LGBT themes in mythology
|Part of a series on|
|LGBT themes in mythology|
LGBT themes in mythology refers to mythologies and religious narratives that include stories of romantic affection or sexuality between figures of the same sex or feature divine actions that result in changes in gender. These myths have been interpreted as forms of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) expression, and modern conceptions of sexuality and gender have been applied to them. Many mythologies ascribe homosexuality and gender variance in humans to the action of gods or other supernatural interventions. This includes myths in which gods teach people about same-sex sexual practices, or stories that explain the cause for transgenderism or homosexuality.
The presence of LGBT themes in Western mythologies has long been recognised, and the subject of intense study. The application of gender studies and queer theory to non-Western mythic tradition is less developed, but has been growing since the end of the twentieth century. Myths often include homosexuality, bisexuality or transgenderism as a symbol for sacred or mythic experiences. Devdutt Pattanaik writes that myths "capture the collective unconsciousness of a people", and that this means they reflect deep-rooted beliefs about variant sexualities that may be at odds with repressive social mores.
- 1 Critical perspective
- 2 European mythologies
- 3 Asian mythologies
- 4 African mythologies
- 5 Mythologies of Oceania
- 6 Mythologies of the Americas
- 7 Middle Eastern mythologies
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
The status of mythology varies by culture. Myths are generally believed to be literally true within the society that created them and deemed erroneous or fictitious elsewhere. Cultures may regard myths as containing psychological or archetypal truths. Myths have been used to explain and validate the social institutions of a particular culture, as well as to educate the members of that culture. This societal role has been posited for stories that included same-sex love, which educate people as to the correct attitude to adopt toward same-sex sexual activity and gender constructions.
Since the beginning of recorded history and in a multitude of cultures, myths, folklore and sacred texts have incorporated themes of same-sex eroticism and gender identity. Myths often include homosexuality, bisexuality or transgenderism as a symbol for sacred or mythic experiences. Homoeroticism or gender variance in myths have been analysed according to modern conceptions of LGBT identities and behaviours, for example, deities that disguise themselves as, or adopt behaviors traditional to, the opposite gender for a given culture may be called transgender, and beings with no reproductive organs or both male and female organs may be called androgynous or intersex. Individual myths have been denoted "queer" for rejecting an heteronormative and binary view of gender. The queer interpretations may be based on only indirect evidence, such as an unusually close same-sex friendship or dedication to chastity. These have been criticised for ignoring cultural context or mis-applying modern or Western preconceptions, for example in assuming that celibacy means only avoiding penetration or reproductive sex (hence allowing homoerotic sex), while ignoring the widespread beliefs in the spiritual potency of semen that mandate an avoidance of all sex.
The presence of LGBT themes in Western mythologies has long been recognised, and the subject of intense study. The application of gender studies and queer theory to non-Western mythic tradition is less developed, but has been growing since the end of the twentieth century. Devdutt Pattanaik writes that myths "capture the collective unconsciousness of a people", and that this means they reflect deep-rooted beliefs about variant sexualities that may be at odds with repressive social mores.
Many mythologies ascribe homosexuality and gender variance in humans to the action of gods or other supernatural interventions. This include myths in which gods teach people about same-sex sexual practices by example, as in Aztec or Hawaiian mythology or myths that explain the cause for transgenderism or homosexuality, such as the story in which Prometheus accidentally creates some people with the wrong genitalia while drunk, or instances of reincarnation or possession by a spirit of the opposite gender in Voodoo.
It is common in polytheistic mythologies to find characters that can change gender, or have aspects of both male and female genders at the same time. Sexual activity with both genders is also common within such pantheons, and is compared to modern bisexuality or pansexuality. The creation myths of many traditions involve sexual, bisexual or androgynous motifs, with the world being created by genderless or hermaphrodite beings or through sexual congress between beings of the opposite or same apparent gender.
Greek mythology features male same-sex love in many of the constituent myths. These myths have been described as being crucially influential on Western LGBT literature, with the original myths being constantly re-published and re-written, and the relationships and characters serving as icons. In comparison, lesbianism is rarely found in classical myths.
Artemis and Athena both have had female lovers. Most notably Athena turned one of these lovers, Myrmex, into an ant after she wrongly took credit for inventing the plow. Artemis turned her lover Calysto into a bear when Zeus used her form to seduce the nymph.
The patron god of intersex and transgender people is Dionysus, a god gestated in the thigh of his father Zeus, after his mother died from being overwhelmed by Zeus's true form. Other gods are sometimes considered patrons of homosexual love between males, such as the love goddess Aphrodite and gods in her retinue, such as the Erotes: Eros, Himeros and Pothos. Eros is also part of a triad of gods that played roles in homoerotic relationships, along with Heracles and Hermes, who bestowed qualities of Beauty (and Loyalty), strength, and eloquence, respectively, onto male lovers. In the poetry of Sappho, Aphrodite is identified as the patron of lesbians. Aphroditus was an androgynous Aphrodite from Cyprus, in later mythology became known as Hermaphroditus the son of Hermes and Aphrodite.
The sagas in the Old Norse language include no stories of gay or lesbian relationships, nor direct reference to LGBT characters, but they do contain several instances of revenge enacted by men accused of being a passive partner in intercourse, which was considered "unmanly" behavior and thus a threat to a man's reputation as a leader or warrior.
In spite of this, it has been suggested that Freyr, a Norse god of fertility, may have been worshiped by a group of homosexual or effeminate priests, as suggested by Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum. Odin is mentioned as a practitioner of seiðr, a form of magic considered shameful for men to perform, so was reserved for women. It is possible that the practice of seiðr involved passive sexual rites, and Odin was taunted with this fact.[unreliable source?]
In addition, some of the Norse gods were capable of changing gender at will, for example Loki, the trickster god, frequently disguised himself as a woman. In one myth, he turned himself into a mare and, after having sex with the stallion Svaðilfari, he gave birth to a foal. Comparison of a man to a child-bearing woman was a common insult in Scandinavia, and the implication that Loki may be bisexual could have been considered an insult.
In Celtic mythology, no direct representation of gay or lesbian relationships exist. Ancient Greek and Roman commentators attribute sexual activity between males, including pederasty, to pre-Christian Celtic tribes. However, Peter Chicheri argues in Celtic sexuality: power, paradigms, and passion that homosexual affection was severely punished in Celtic culture due to influence from Christianity, and suggests that any non-procreative sexual experience was subsequently expunged from mythic tales.
Some modern readings of texts have inferred LGBT themes, for example, the heroes and foster-brothers Cúchulainn and Ferdiadh have been interpreted as having a (bi)sexual relationship. When forced to fight each other, Ferdiadh mentions their sharing beds, and they are said to have found each other after the first day of conflict and kissed. After three days, Cúchulainn defeats Ferdiadh by piercing his anus with his "mysterious weapon" Gáe Bulg. The tale has led to comparisons to Greek "warrior-lovers", and Cúchulainn's reaction to the death of Ferdiadh in particular compared to Achilles' lament for Patrocles.
In the Fourth Branch of the Mabinogion of Welsh mythology, Gwydion helps his brother Gilfaethwy rape Goewin, Math's foot-holder. Gwydion and Gilfaethwy sneak back to Math's court where Gilfaethwy rapes Goewin. When Math hears of this, he turns his nephews into a series of mated pairs of animals; Gwydion becomes a stag for a year, then a sow and finally a wolf. Gilfaethwy becomes a hind deer, a boar and a she-wolf. Each year they must mate and produce an offspring which is sent to Math: Hyddwn, Hychddwn and Bleiddwn; after three years Math releases his nephews from their punishment.
The Lais of Marie de France also include an episode with the knight Lanval who is accused by Guinevere of spending too much time with his male pages, and implying a sexual relationship with them. Unaware that in fact he does have a supernatural wife.
Chinese mythology has been described as "rich in stories about homosexuality". The mythological stories and folklore of China reflect ancient Chinese perspectives toward homosexuality, rather than modern views. These myths are greatly influenced by religious beliefs, particularly Taoist and Confucian, and later incorporated Buddhist teachings.
The pre-taoist, pre-Confucian tradition of China was predominately shamanistic, with the majority of shamans being female. Male same-sex love was believed to have originated in the mythical south, thus homosexuality is sometimes still called "Southern wind". From this period, numerous spirits or deities were associated with homosexuality, bisexuality and transgenderism. These include Chou Wang, Lan Caihe, Shan Gu, and Yu the Great, and Gun.
Homosexual encounters are common in Chinese folk stories. The animal spirits or fairies often choose same-sex partners, usually young men or boys. According to Xiaomingxiong, one exception to this age preference is the dragon, a powerful mythological beast. Chinese dragons "consistently enjoy[s] sexual relationships with older men", one example being in the tale of "Old Farmer and a Dragon", in which a sixty-year-old farmer is forcibly sodomised by a passing dragon, resulting in wounds from penetration and bites that require medical attention.
Despite the later literature of some taoist schools disapproval of homosexuality,Tu Er Shen is a deity in Chinese folklore who manages the love and sex between homosexual men. His name literally means "rabbit deity". According to "The Tale of the Rabbit God" in the Zi Bu Yu, Tu Er Shen was originally a man called Hu Tianbao, who fell in love with a handsome young imperial inspector of the Fujian Province. One day Hu Tianbao was caught peeping on the inspector, at which point he confessed his reluctant affections for the other man. The imperial inspector had Hu Tianbao sentenced to death by beating. Since his crime was one of love, underworld officials decided to right the injustice by delegating Hu Tianbao as the god and safeguarder of homosexual affections. In order to cater to the needs of modern homosexuals, worship of the Rabbit God has been resuscitated in Taiwan: A temple was founded in Yonghe City by a gay, Taoist priest.
For thousands of years, male homosexuality was referred to in literature by alluding to two semi-legendary figures from the early Zhou Dynasty. The first was Mizi Xia and the half-eaten peach which he shared with his lover, the actual historical figure, Duke Ling of Wei. The second was Lord Long Yang, who convinced an unnamed King of Wei to remain faithful to him by comparing himself to a small fish which the King might throw back if a larger fish came along. While both Mizi Xia and Lord Long Yang may have actually existed, nothing is known about them beyond their defining stories, and their presence in Chinese literature was very much that of legendary characters who served as archetypes of homosexual love.
According to Japanese folklore and mythology, homosexuality was introduced into the world by Shinu No Hafuri and his lover Ama No Hafuri. These were servants of a primordial goddess, possibly the sun goddess Amaterasu. Upon the death of Shinu, Ama committed suicide from grief, and the couple were buried together in the same grave. In some tellings of the story, the sun did not shine on the burial place until the lovers were disinterred and buried separately, although whether the offense to the sun was due to the homosexual relationship is not stated.
In another tale, Amaterasu retreats from conflict with her brother Susa No O into a cave, depriving the Earth of sunlight and life. In order to coax Amaterasu from the cave, the deity of humour and dance, Ame No Uzume, performs a bawdy sexual dance that involved exposing her breast and vulva, and inviting Amaterasu to admire them. On Amaterasu's stepping out of the cave, the transgender kami Ishi Kori Dome held up a magical mirror, and the combination of the dance and her reflection fascinate Amaterasu so much that she does not notice other spirits closing the cave entrance behind her.
Shinto gods are involved in all aspects of life, including the practice of shudo (traditional pederasty). An overarching patron deity of male-male love and sex, "Shudō Daimyōjin", exists in some folk Shinto sects, but is not a part of the standard Shinto pantheon.
Other kami associated with same-sex love or gender variance include: Shirabyōshi, female or transgender kami, represented as half-human, half-snake. They are linked to Shinto priests of the same name, who are usually female (or occasionally transgender) and perform ritual dances in traditional men's clothing; Ōyamakui, a transgender mountain spirit that protects industry and childbearing; and Inari, the kami of agriculture and rice, who is depicted as various genders, the most common representations being a young female food goddess, an old man carrying rice, and an androgynous bodhisattva. Inari is further associated with foxes and Kitsune, shapeshifting fox trickster spirits. Kitsune sometimes disguise themselves as women, independent of their true gender, in order to trick human men into sexual relations with them. Common belief in medieval Japan was that any woman encountered alone, especially at dusk or night, could be a fox.
Hindu mythology has many examples of deities changing gender, manifesting as different genders at different times, or combining to form androgynous or hermaphroditic beings. Gods change sex or manifest as an Avatar of the opposite sex in order to facilitate sexual congress. Non-divine beings also undergo sex-changes through the actions of the gods, as the result of curses or blessings, or as the natural outcome of reincarnation.
Hindu mythology contains numerous incidents where sexual interactions serve a non-sexual, sacred purpose; in some cases, these are same-sex interactions. Sometimes the gods condemn these interactions but at other times they occur with their blessing.
In addition to stories of gender and sexual variance that are generally accepted by mainstream Hinduism, modern scholars and queer activists have highlighted LGBT themes in lesser known texts, or inferred them from stories that traditionally are considered to have no homoerotic subtext. Such analyses have caused disagreements about the true meaning of the ancient stories.
In general, Buddhist scripture does not distinguish same-sex sexual activity from heterosexual activity, both being seen as non-conducive to spiritual growth. Many Buddhist moral laws arise from traditional tales and legends, and this is also the case with the Buddhist view of LGBT people. For example, the monastic rules that prohibit LGBT clergy in some sects come from interpretation of the epic Mahavagga. In the Pandakavathu section of this work, tales about "pandaka" (sexually or gender variant people) are related. In one such story, a Pandaka first approaches a group of monks, then a group of novices, and finally elephant keepers and requests them to "defile" him/her. Although rejected each time and driven away, the encounters create an ethos of innuendo about the monks, leading the Buddha to bar pandakas from the clergy.
According to Cabezón and Greenberg, this stricture is not applied to lay people, and many Buddhist stories include positive portrayals of non-sexual same-sex relationships. These are particularly common in the "Jātaka" stories (Indian folklore tales of Buddha's previous lives), in which the Buddha almost always has a devoted male companion. In some tales they would even be reincarnated together as animal pairs "ruminating and cuddling together, very happy, head to head, muzzle to muzzle, horn to horn". Although not shown as sexual, these relationships between men are loving, and contrast with the difficult marriages to shrewish wives in many stories. Harvey however, disagress and states that this is a reference to brotherly love and not a platonic relationship.
In traditional Thai Theravada Buddhism, accounts propose that "homosexuality arises as a karmic consequence of violating Buddhist proscriptions against heterosexual misconduct" in a previous incarnation Thai Buddhist's also believe the disciple Ānanda to have been reincarnated a number of times as a female, and in one previous life to have been transgender. Ānanda is popular and charismatic, and known for his emotionality. In one story of one of his previous lives, Ānanda was a solitary yogi that fell in love with a Nāga, a serpent king of Indian folklore, who took the form of a handsome youth. The relationship became sexual, causing Ānanda to regretfully break off contact, to avoid distraction from spiritual matters.
According to one legend, male same-sex love was introduced into Japan by the founder of the True Word (Shingon) sect of Japanese esoteric Buddhism, Kūkai. Historians however, point that this is probably not true, since Kūkai was an enthusiastic follower of monastic regulations. Some Bodhisattvas change sexes in different incarnations, which causes some to associate this to homosexuality and transgenderism. Kuan Yin(Kannon), Avalokiteśvara, and Tara are known to have different gender representations.
West African, Yoruba and Dahomean (Vodun)
The celestial creator deity of Dahomey mythology is Mawu-Lisa, formed by a merger of the twin brother and sister gods Lisa (the moon) and Mawa (the sun). In combined form, he or she presented as intersex or transgendered (with changing gender). Other androgynous gods include Nana Buluku, the "Great mother" that gave birth to Lisa and Mawa and created the universe, and contains both male and female essences.
The Akan people of Ghana have a pantheon of gods that includes personifications of celestial bodies. These personification manifest as androgynous of transgender deities, and include Abrao (Jupiter), Aku (Mercury), and Awo (Moon).
Possession by spirits is an integral part of Yoruba and other African spiritual traditions. The possessed are usually women, but can also be men, and both genders are regarded as the "bride" of the deity while possessed. The language used to describe possession has a sexual and violent connotation but unlike in Yoruba-derived American religions, there is no link assumed between possession and homosexual or gender variant activity in everyday life.
Few records of homosexuality exist in Egyptian mythology, and the written and pictorial works are reticent in representing sexualities. The sources that do exist indicate that same-sex relations were regarded negatively, and that penetrative sex was an aggressive act of dominance and power, shameful to the receiver, a common view in the Mediterranean basin area.
The most well-known example of this occurs in the power-struggle between the sky-god Horus, and his uncle Set, the destructive god of the desert. Set's attempts to prove his superiority include schemes of seduction, in which he compliments Horus on his buttocks and tries to anally penetrate him. Unknowingly failing, Set ejaculates between Horus's thighs, allowing Horus to collect his semen to use against him. Set believes that he has conquered Horus by having "performed this aggressive act against him". Horus subsequently throws it in the river, so that he may not be said to have been inseminated by Set. Horus then deliberately spreads his own semen on some lettuce, which was Set's favorite food (the Egyptians thought that lettuce was phallic). After Set has eaten the lettuce, they go to the gods to try to settle the argument over the rule of Egypt. The gods first listen to Set's claim of dominance over Horus, and call his semen forth, but it answers from the river, invalidating his claim. Then, the gods listen to Horus' claim of having dominated Set, and call his semen forth, and it answers from inside Set. The association with an evil god such as Set reinforces the negativity of homosexual relationships, even for the active, participant.
At least some authors, however, have interpreted an at least more neutral message. In some versions, the act between Horus and Set was consensual, if improper, and Set's consumption of Horus' seed produced Thoth's lunar disc, thus being somewhat positive in outcome. Likewise, Set was not demonised until very late in Egyptian history, and the sexual act has been recorded since the first versions.
Human fertility was a major aspect of Egyptian mythology, and was often entwined with the crop fertility provided by annual flooding of the river Nile. This connection was shown in iconography of Nile-gods, such as Hapy, god of the Nile River, and Wadj-wer, god of the Nile Delta, who although male were depicted with female attributes such as pendulous breasts, symbolizing the fertility the river provides.
Mythologies of Oceania
The indigenous population of Australia have a shamanistic religion, which includes a pantheon of gods. The rainbow serpent god Ungud has been described as androgynous or transgender. Shaman identify their erect penises with Ungud, and his androgyny inspires some to undergo ceremonial subincision of the penis. Angamunggi is another transgender rainbow-serpent god, worshipped as a "giver of life".
Other Australian mythological beings include Labarindja, blue-skinned wild women or "demon women" with hair the colour of smoke. Stories about them show them to be completely uninterested in romance or sex with men, and any man forcing his attention upon them could die, due the "evil magic in their vaginas". They are sometimes depicted as gynandrous or intersex, having both a penis and a vagina. This is represented in ritual by having their part played by men in women's clothes.
Polynesian: Hawaiian and Maori
Polynesian religions feature a complex pantheon of deities. Many of these gods refer to their companions of either sex as "aikane", a term encompassing passionate friendship and sexual-love, often in bisexual contexts.
Wahineomo, a goddess of Hawaiian mythology whose name means "thrush woman", is depicted in relationships with other goddesses Hi'iaka and Hopoe. When Hi'iaka was suspected of infidelity with her sister Pele's husband, the volcano goddess Pele killed Hi'iaka's beloved Hopoe by covering her in lava. In addition to Wahineomo and Hopoe, Hi'iaka had lesbian relationships with the fern goddess Pauopalae and Pele-devotee Omeo. Omeo was part of the retinue that brought the bisexual Prince Lohiau to Pele after his death. During his life Lohiau was the lover of both the female Pele and male Paoa.
Other Polynesian LGBT gods include the gay couple Pala-Mao and Kumi-Kahi, and the bisexual goddess Haakauilanani, who was both servant and lover of the "Earth mother" creator goddess Papa and her husband Wakea. Non-divine LGBT characters also exist in Polynesian mythology, such as the (male) shaman Pakaa and his chief and lover Keawe-Nui-A-'umi, and the famed fisherman Nihooleki, who was married to a woman but also had a relationship with the pig god Kamapua'a. Kamapua'a was also responsible for sending the love-god Lonoikiaweawealoha to seduce Pele's brother gods Hiiakaluna and Hiiakalalo, hence distracting them from attacking him. Kamapua'a's other male lovers included Limaloa, the bisexual god of the sea and mirages.
Pacific Island: Celebes, Vanuatu, Borneo and the Philippines
Third gender, or gender variant, spiritual intermediaries are found in many Pacific island cultures, including the bajasa of the Toradja Bare'e people of Celebes, the bantut of the Taosug people of the south Philippines, and the bayoguin of the pre-Christian Philippines. These shamans are typically biologically male but display feminine behaviours and appearance. The pre-Christian Philippines had a polytheistic religion, which included the transgender or hermaphroditic gods Bathala and Malyari, whose names means "Man and Woman in One" and "Powerful One" respectively; these gods are worshipped by the Bayagoin.
The Big Nambas of Vanuatu have the concept of divinely approved-of homoerotic relationships between men, with the older partner called the "dubut". This name is derived from the word for shark, referring to the patronage of the shark-human hydrid creator god Qat.
Among their pantheon of deities, the Ngaju Dayak of Borneo worship Mahatala-Jata, an androgynous or transgender god. The male part of this god is Mahatala, who rules the Upperworld, and is depicted as a hornbill living above the clouds on a mountain-top; the female part is Jata, who rules the Underworld from under the sea in the form of a water-snake. These two manifestations are linked via a jewel-encrusted bridge that is seen in the physical world as a rainbow. Mahatala-Jata is served by "balian", female hierodules, and "basir" transgender shamans metaphorically described as "water snakes which are at the same time hornbills". Similar transgender shamans, the "manang bali", are found in the Iban Dayak people. Girls fated to become manang bali may first dream of becoming a woman and also of being summoned by the god/dess Menjaya Raja Manang or the goddess Ini. Menjaya Raja Manang began existence as a malegod, until his brother's wife became sick. This prompted Menjara into becoming the world's first healer, allowing her to cure her sister-in-law, but this treatment also resulted in Menjara changing into a woman or androgynous being.
Mythologies of the Americas
Maya and Aztec
The Mayan god Chin, reported from the sixteenth century, is said to have introduced homoeroticism into the Mayan culture and subsequently became associated with same-sex love. His example inspired noble families to purchase young men as lovers for their sons, creating legal relationships akin to marriage. An important Mayan deity best known from the Classical period (200-900 AD), the so-called Tonsured Maize God, is often depicted in Maya art as an effeminate young man associated with art and dance, and is thought to have constituted a 'third gender'.
Xochipilli ('Flower Prince') was the god of art, games, beauty, dance, flowers, maize, and song in Aztec mythology, and also the patron of homosexuals and homosexual prostitutes. This role "suggests a complex set of associations including the role of entertainer, the love of exotic foods and perfumes, male gender variance, and same-sex eroticism". The goddess Tlazoteotl, known as the "Eater of Filth" or "Goddess of Excrements" is an underworld deity of life and death, transforming pain and suffering into gold. She is the metaphorical mother and protector of the "Huastecs", transgender or lesbian priestesses, along with the goddess Xochiquetzal. In some manifestations she is known as "Goddess of the Anus", with links to male homosexual sex.
Native American and Inuit
In Inuit shamanism, the first two humans were Aakulujjuusi and Uumarnituq, both male. This same-sex couple desired company and decided to mate. This sexual encounter resulted in pregnancy for Uumarnituq. As he was physically not equipped to give birth, a spell was cast that changed his sex, giving him a vagina capable of passing the child. The now-female Uumarnituq was also responsible for introducing war into the world via magic, in order to curb overpopulation. The goddess Sedna is an Inuit creator deity, with dominion of marine animals. She is depicted as gynandrous or hermaphroditic in some myths, and is served by two-spirit shamans. Other myths show Sedna as a bisexual or lesbian, living with her female partner at the bottom of the ocean.
Many stories of Native Americans include Coyote seducing apparently lesbian couples, usually much to his detriment in the end. Other great spirits will sometimes take over a female body if no other presents itself when they wish to seduce a beautiful young woman.
Notably the Pleiades, or seven sisters, are seven women who despised their husbands preferring one another and eventually ran away together to become stars.
A large number of spirits or deities (lwa) exist in Haitian and Louisiana Voodoo. These lwa may be regarded as families of individuals or as a singular entity with distinct aspects, with links to particular areas of life.
Some lwa have particular links with magic, ancestor worship or death such as the Ghedes and Barons. A number of these are further particularly associated with transgenderism or same-sex interactions. These include Ghede Nibo, a spirit caring for those who die young. He is sometimes depicted as an effeminate drag queen and inspires those he inhabits to lascivious sexuality of all kinds, especially transgender or lesbian behaviour in women. Ghede Nibo's parents are Baron Samedi and Maman Brigitte; Baron Samedi is the leader of the Ghedes and Barons and is depicted as bisexual dandy or occasionally transgender, wearing a top-hat and frock coat along with a women's skirts and shoes. Samedi has a tendency toward "lascivious movements" that cross gender boundaries and also imply a lust for anal sex.
Other barons displaying gay behaviour are Baron Lundy and Baron Limba, who are lovers and teach a type of homoerotic nude wrestling at their school, believed to increase magical potency. Baron Oua Oua, who often manifests with a childlike aspect, has been called the baron "most closely linked to homosexuality" by Voodoo practictioners.
Another lwa, Erzulie, is associated with love, sensuality and beauty. Erzulie can manifest aspects that are LGBT-related, including transgender or amazonian traits, in addition to traditionally feminine guises. When inhabiting men, these aspects can result in transgender or homoerotic behaviour, whereas they may result in lesbianism or anti-male sentiment in women. Erzulie Freda is seen as the protector of gay men, and Erzulie Dantor is associated with lesbians.
Santería and Candomblé
Santería and Candomblé are syncretic religions derived from Yoruba diasporic beliefs and catholicism, most prevalent in South Americas, including Cuba and Brazil. Their mythologies have many similarities to that of Yoruba, and contains a pantheon of Oríshas (spirits), comparable to (and often identified with) the lwa of Voodoo.
In one Cuban Santería "pataki", or mythological story, the sea goddess Yemaha is tricked into incestuous sex with her son Shango. To hide her shame at this event, she banished her other two sons, Inle and Abbata, to live at the bottom of the ocean, additionally cutting out Inle's tongue and making Abbata deaf. As a result of their isolation and loneliness, Inle and Abbata become passionate friends and then lovers, able to communicate empathically. This pataki is used to explain the origin of incest, muteness, and deafness in addition to homosexuality.
Middle Eastern mythologies
Mesopotamian, Sumerian, Phoenician, Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian and Canaanite
The ancient regions of Mesopotamia and Canaan were inhabited by a succession of overlapping civilisations: Sumer, Phoenicia, Akkadia, Babylonia, Assyria. The mythologies of these people were interlinked, often containing the same stories and mythological gods and heroes under different names.
The Sumerian creation myth, "The Creation of Man", from circa 2000 BCE, lists a number of physically differing people created by the goddess Ninmah.[n 1] These included "the woman who cannot give birth" and "the one who has no male organ or female organ", which have been regarded as being third gender or androgynous. Enki, the supreme god, is accepting of these people and assigns them roles in society as "naditu" (priestesses) and "girsequ" (servants to the king). The Akkadian mythical epic Atrahasis contains another iteration of this story, in which Enki specifically requests that Nintu create a "third-category" of people that includes third-gender people, barren women, and an "infant-stealing demon".[n 1]
In ancient Mesopotamia, worship of the goddess Inanna included "soothing laments" sung by third gender priests called "gala".[n 2] According to old Babylonian texts, these priests were created specifically for this purpose by the god Enki. Some gala took female names, and the word itself means "penis+anus", hinting at their androgynous status. The cultural practice, or "me", of androgynous, third-gender or homoerotically inclined priests were part of those said to have been stolen by Innana from Enki in "The Descent of Innana" myth. In the Babylonian Erra myth, the gender of the "kurggaru" and "assinnu" priests was supernaturally changed by the goddess Ishtar, making them feminine.[n 2] The changes may also facilitate possession by the goddess, causing a psychological change or prompting physical castration.
The relationship between the semi-divine hero Gilgamesh and his "intimate companion" Enkidu in the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh has been interpreted as a sexual one by some modern scholars. Enkidu was created as a companion to Gilgamesh by the goddess Aruru, and civilised by a harlot.[n 1] As Gilgamesh and Enkidu were of similar ages and status, their relationship has been seen as relatively egalitarian, in contrast with the typically pederastic mode of ancient Greece or Persia.
Zoroastrianism has been said to have a "hatred of male anal intercourse". This is reflected in its mythology: When Ahriman, the "Spirit of Aridity and Death" and "Lord of Lies", seeks to destroy the world, he engages in self-sodomy. This homosexual self intercourse causes an "explosion of evil power" and results in the birth of a host of evil minions and demons. Ahriman has also been regarded as the patron of men who partake of homosexual sex. However, this negative portrayal of homosexuality in Zoroastrianism is not found in the Gathas, their original holy book which is said to be the direct sayings of the prophet Zoroaster.
The story of David and Jonathan has been described as "biblical Judeo-Christianity's most influential justification of homoerotic love". The relationship between David and Jonathan is mainly covered in the Old Testament First Book of Samuel, as part of the story of David's ascent to power. The mainstream view found in modern biblical exegesis argues that the relationship between the two is merely a close platonic friendship. However, there has recently been a tradition of interpreting the love between David and Jonathan as romantic or sexual. Although David was married (to many women), he articulates a distinction between his relationship with Jonathan and the bonds he shares with women.
Another biblical hero, Noah, best known for his building an ark to save animals and worthy people from a divinely caused flood, later became a wine-maker. One day he drinks too much wine, and fell asleep naked in his tent. When his son Ham enters the tent, he sees his father naked, and is cursed with banishment. In Jewish tradition, it is also suggested that Ham had anal sex with Noah or castrated him.
Ruth and Naomi, two of Jesus's ancestors, are often thought to have been a couple especially after Ruth pledged to stay with Naomi forever in a way still used in marriages today. Even when she remarried to provide them with a better life the two remained together and when she gave birth to Ovid, Naomi was credited by all with being the other parents rather than Ruth's husband, who had no problem with the relationship.
Saints Sergius and Bacchus: Sergius and Bacchus's close relationship has led many modern commentators to believe they were lovers. The most popular evidence for this view is that the oldest text of their martyrology, in the Greek language, describes them as "erastai", or lovers. Historian John Boswell considered their relationship to be an example of an early Christian same-sex union, reflecting his contested view of tolerant early Christian attitudes toward homosexuality. The official stance of the Eastern Orthodox Church is that the ancient Eastern tradition of adelphopoiia, which was done to form a "brotherhood" in the name of God, and is traditionally associated with these two saints, had no sexual implications. Saints Cosmas and Damian
Saint Sebastian is a long-standing gay icon. The combination of his strong, shirtless physique, the symbolism of the arrows penetrating his body, and the look on his face of rapturous pain have intrigued artists (gay or otherwise) for centuries, and began the first explicitly gay cult in the 19th century. Richard A. Kaye wrote, "contemporary gay men have seen in Sebastian at once a stunning advertisement for homosexual desire (indeed, a homoerotic ideal), and a prototypical portrait of tortured closet case."
Islamic and Pre-Islamic Arabian
Islamic folk beliefs remain common, such as the myths surrounding the Jinn, long-lived shapeshifting spirits created from “smokeless fire” (what we today call radiation) (Quran 15:27) and which correspond to the second group of angels who were created on the 5th day of Creation in the Jewish Qabalistic text, the Bahir (“The Illumination”) which were created from “flameless fire” (also another description of radiation). Some believe their shapeshifting abilities allow them to change gender at will but this is not consistent throughout the Islamic world although their ability to fly and travel exceedingly fast are consistent traits of the Jinn. The word Jinn means "hidden from sight"  and they are sometimes considered to be led by Shaytaan (Arabic for “Satan”) (who is the Devil also known in Islam as Iblis “he who causes despair”), representing powers of magic and rebellion, and posing as bringers of wealth.
These traits are associated with the Jinn on account of Shaytaan’s rebellion against the order of Allah to acknowledge Adam’s ability to be superior to the Jinn and his refusal to bow down stating that “he was created from fire and Adam was created from clay” which is the origin of racism (Quran 7:11-12). The ability of the Jinn to travel to the heavens and listen to the discussion of angels and bring back what they overhear and relay it to seers and oracles has linked them with magic (Quran 72:8-10).
Jinn are served Al-Jink and Mukhannathun, transgender and homoerotically-inclined wanderers with entertainment and spiritual functions. In the pre-Islamic Arabic and Oikoumene cultures, third-gender individuals, such as Mukhannathun were worshippers in widespread Goddess cults. These cults revered a trio of goddesses: Al-lāt, Al-Uzza, and Manāt Al-lāt, Al-Uzza, and Manāt. which in pre-Islamic Arabia were believed to be daughters of Allah but were denounced as false idols by Muhammad and the Quran (53:19-23).
Arabian mythology also contains magical sex-changing springs or fountains, such as Al-Zahra. Upon bathing in or drinking from Al-Zahra, a person will change sex. The folklore of Swat, in northern Pakistan often includes same-sex relationships in which the "beloved" is a handsome younger man or boy.
- Ninmah (Sumerian: "Great Queen") has many names, and is identified with Ninhursag (Sumerian: "Lady of the mountain"), Nintu (Akkadian: "Lady of Birth"), Belet-ili (Babylonian: Lady of the gods), Aruru, Mami, Mamma. (Dalley (1998), p. 326)
- Inanna (Sumerian) is identified with Ishtar (Babylonian), Astarte (Phoenician), Atargatis (Syrian) and in later texts Aphrodite (Greek).
- Cabezón, p. vii, "Introduction"
- Conner Sparks (2002), p. ix, "Introduction"
- Pattanaik (2001), p. 3
- Pequigney (2002), p. 1
- Zimmerman & Haggerty, p.527, "Mythology, Nonclassical"
- Pattanaik (2001), p. 16
- Edwin, p. 8
- Conner & Sparks (2004), "Introduction"
- Penczak (2003), p. 34, "In the beginning-Creation Myths"
- Compton, p. 97, "Rome and Greece: Lesbianism"
- Pequigney (2002), p.5
- Penczak (2003), p. 17
- The elegies of Propertius By Harold Edgeworth Butler, Eric Arthur Barbe; p277
- Gay studies from the French cultures: voices from France, Belgium, Brazil ... By Rommel Mendès-Leite, Pierre-Olivier de Busscher; p151
- Pequigney (2002), p.2
- Pequigney (2002), p.4
- Pequigney (2002), p.3
- The seduction of the Mediterranean: writing, art, and homosexual fantasy – Page 231 by Robert Aldrich
- Madness unchained By Lee Fratantuono; p.139
- Classical mythology By Helen Morales; p.93
- Sotades By Herbert Hoffmann, p.16
- The Vatican Mythographers By Ronald E. Pepin; p.17
- Downing, p.198
- "Subjects in the Visual Arts: Dionysus". glbtq. 19 September 2002. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 64, "Aphrodite"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 133, "Erotes"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 132, "Eros"
- ">> social sciences >> Iceland". glbtq. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
- Dumézil, Georges. From Myth to Fiction: the Saga of Hadingus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1970. (p115)
- Viking Answer Lady Webpage – Homosexuality in Viking Scandinavia
- Cherici, pp. 21 & 121
- Boswell (1980), p. 183, Percy (1996), p. 18.
- Cherici, pp. 75 & 146
- Cherici, p. 21
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 116 "Cú chulainn and Ferdiadh"
- Chadwick, Nora (2001). The Celts. London: Folio Society. p. 268. ASIN B0019ZD9Y4.
- Cecile O'Rahilly, Táin Bó Cúailnge Recension 1, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1976, pp. 195–208 
- Cecile O'Rahilly, Táin Bó Cúalnge from the Book of Leinster, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1967, pp. 211–234 
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 159, "Gilfaethwy and Gwydion"
- Xiaomingxiong (2002), p.1
- Eberhard, Wolfram (1986). A Dictionary of Chinese Symbols: Hidden Symbols in Chinese Life and Thought. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. ISBN 0-415-00228-1.
- "The Eight Immortals". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 12, "Chinese Shamanism..."
- Xiaomingxiong (2002), p.2
- The Ultra Supreme Elder Lord's Scripture of Precepts(太上老君戒經), in "The Orthodox Tao Store"(正統道藏)
- The Great Dictionary of Taoism"(道教大辭典), by Chinese Taoism Association, published in China in 1994, ISBN 7-5080-0112-5/B.054
- Szonyi, Michael "The Cult of Hu Tianbao and the Eighteenth-Century Discourse of Homosexuality." Late Imperial China – Volume 19, Number 1, June 1998, pp. 1–25, The Johns Hopkins University Press
- "Taoist homosexuals turn to the Rabbit God: The Rabbit Temple in Yonghe enshrines a deity based on an historic figure that is believed to take care of homosexuals" BY Ho Yi, STAFF REPORTER, Taipei Times, Sunday, October 21, 2007, Page 17 
- Hinsch, Bret. (1990). Passions of the Cut Sleeve. Published by the University of California Press.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 305, "Shinu No Hafuri"
- Murray, Stephen O. (2000). Homosexualities. US: University of Chicago Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-226-55194-4.
- Long, Ronald Edwin (2004). Men, homosexuality, and the Gods: an exploration into the religious significance of male homosexuality in world perspective. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-152-3.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 50, "Amaterasu Omi Kami"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 186, "Ame No Uzume"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 186, "Ishi Kore Dome No Kami"
- Pflugfelder, Gregory (2000). Cartographies of Desire: Male-Male Sexuality in Japanese Discourse, 1600–1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-520-20909-5.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 305 "Shirabyoshi"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 259, "Oyamakui"
- Smyers, Karen Ann. The Fox and the Jewel: Shared and Private Meanings in Contemporary Japanese Inari Worship. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999. 8
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 203, "Kitsune"
- Tyler (1987), xlix.
- Shrikumar, A. (2013-10-18). "No more under siege". The Hindu (Chennai, India).
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 305, "Shiva"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 67, "Ardhararishvara "
- Vanita, p. 69
- Vanita, p. 94
- Smith, B.L., p. 5, Legitimation of Power in South Asia
- Pattanaik (2001), p. 99
- Vanita & Kidwai (2001), pp. 100–102.
- Greenberg, p. 307
- Vanita & Kidwai (2001)
- Greenberg (2007), p. 303, "Homosexuality in Buddhism"
- Cabezón, pp. 207–208
- harvey, peter (2000). An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 421–. ISBN 978-0-511-80080-1.
- Jackson, Peter (1995). Thai Buddhist accounts of male homosexuality and AIDS in the 1980s. The Australian Journal of Anthropology, Vol.6 No.3, pp.140–153. December 1995. Text online
- Cabezón, pp. 215–217
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 198, "Kannon"
- Both sexes in some traditions. http://books.google.ca/books?id=WDekApY7Y94C&pg=PA26&vq=%22in+hindu+myth,+kuan-yin+is+of+both+sexes%22&dq=&lr=&source=gbs_search_s&sig=ACfU3U0_pG2ibSFOmapsMhfidw1rJQMvHw
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 208, "Kuan Yin"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 7, "Buddhism"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 228, "Mawu-Lisa"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 247, "Nanan-bouclou"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 40, "Abrao"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 47, "Aku"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 79, "Awo"
- Murray & Roscoe (2001), pp. 99–100
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 243, "Mwari"
- Murray Roscoe (1997), p. 61
- Haggerty, p.422
- Haggerty, p. 423
- Theology website: The 80 Years of Contention Between Horus and Seth
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 170, "Hapy"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 329, "Ungud"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 58, "Angamunggi"
- Róheim (2008), p. 388
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 211, "Labarindja"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 46, "Aikane"
- Morris, Robert J. (1990). "Aikāne: Accounts of Hawaiian Same-Sex Relationships in the Journals of Captain Cook’s Third Voyage (1776-80)". Journal of Homosexuality 19 (4): 21–54. doi:10.1300/j082v19n04_03.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 344, "Wahineomo"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 246, "Pele"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 263, "Pauopalae"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 254, "Omeo"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 214, "Lohiau"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 260, "Pala-Mao"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 261, "Papa"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 260, "Pakaa"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 249, "Nihooleki"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 217, "Lonoikiaweawealoha"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 215, "Limaloa"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 81, "Bajasa"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 82, "Bantut"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 85, "Bayoguin"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 84, "Bathala"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 225, "Malyari"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 90, "Big Nambas"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 224, "Mahatala-Jata"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 225, "Manang bali"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 230, "Menjaya Raja Manang"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 110, "Chin"
- Matthew Looper, 'Women-Men (and Men-Women): Classic Maya Rulers and the Third Gender', in Traci Ardren ed., Ancient Maya Women, pp. 171–-202. Walnut Creek (Cal.): Altamira Press 2002
- Greenberg, David. The Construction of Homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. ISBN 0-226-30628-3
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 351, "Xochipilli"
- Penczak (2003), p. 52, "Tlazoteotl"
- Penczac (2003), p. 39, "Aakulujjuusi and Uumarnituq"
- Penczac (2003), p. 51, "Sedna"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 157, "Ghede"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 157, "Ghede Nibo"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 83, "Baron Samedi"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 83, "Baron Limba" & "Baron Lundy"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 83, "Baron Oua Oua"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 135, "Erzulie"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 39, "Abbata"
- Murray & Roscoe (1997), p. 67
- Murray & Roscoe (1997), p. 65
- Murray (2002), p. 296
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 159, "Gilgamesh and Enkidu"
- Long, p. 68
- Conner & Sparks (1998), pp. 45, "Ahriman"
- Haggerty, p.380
- DeYoung, p. 290
- Martti Nissinen, Kirsi Stjerna, Homoeroticism in the Biblical World, p. 56
- Boswell, John. Same-sex Unions in Premodern Europe. New York: Vintage, 1994. (pp. 135–137)
- Halperin, David M. One Hundred Years of Homosexuality. New York: Routledge, 1990. (p. 83)
- When Heroes Love:. The Ambiguity of Eros in the Stories of Gilgamesh and David (New York & Chichester, Columbia University Press, 2005), pp. 165–231
- Homosexuality and Liminality in the Gilgamesh and Samuel (Amsterdam, Hakkert, 2007), pp. 28–63
- Conner & Sparks p. 250, "Noah"
- Boswell, p. 154
- Jordan, Mark D. (2000). The silence of Sodom: homosexuality in modern Catholicism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-41041-2. on the nature of "brotherly love", p.174
- "Subjects of the Visual Arts: St. Sebastian". glbtq.com. 2002. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
- Kaye, Richard A. (1996). "Losing His Religion: Saint Sebastian as Contemporary Gay Martyr". Outlooks: Lesbian and Gay Sexualities and Visual Cultures. Peter Horne and Reina Lewis, eds. (New York: Routledge) 86: 105. doi:10.4324/9780203432433_chapter_five.
- "Arrows of desire: How did St Sebastian become an enduring, homo-erotic icon? – Features, Art". The Independent. 10 February 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
- Wehr, Hans (1994). Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (4 ed.). Urbana, Illinois: Spoken Language Services. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-87950-003-0.
- Wehr, Hans (1980). Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (3 ed.). Beirut, Labanon: Librairie du Liban. p. 2.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 191, "Jinn"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 50, "Al-jink"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 240, "Mukhannathun"
- Murray Roscoe (1997), p. 56
- Conner & Sparks (1998), pp. 225–226, "Manat"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 50, "Al-lat"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 51, "Al-Uzza"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 51, "Al-Zahra"
- Murray Roscoe (1997), p. 36
- Conner, Randy P.; Sparks, David Hatfield; Sparks, Mariya (1998). Cassell's Encyclopedia of Queer Myth, Symbol and Spirit. UK: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-70423-7.
- Downing, Christine (1989). Myths and mysteries of same-sex love. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-0445-9.
- Crompton, Louis (2006). Homosexuality and civilization. US: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02233-1.
- Cherici, Peter (1995). Celtic sexuality: power, paradigms, and passion. Tyrone Press. ISBN 978-1-884723-01-8.
- Boswell, John. Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe New York: Villard Books, 1994. ISBN 0-679-43228-0.
- Haggerty, George E. (2000). Gay histories and cultures: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8153-1880-4.
- Zimmerman, Bonnie; Haggerty,George E. (1999). The Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Cultures. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8153-1920-7.
- Cabezón, José Ignacio (1992). Buddhism, sexuality, and gender. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0758-5.
- Pequigney, Joseph (2002). "GLBTQ Enylcopedia, "Classical Mythology"". New England Publishing Associates. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
- Xiaomingxiong (2002). "GLBTQ Enylcopedia, "Chinese Mythology"". New England Publishing Associates. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
- Penczak, Christopher (2003). Gay Witchcraft: Empowering the Tribe. Weiser. ISBN 978-1-57863-281-7.
- Long, Ronald Edwin (2004). Men, homosexuality, and the Gods: an exploration into the religious significance of male homosexuality in world perspective. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-152-3.
- Conner, Randy P.; Sparks, David Hatfield (2004). Queering creole spiritual traditions: lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender participation in African-inspired traditions in the Americas. Haworth Press. ISBN 978-1-56023-351-0.
- Murray, Stephen O.; Roscoe, Will (1997). Islamic homosexualities: culture, history, and literature. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-7468-7.
- Dalley, Stephanie (1998). Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-283589-5.
- Greenberg, Yudit Kornberg (2007). Encyclopedia of Love in World Religions. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-980-1.
- Murray, Stephen O.; Roscoe, Will (2001). Boy-wives and female husbands: studies in African homosexualities. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-23829-2.
- Pattanaik, Devdutt (2001). The man who was a woman and other queer tales of Hindu lore. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-56023-181-3.
- Róheim, Géza (1969). The gates of the dream. International Universities Press.
- Smyers, Karen Ann (1999). The Fox and the Jewel: Shared and Private Meanings in Contemporary Japanese Inari Worship. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2102-5. OCLC 231775156.
- Vanita, Ruth; Kidwai, Saleem (2001). Same-sex love in India: readings from literature and history. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-29324-6.
- Courtright, Paul B. (1989). Ganesa: Lord of Obstacles, Lord of Beginnings. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-505742-3.
- Conner, Randy P.; David Hatfield Sparks; Mariya Sparks (1998). Cassell's Encyclopedia of Queer Myth, Symbol and Spirit. UK: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-70423-7.
- Penczak, Christopher (2003). Gay Witchcraft: Empowering the Tribe. Weiser. ISBN 978-1-57863-281-7.
- Greenberg, Yudit Kornberg (2007). Encyclopedia of Love in World Religions. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-980-1.