Harrier Jump Jet
|Harrier Jump Jet|
|A Harrier GR7A of 800 Naval Air Sqn, Royal Navy|
|Role||V/STOL strike aircraft|
|National origin||United Kingdom|
|First flight||28 December 1967|
|Primary users||United States Marine Corps
Royal Spanish Navy
|Developed from||Hawker P.1127|
|Variants||Hawker Siddeley Harrier
BAe Sea Harrier
McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
BAe Harrier II
The Harrier, informally referred to as the Harrier Jump Jet, is a family of military jet aircraft capable of vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) operations. The Harrier was developed in Britain to operate from ad-hoc facilities, such as car parks or forest clearings, avoiding the need for large air bases vulnerable to tactical nuclear weapons. Later, the design was adapted for use from aircraft carriers. The Harrier is also distinct as being of modern era, yet subsonic, contrasting with most of the major Western post–World War II–era fighter aircraft, which tend to be supersonic aircraft.
There are two generations of four main variants of the Harrier family:
- Hawker Siddeley Harrier
- Boeing/BAE Systems AV-8B Harrier II
The Hawker Siddeley Harrier is the first generation-version and is also known as the AV-8A Harrier. The Sea Harrier is a naval strike/air defence fighter. The AV-8B and BAE Harrier II are the US and British variants respectively of the second generation Harrier aircraft.
Following an approach by the Bristol Engine Company in 1957 that they were planning a directed thrust engine, Hawker Aircraft came up with a design for an aeroplane that could meet the NATO specification for a "Light Tactical Support Fighter". There was no financial support for the development from HM Treasury, but aid was found through NATO's Mutual Weapon Development Project (MWDP).
The Hawker P.1127 was ordered as a prototype and flew in 1960. NATO developed a specification (NBMR-3) for a VTOL aircraft, but one that was expected to have the performance of an aircraft like the F-4 Phantom II. Hawker drafted a supersonic version of the P.1127, the P.1150, and also the Hawker P.1154, which would meet NBMR-3. The latter was a winner of the NATO competition and development continued, initially for both services, until cancelled, by the new government on cost grounds, at the point of prototype construction in 1965.
Work on the P.1127 continued with nine evaluation aircraft, the Hawker Siddeley Kestrel, ordered. These started flying in 1964 and were assessed by the "Tri-partite Evaluation Squadron", which consisted of British, US and German pilots. With the cancellation of the P.1154, the RAF ordered a modified P.1127/Kestrel as the Harrier GR.1 in 1966.
The Hawker Siddeley Harrier GR.1/GR.3 and the AV-8A Harrier were the first generation of the Harrier series, the first operational close-support and reconnaissance attack aircraft with vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) capabilities. These were developed directly from the Hawker P.1127 prototype and the Kestrel evaluation aircraft.
The British Aerospace Sea Harrier is a naval V/STOL jet fighter, reconnaissance and attack aircraft, a development of the Hawker Siddeley Harrier. The first version entered service with the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm in April 1980 as the Sea Harrier FRS.1, and was informally known as the Shar. The upgraded Sea Harrier FA2 entered service in 1993. It was withdrawn from Royal Navy service in March 2006. The Sea Harrier FRS Mk.51 is in active service with the Indian Navy, which operates the jet from its aircraft carrier INS Viraat.
The Harrier was extensively redeveloped by McDonnell Douglas and British Aerospace (now parts of Boeing and BAE Systems respectively), leading to the Boeing/BAE Systems AV-8B Harrier II. This is a family of second-generation V/STOL jet multi-role aircraft, including the British Aerospace-built Harrier GR5/GR7/GR9, which entered service in the mid-1980s. The AV-8B is primarily used for light attack or multi-role tasks, typically operated from small aircraft carriers. Versions are used by several NATO countries, including Spain, Italy, and the United States. The BAE Systems/Boeing Harrier II is a modified version of the AV-8B Harrier II that was used by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the Royal Navy until 2010.
Between 1969 and 2003, 824 Harrier variants were delivered. While the manufacture of new Harriers concluded in 1997, the last remanufactured aircraft (Harrier II Plus configuration) was delivered in December 2003 which ended the Harrier production line.
The Harrier Jump Jet, capable of taking off vertically, can only do so at less than its maximum loaded weight. In most cases, a short take off is performed, using forward speed to achieve aerodynamic lift, which uses fuel more economically than a vertical take off. On aircraft carriers, a ski-jump ramp is employed at the bow of the carrier to assist the aircraft in becoming airborne.
Landings are typically performed very differently. Although a conventional landing is possible, the range of speeds at which this can be done is narrow due to relatively vulnerable outrigger undercarriage. Operationally, a near-vertical landing with some forward speed is preferred.
As of late 2010[update], the F-35B STOVL variant of the F-35 Lightning II (formerly the Joint Strike Fighter) is intended to replace the AV-8B Harrier II in service with the US Marine Corps and the Italian Navy from 2014 onwards. As of May 2012[update], the RAF and Royal Navy are also scheduled to introduce the F-35B around 2020. In 2010, it was announced that the RAF and RN would retire their remaining Harriers by 2011, and in December 2010 the RAF's Harrier GR9s made their last operational flights. In June 2011, the MoD denied press reports that the aircraft are to be sold to the US Marine Corps for spares to support their AV-8B fleet, but options for disposal are still being considered. However, at the end of November 2011, Defence Minister Peter Luff announced the sale of the final 72 Harriers to the US Marine Corps. As many as possible of the 72 Harrier GR9s will be converted to match AV-8B Night Attack configuration to augment the total AV-8B end strength (this will allow the USMC to retire some high-flight-hour F/A-18D aircraft), while the remaining aircraft will be used as spare parts sources for the airworthy fleet.
- Hawker P.1127
- Kestrel FGA.1
- Harrier GR.1/1A/3/3A
- (from 1966)
- Harrier T.2/2A/4/4A/8/52/60
- (from 1970)
- AV-8A/C/S Harrier Mk.50/53/55/Matador
- TAV-8A/S Harrier Mk.54/Matador
- Sea Harrier FRS.1/FRS.51/F(A).2
- (from 1978)
- AV-8B Harrier II/EAV-8B Matador II/AV-8B Harrier II Night Attack/AV-8B Harrier II Plus
- (from 1983)
- TAV-8B Harrier II/ETAV-8B Matador II/
- Harrier GR.5/5A/7/7A/9/9A
- (from 1985)
- Harrier T.10/12
An unusual feature of the Harrier family of aircraft is their use of two types of flight control to provide pitch, roll and yaw control: conventional control surfaces for wingborne flight, and a system of reaction control valves directing jets of bleed air from the high-pressure compressor of the engine out through the extremities of the nose, tail, and at the wingtips during vectored thrust–borne flight and hover modes. The two systems are fully interlinked but air is not supplied to the reaction control valves during conventional wingborne flight.
|Kestrel FGA.1||Harrier GR3/AV-8A||Sea Harrier FA2||Harrier GR9||AV-8B+ Harrier|
|Crew||One (Two for trainer versions)|
|Length||42 ft 6 in (13.0 m)||47 ft 2 in (14.4 m)||46 ft 6 in (14.2 m)||46 ft 4 in (14.1 m)||47 ft 8 in (14.5 m)|
|Wingspan||22 ft 11 in (6.98 m)||25 ft 3 in (7.70 m)||25 ft 3 in (7.70 m)||30 ft 4 in (9.25 m)||30 ft 4 in (9.25 m)|
|Height||10 ft 9 in (3.28 m)||11 ft 4 in (3.45 m)||12 ft 4 in (3.76 m)||11 ft 8 in (3.56 m)||11 ft 8 in (3.56 m)|
|Empty Weight||10,000 lb (4,540 kg)||12,200 lb (5,530 kg)||14,052 lb (6,370 kg)||12,500 lb (5,670 kg)?||13,968 lb (6,340 kg)|
|Maximum take-off weight
|17,000 lb (7,710 kg)||26,000 lb (11,800 kg)||26,200 lb (11,900 kg)||31,000 lb (14,100 kg)||31,000 lb (14,100 kg)|
|Max speed||545 mph (877.1 km/h)||731 mph (1,176 km/h)||735 mph (1,183 km/h)||662 mph (1,065 km/h)||662 mph (1,065 km/h)|
|Combat radius||200 nmi (370 km)||300 nmi (556 km)||300 nmi (556 km)|
|Engine||Pegasus 6||Pegasus 11 Mk 101||Pegasus 11 Mk 106||Pegasus 11 Mk 107||Pegasus 11 Mk 105|
|Thrust||15,000 lbf (66.7 kN)||21,800 lbf (97.0 kN)||21,800 lbf (97.0 kN)||24,750 lbf (110 kN)||23,500 lbf (105 kN)|
|Radar||None||None||Blue Fox / Blue Vixen||None||AN/APG-65|
- Sources: Norden
- Related development
- Hawker Siddeley P.1154
- Hawker P.1127/Kestrel
- Hawker Siddeley Harrier
- McDonnell-Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
- British Aerospace Harrier II
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Bell X-14
- Hunting H.126
- Rockwell XFV-12
- Ryan XV-5 Vertifan
- Short SC.1
- Yakovlev Yak-36
- Yakovlev Yak-38
- Related lists
- List of VTOL aircraft
- List of aircraft of the Fleet Air Arm
- List of attack aircraft
- List of fighter aircraft
- List of aircraft of the RAF
- List of military aircraft of the United States
- List of Harrier Jump Jet family losses
- List of active United States military aircraft
- List of active United Kingdom military aircraft
- Norden, Lon O. Harrier II, Validating V/STOL. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2006. ISBN 1-59114-536-8.
- "Harrier Projects". airforce-technology.com. Retrieved: 21 July 2011.
- "Harrier Production". Harrier.org.uk. Retrieved: 21 July 2011.
- "F-35 Lightning II Program Update & Fast Facts". lockheedmartin.com. Retrieved: 26 August 2010.
- "Parliament Act on JSF Program". documenti.camera.it. Retrieved: 29 March 2010.
- Chuter, Andrew. "It’s Official: U.K. To Switch Back to STOVL F-35". Defense News, 10 May 2012.
- "Securing Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The Strategic Defence and Security Review". HM Government, 19 October 2010. Retrieved: 19 October 2010.
- "Harrier jump jets make final flight from RAF Cottesmore". BBC News,
- "Harrier jump-jets sold 'for peanuts'". The Telegraph, 15 June 2011.
- "MoD denies sale of Harriers to US". DMJ, 15 June 2011.
- "UK sells 72 retired Harrier jump jets for $180m to US". BBC News, 24 November 2011.
- "Technical" page on harrier.org.uk website, viewed 2013-11-24
- Norden 2006, Appendix C.
- The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982–1985). Orbis Publishing. 1985.
- Eden, Paul (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
- Bull, Stephen (2004). Encyclopedia of military technology and innovation. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 1-57356-557-1.
- Grove, Eric J (1987). Vanguard to Trident; British Naval Policy since World War II. The Bodley Head. ISBN 0-370-31021-7.
- Gunston, Bill and Mike Spick (1983). Modern Air Combat: The Aircraft, Tactics and Weapons Employed in Aerial Warfare Today. New York: Crescent Books. ISBN 0-517-41265-9.
- Cordesman, Anthony H. (2003). The Iraq War: strategy, tactics, and military lessons. Washington, D.C.: Centre for Strategic and International Studies. ISBN 0-89206-432-3.
- Epstein, David G. (2006). Making and Doing Deals: Contracts in Context (second edition). Newark, New Jersey: LexisNexis. ISBN 0-8205-7044-3.
- Evans, Andy (1998). BAE / McDonnell Douglas Harrier. Ramsbury, UK: The Crowood Press. ISBN 1-86126-105-5.
- Grove, Eric (1990). The Future of Sea Power. London, UK: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00482-9.
- Jackson, Robert (1987). NATO air power. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 0-906393-80-9.
- Lambert, Mark (1993). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-1066-1.
- Polmar, Norman (2005). The Naval Institute guide to the ships and aircraft of the U.S. fleet. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-685-2.
- Taylor, John W. R. (1988). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
- Wilson, Stewart. BAe/McDonnell Douglas Harrier. Airlife, 2000. ISBN 1-84037-218-4.
- Wilson, Stewart. Combat Aircraft since 1945. London: Aerospace Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-875671-50-1.
- Ashley, Stephen (October 1988). "Jump Jet". Popular Science 233 (4): 56–59, 112, 114.
- Walker, Karen (19 July 1986). "V/STOL Comes of Age". Flight International: 23–25. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- Bishop, Chris and Chris Chant. Aircraft Carriers. Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA: Zenith Imprint, 2004. ISBN 0-7603-2005-5.
- Braybrook, Roy. Battle for the Falklands: Air Forces. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 1982. ISBN 0-85045-493-X.
- Brown, Kevin. "The Plane That Makes Airfields Obsolete". Popular Mechanics, 133(6), June 1970, pp. 80–83.
- Bull, Stephen. Encyclopedia of Military Rechnology and Innovation. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-57356-557-1.
- Burr, Lawrence and Peter Bull. US Fast Battleships 1938–91: The Iowa Class. New York, USA: Osprey Publishing, 2010. ISBN 1-84603-511-2.
- Buttler, Tony. British Secret Projects: Jet Fighters Since 1950. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing, 2000. ISBN 1-85780-095-8.
- Congress Committee on Appropriations. "Department of Defense Appropriations for 1979: Part 5". Washington D.C., USA: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.
- Cowan, Charles W. (ed.) Flypast 2. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1972. ISBN 0-85383-191-2.
- Davies, Peter and Anthony M. Thornborough. The Harrier Story. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: Naval Institute Press, 1997. ISBN 978-1-55750-357-2.
- Ellis, Ken. Wrecks & Relics, 21st edition. Manchester, UK: Crécy Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-0-85979-134-2.
- Evans, Andy. BAe/McDonald Douglas Harrier. Ramsbury, UK: The Crowood Press, 1998. ISBN 1-86126-105-5.
- Farley, John. A View from the Hover: My Life in Aviation. Bath, UK: Seager Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-0-9532752-5-0.
- Freedman, Lawrence. The Official History of the Falklands Campaign. Volume II: War and Diplomacy. London, UK: Routledge, 2007. ISBN 978-0-415-41911-6.
- Friedman, Norman. U.S. Aircraft Carriers: an Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: Naval Institute Press, 1983. ISBN 0-87021-739-9.
- Gunston, W. T. "Pegasus updating prospects". Flight International, 22 January 1977, pp. 189–191.
- Hannah, Donald. Hawker FlyPast Reference Library. Stamford, Lincolnshire, UK: Key Publishing Ltd., 1982. ISBN 0-946219-01-X.
- Jackson, Paul. "British Aerospace/McDonnell Douglas Harrier". World Air Power Journal, Volume 6, Summer 1991. pp. 46–105.
- James, Derek N. Hawker, an Aircraft Album No. 5. New York: Arco Publishing Company, 1973. ISBN 0-668-02699-5. (First published in the UK by Ian Allan in 1972)
- Jefford, C.G., ed. The RAF Harrier Story. London: Royal Air Force Historical Society, 2006. ISBN 0-9530345-2-6.
- Jenkins, Dennis R. Boeing / BAe Harrier. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 1998. ISBN 1-58007-014-0.
- Layman, R D and Stephen McLaughlin. The Hybrid Warship. London: Conway, 1991. ISBN 0-85177-555-1.
- Markman, Steve and Bill Holder. Straight Up: A History of Vertical Flight. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7643-1204-9.
- Mason, Francis K. Harrier. Wellingborough, UK: Patrick Stephens Limited, Third edition, 1986. ISBN 0-85059-801-X.
- Mason, Francis K. Hawker Aircraft since 1920. London: Putnam, 1991. ISBN 0-85177-839-9
- Mason, Francis K. Hawker Aircraft since 1920. London: Putnam Publishing, 1971. ISBN 0-370-00066-8.
- Miller, David M. O. and Chris Miller. "Modern Naval Combat". Crescent Books, 1986. ISBN 0-517-61350-6.
- Moxton, Julian. "Supersonic Harrier: One Step Closer". Flight International, 4 December 1982, pp. 1633–1635.
- Spick, Mike and Bill Gunston. The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4.
- Sturtivant, Ray. Fleet Air Arm Fixed-Wing Aircraft since 1946. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians), 2004. ISBN 0-85130-283-1.
- Sturtivant, Ray. RAF Flying Training and Support Units since 1912. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians), 2007. ISBN 0-85130-365-X.
- Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. Putnam Aeronautical, 1990. ISBN 0-87021-792-5.
- Vann, Frank. Harrier Jump Jet. New York, USA: Bdd Promotional Book Co, 1990. ISBN 0-7924-5140-6.
- Farley, John, OBE. A View From The Hover: My Life In Aviation. Bath, UK: Seager Publishing/Flyer Books, 2010, first edition 2008. ISBN 978-0-9532752-0-5.
- Polmar, Norman, and Dana Bell. One Hundred Years of World Military Aircraft. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: Naval Institute Press, 2003. ISBN 1-59114-686-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hawker Siddeley Harrier and its derivatives.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harrier II.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hawker Siddeley Harrier.|
- The P.1127 Analysed – a 1962 Flight International article on the Hawker P.1127
- P.1127 Development – a 1963 Flight International article on the development of the Hawker P.1127
- British Aerospace Sea Harrier
- Sea Harrier Still Alive and Kicking (archive article)
- Harrier history website
- Harriers lost in the Falklands
- Up-to-date resource of all UK Harriers and Designations
- Harrier development & service, 4 part series
- Photographs of Harrier G R Mk 7 deployed aboard HMS Illustrious
- RTP-TV AeroSpace Show: Video of Harrier Hovering
- AV-8B Plus product page at Boeing.com
- AV-8B Harrier II fact sheet and AV-8B Harrier II history page at Navy.mil
- AV-8B Harrier page at globalsecurity.org
- McDonnell Douglas/British Aerospace AV-8B Harrier II Attack Fighter page on Aerospaceweb.org
- 3D view of Harrier AV-8B at the National Museum of the Marines Corps site
- Greg Goebel Harriers
- Photos of this aircraft on Airliners.net
- Defense Industry Daily: AV-8B Harrier finding Success in Iraq (30 March 2005)
- Harrier page on globalsecurity.org