (in French). Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Switzerland Puts Gripen To The Test". Space War. 14 August 2008. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- "Swiss Fighter Jet Purchase to Go Ahead Despite Criticism". Defense News. Springfield, VA: Gannett Government Media. Agency France-Presse. 21 August 2012. ISSN 0884-139X. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Schweiz vidare med Gripen-affär" [Switzerland moves forward with Gripen deal]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish) (SE). 25 August 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Sweden to lend Gripen fighters to Switzerland". The Local (SE). AFP. 29 June 2012. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Die Schweiz entscheidet sich für einen Schweden" [Swizerland decides for Sweden]. Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in German). 30 November 2011. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Trimble, Stephen (30 November 2011). "Swiss selection makes Saab Gripen an export 'ace'". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Saab Pledges Swiss Production As Eyes Fighter Jet Deal". Reuters. 2 April 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Nationalratskommission sagt Ja zum Gripen" [National Commission says yes to the Gripen]. Tages-Anzeiger (in German) (CH). 27 August 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Der Gripen gewinnt an Flughöh" [The Gripen gains flight altitude] (in German). CH: Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen. 11 September 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Le Conseil national accepte de libérer 3 milliards pour le Gripen" [The national Council agrees to liberate 3 billions for the Gripen] (in French). CH: RTS Info. 11 September 2013. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Hoyle, Craig (18 November 2013). "Sweden hopes to avoid Swiss referendum on Gripen E". Flightglobal. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- The Referendum is Scheduled for 18 May (press release), Saab, 17 January 2014, "Switzerland’s Federal Council has today announced that a national public referendum is to be held 18 May concerning the procurement of Gripen E."
- Hoyos, Carola (2013-09-29), "Saab chief says low price tag makes Gripen jets stand out from rivals", The Financial Times, retrieved 2014-02-14, "Saab […] persuaded the Swiss government to opt for [the] Gripen […] Though the purchase must still be approved by public referendum, most analysts expect the deal to go through."
- "Swiss party tells Sweden to butt out over Gripen". The local. SE: The Local Europe. 16 February 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014. "In an open letter on their website Switzerland's Christian Democrats said they could no longer spearhead the yes vote, citing ambiguities concerning Sweden, defence contractor Saab and their involvement in the referendum. […] The Christian Democrat party, which claimed 12 percent of the vote in the last Swiss election, continues to back the Gripen deal but wants to avoid any suggestion of Swedish lobbying being an influence."
- Darbellay, Christophe; Wertli, Béatrice; Jauchlanguage, Thomas (15 Feb 2014), Le PDC renonce au " lead " de la campagne de votation sur le " Gripen " [The CDP renounces the leadership of the election campaign for the Gripen] (in French)
- "Finland funderar på Gripen" [Finland considers the Gripen]. DI (in Swedish) (SE). 20 December 2012. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "BAe offers Gripen to Oman to replace Jaguar", Flight International (PDF) (scan) (Flight global), 1997: 10 .
- "Slovakien intresserat av Gripen" [Slovakia interested in the Gripen], SVD (in Swedish) (Stockholm, SE), 16 Jan 2014.
- Kucic, Dino (27 October 2010). "Croatia, Slovenia to pursue joint fighter deal". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Kucic, Dino (17 April 2008). "Saab details Gripen proposal to Croatia". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Избираме нов изтребител между ‘Грипен’, ‘Юрофайтър Тайфун’ и F-16" [Choosing a new fighter between "Gripen", "Eurofighter Typhoon" and F-16]. Bgarmy (in Bulgarian). BG. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013.
- Vasovic, Aleksandar; Fletcher, Philippa (16 December 2011). "Serb air force seeks new fighter jets". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- "Pilots eye Gripen fighter jet". Manila Standard Today (PH). Philippine News Agency. 3 July 2013. Archived from the original on 4 July 2013.
- Wall, Robert (20 March 2013). "Saab Says Gripen Export Chances Rise as F-35 Buyers Review Plans". Bloomberg LP. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Muradian, Vago (2013-06-26). "Outlook on the global fighter market". Defense news TV. Washington, DC: Gannett. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
- "Spår ny vår for Gripen-produsent" [Prediction of new Spring for Gripen manufacturer]. E24 Næringsliv (in Norwedish) (NO). Archived from the original on 20 December 2013.
- "F-16 Air Forces - Cancelled Orders"
- "Gripen not on the shortlist for the Indian MMRCA programme" (Press release). Saab. 27 April 2011. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012.
- "Saab Offers Gripen to the Indian Air Force" (Press release). Saab. 28 April 2008. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- "Saab opens office in India" (press release). Saab. 28 January 2009.
- "Saab and TCS sign Letter of Intent in India" (Press release). Saab. 10 September 2008. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "Gripen Arrives for MMRCA Field Trials" (Press release). Free Press Release. 10 March 2010. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Europeans ahead in $10bn race for jets". Times of India. 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Shukla, Ajai (3 April 2010). "Air Force gives Gripen fighter a second chance". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Polski F-16 part I" [Polish F‐16 cz I] (in Polish). PL: Ministertwo Obrony Narodowej. Archived from the original on 1 September 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- "Dlaczego kupiliśmy F-16, choć Gripen dawał lepszy offset?" [Why we bought the F-16, although the Gripen gave better offset?]. Bankier (in Polish). 12 April 2009. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- Chadzynzki, Marek. "Dlaczego kupiliśmy F-16, choć Gripen dawał lepszy offset?" [Why we bought the F-16, although the Gripen gave better offset?]. Konflikty (in Polish). PL: WP. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Both Switzerland and Norway shows Interest in Gripen" (Press release). Saab. 18 January 2008. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "Gripen proposal to Norway delivered" (Press release). Saab. 28 April 2008. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "WikiLeaks, Weaklings and Weasel". Aviation Week. 3 December 2010. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "Går inn for Joint Strike Fighter" [Going in for Joint Strike Fighter] (Press release) (in Norwegian). NO: Prime Minister's Office. 20 November 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Acher, John; Solem, Richard (21 December 2007). "Eurofighter suspends Norway, Denmark sale efforts". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- "Norge räknade fel i Gripenaffär" [Norway miscalculated in Gripen deal] (in Swedish). SE: SVT. 10 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011.
- "Gripen passer ikke for Norge" [Gripen does not suit Norway]. E24 (in Norwegian) (NO). 20 February 2009. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011.
- "Klart för nya Super-Gripen" [Ready for the new Super-Gripen]. E24 (in Swedish) (SE). 17 April 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- "Features: Two seater", Gripen Multi role fighter, SE: Saab, 2014, retrieved 2014-02-17, "A two-seat version of the Gripen, which retains the full operational capability of the single-seater, is also available for tactical weapons training, more specialised missions and type conversion.".
- Hoyle, Craig (7 September 2007). "Gripen enhancements escape Swedish cutbacks". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Saab får serieproduktionsbeställning på Gripen E för Sverige" [Saab receives order for series production Gripen E for Sweden] (Press release) (in Swedish). Saab. 18 December 2013. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013.
- "Saab signs new agreement with UK's test pilots' school" (Press release). Saab. 15 February 2008. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "The Swedish Air Force has donated a Gripen 39A fighter aircraft to exhibit in the Royal Thai Air Force". Bangkok Post. Photos of the week. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Saab JAS 39 incidents". Aviation Safety Network. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011. Note page has two entries for the 31 May 2010 accident with the same serial number.
- Brändström 2003, pp. 17–18, 23–24.
- Brändström 2003, pp. 5–6.
- "JAS Gripen störtar på Långholmen – SR Minnen" [JAS Gripen crashes on Long Holmen – SR Memories] (in Swedish). SE: Sveriges Radio. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- Eden 2004, p. 389.
- Gripen fighter system, Saab.
- "Gripen – Dimensions" (PDF) (product sheet). Saab. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- "Gripen – Advanced Weapons Flexibility" (PDF) (product sheet). Saab. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- "JAS-39 Gripen Supersonic Aircraft" (Press release). Ministry of Defence & Armed Forces of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- "Viggens test Gripen avionics". Flight International (Surrey, UK: IPC Transport Press) 123 (3844): 64–65. 2–8 January 1983. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Gripen flies unstable". Flight International (London, UK: Flight global): 3. 11–17 December 1988. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- "Saab/Gripen prototype crashes". Flight International (London, UK: Reed Business Information): 2–3. 11 February 1989. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- "Resonance problem hits Gripen Engine". Flight International (London, UK: Reed Business Information) 145 (4406): 15. 2–8 February 1994. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- "BAe offers Gripen to Oman to replace Jaguar". Flight International (London, UK: Reed Business Information) 151 (4567): 10. 26 March – 1 April 1997. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- "Saab JAS 39 Gripen: um herdeiro da tradição nórdica" [Saab JAS 39 Gripen: nordic tradition inheritance]. Aviões de combate a jacto (in Portuguese) (Portugal: Altaya, Planeta de Agostini). 17. Saab JAS 39 Gripen (Suécia): p. 197. 2011. ISBN 978-989-651-217-0.
- Acharya, Amitav (2009). Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia: ASEAN and the Problem of Regional Order. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-41428-8.
- Björeman, Carl (2009). År av uppgång, år av nedgång : försvarets ödesväg under beredskapsåren och det kalla kriget [Years of rise, years of decline: defense during standby years and the Cold War] (in Swedish). Stockholm: Svenskt militärhistoriskt bibliotek. ISBN 978-91-85789-58-0.
- Brändström, Annika (2003). Coping with a Credibility Crisis: The Stockholm JAS Fighter Crash of 1993 (PDF). Stockholm, SE: Swedish National Defence College. ISBN 91-87136-72-4.
- Chant, Christopher; Taylor, Michael Jogn Haddrick (1999). The Role of the Fighter & Bomber. Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea. ISBN 0-7910-5419-5.
- Cross, Michael (13 February 1986). "Swedes unveil New Combat craft". New Scientist 109 (1495): 27. ISSN 0262-4079.
- Eden, Paul, ed. (2004). "Saab JAS 39 Gripen". Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. New York: Amber Books. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
- Eliasson, Gunnar (2010). Advanced Public Procurement as Industrial Policy: The Aircraft Industry as a Technical University. New York: Springer. ISBN 1-4419-5848-7.
- Elliott, Simon (16–22 June 1993). "Swedish air force in air defense revamp". Flight International: 30. Retrieved 19 January 2014. "The first Saab JAS 39 Gripen for the Swedish air force was handed over to the Defence Material Administration on the 8 June at Saab's Linkoping site."
- Forsberg, Randall (1994). The Arms Production Dilemma: Contraction and Restraint in the World Combat Aircraft Industry. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-56085-2.
- Frawley, Gerard (2002). The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002–2003. Fishwyck, ACT, AU: Aerospace. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
- Frédriksen, John C (2001). International Warbirds: an Illustrated Guide to World Military Aircraft, 1914–2000. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-364-5.
- Frisberg, Bo (1998). Ada in the JAS 39 Gripen flight control system. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. p. 1411.
- Gaines, Michael 'Mike' (19–25 March 1989). "Software fault caused Gripen crash". Flight International (London, UK: Reed Business Information): 4. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- Green, William; Swanborough, Gordon (1987). "The Gripen: an ambitious 'Jack of all Trades'". Air International (Lincolnshire, UK: Key Publishing): 224–30. ISSN 0306-5634.
- Griffiths, Dave (March 2000). "AFM Evaluates the Gripen". AirForces Monthly (Stamford, UK: Key Publishing) 13 (144). ISSN 0955-7091.
- Henk, Dan (2006). South Africa's Armaments Industry: Continuity and Change After a Decade of Majority Rule. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-3481-8.
- Jenkins, Dennis R (2000). F/A-18 Hornet: A Navy Success Story. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-134696-1.
- Keijsper, Gerard (2003). Saab Gripen: Sweden's 21st Century Multi-role Aircraft. Aerofax. Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-137-7.
- Lake, Jon (2008). "Gripen C/D". Air International (supplement) (Lincolnshire, UK: Key Publishing). ISSN 0306-5634.
- Larrabee, F Stephen (2003). NATO's Eastern Agenda in a New Strategic Era (1744). Santa Monica, California: RAND. ISBN 0-8330-3467-7.
- Larsson, Jörgen; Ekrot, Richard (19–24 September 2010). "The Cobra Helmet Mounted Display System for Gripen" (PDF). 27th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences. Nice, France: ICAS. Paper ICAS2010-P6.12. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Lindqvist, Gunnar; Widfeldt, Bo (2003). Rikets flygplanköp — JAS 39 Gripen [The Kingdom’s aircraft purchases: JAS 39 Gripen] (in Swedish). Nässjö, SE: Air Historic Research. ISBN 91-973892-5-0.
- Linner, Anders; Wigert, Lars; Ahlgren, Jan (2002), Gripen, The First Fourth Generation Fighter (hardcoverISBN 978-91-972803-8-9) (fact book), Jonsson, Jan foreword (transl. from 5th Swedish ed.), Swedish Air Force, FMV and Saab Aerospace, .
- Lorell, Mark A (2002). Going Global? US Government Policy and the Defense Aerospace Industry (1537). Santa Monica, California: RAND. ISBN 0-8330-3193-7.
- Matláry, Janne Håland; Ø̈sterud, Ø̈yvind (2007). Denationalisation of Defence: Convergence and Diversity. London: Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-7119-4.
- Signal 49. Fairfax, VA: Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association. 1994. ISSN 0037-4938.
- Spick, Michale ‘Mike’ (2000). "Saab JAS 39 Gripen". The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4.
- Spreen, Wesley E (2007). Marketing in the International Aerospace Industry. London: Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-4975-X.
- Stohl, Rachel; Grillot, Suzette (2009). The International Arms Trade. Cambridge, UK: Polity. ISBN 0-7456-4154-7.
- Sweetman, Bill (March 1993). "Bargain fighter". Popular Science (Winter Park, Florida: Bonnier) 242 (3): 3. ISSN 0161-7370.
- Williams, Mel, ed. (2003). Superfighters: The Next Generation of Combat Aircraft. London: AIRtime. ISBN 1-880588-53-6.
- Winchester, Jim, ed. (2004). "Saab JAS 39 Gripen". Modern Military Aircraft. Aviation Factfile. Rochester, Kent, UK: Grange. ISBN 1-84013-640-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saab JAS 39 Gripen.|
- "Gripen fighter system", Air (official Website) (Saab)
- "Gripen". Army. Czech Armed Forces.
- JAS 39 Gripen at DMOZ