International recognition of Transnistria

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International recognition of Transnistria (also known as Pridnestrovie) – a disputed region in Eastern Europe located between Moldova and Ukraine – is controversial. Although Transnistria declared independence in 1990, the vast majority of other countries do not recognise its sovereignty. As of 2011, only Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and South Ossetia recognise its independence, all themselves states with limited recognition. Despite not officially recognizing Transnistria's independence, Russia has established a consulate in the disputed territory.

History[edit]

In 1990, a Pridnestrovian Moldavian SSR (PMR) was proclaimed in the region by a number of conservative local Soviet officials opposed to perestroika. This action was immediately declared void by the then president of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moldova, including Transnistria, became independent. The PMR side said Moldova's declaration of independence was ill-conceived and that it considers the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact to be null and void. The PMR side argues that if this is so, then the Moldovans themselves had agreed to relinquish Transnistria, as this territory never belonged to Moldova, nor to Romania before the signing of the agreement between the USSR and Germany.

During the 1992 War of Transnistria some villages changed hands between the PMR government and Moldova proper. PMR forces have often clashed with Moldova's representatives.

Foreign policy[edit]

Government documents from Transnistria state that the republic has "established and maintained friendly relations with countries seeking recognition." To this end, it said that relations would continue to develop in a friendly manner with the three states/political entities it has relations with: the Republic of Abkhazia, the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh, and the Republic of South Ossetia.

It sought to have relations with other foreign countries and international organizations, especially those of Europe, which were seen as "of paramount importance". The pro-European orientation was a consequence of a "general understanding of fundamental values of the world civilization. A lot of Pridnestrovian foreign interests lie in this area. The importance of a harmonic inclusion of Pridnestrovie into the international democratic community makes necessary an active cooperation." Another avenue of importance was cooperation with the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe because its importance "as a mediator in the negotiation process between Moldova and Pridnestrovie... in ensuring regional stability." Transnistria's goal was to "rest on the European experience in the future for its positive political, economic, scientific and technical, and cultural development."[1]

Transnistria is member state of the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.

States which formally recognise Transnistria as independent[edit]

UN non-member states[edit]

Entity Date of recognition Notes
 Abkhazia 17 November 2006 Mutual recognition.[2]
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic 17 November 2006 Mutual recognition.[1][3]
South Ossetia South Ossetia 17 November 2006 Mutual recognition.[2]

States that do not recognise Transnistria as independent[edit]

UN member states[edit]

State Notes
 Albania Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16

February 2009 Albania supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."[4]

 Bosnia and Herzegovina Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16

February 2009 Bosnia supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."[4]

 Croatia Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16

February 2009 Croatia supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."[4]

 Georgia Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009 Georgia supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."[4]
 Liechtenstein Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009 Liechtenstein supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."[4]
 Republic of Macedonia Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009 Macedonia supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."[4]
 Moldova Moldova's Prime Minister Vlad Filat wanted to see the Russian army presence replaced with an international civil mission and hoped for European support.[5] Deputy Prime Minister Victor Osipov said that Moldova was a European problem. When the EU passed the Lisbon Treaty and created the new position of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy he said "The results of these efforts (to have more powerful tools for an effective foreign policy) will be very important, along with the place that the Transnistrian problem will occupy on the agenda of the EU and its new institution. Our task here is to attract attention to the Transnistrian problem, precisely so that it will occupy a higher place in the foreign and security policy agenda of the EU. We will always seek a solution through peaceful means, but we should never forget that we are talking about a conflict. We are talking about an administration [in the city of Tiraspol] that has and is developing military capabilities and a very fragile situation that could deteriorate and create risky situations in the East of Europe. This affects the Republic of Moldova, Ukraine, Russia and Romania – because Romania is not indifferent to the developments – and other countries from the region. Experiences from other frozen conflicts show that it is not a good idea to wait until a major incident happens."[6]
 Montenegro Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009 Montenegro supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."[4]
 Norway Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009 Norway supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."[4]
 Russia During a visit to Kiev, President Dmitri Medvedev said he supported "special status" for Transnistria and recognised the "important and stabilising" role of the Russian army.[5]
Serbia Serbia Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009 Serbia supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."[4]
 Turkey Along with other states on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009 Turkey supported "renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."[4]
 Ukraine During a visit to Kiev by the Russian President Dmitri Medvedev, Ukraine signalled its support for "special status" of Transnistria and recognised the "important and stabilising" role of the Russian army.[5]

Positions taken by intergovernmental organisations[edit]

State Notes
 European Union European Union took note of and welcomed "the objectives of Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009, renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova."[4] The EU was asked to restart negotiations for the 5+2 format.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie. 2010-05-26. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  2. ^ a b "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же". Newsru. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  3. ^ Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", – сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." – сказал он."
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the Council Common Position 2009/139/CFSP of 16 February 2009, renewing restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova". Council of the European Union. 13 March 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c d http://en.rian.ru/valdai_foreign_media/20100519/159073808.html
  6. ^ [1]

See also[edit]