List of LGBT characters in modern written fiction

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This is a List of LGBT characters in modern written fiction. The historical concept and definition of sexual orientation varies and has changed greatly over time; for example the word "gay" wasn't used to describe sexual orientation until the mid 20th century. A number of different classification schemes have been used to describe sexual orientation since the mid-19th century, and scholars have often defined the term 'sexual orientation' in divergent ways. Indeed, several studies have found that much of the research about sexual orientation has failed to define the term at all, making it difficult to reconcile the results of different studies.[1][2][3] However, most definitions include a psychological component (such as the direction of an individual's erotic desire) and/or a behavioral component (which focuses on the sex of the individual's sexual partner/s). Some prefer to simply follow an individual's self-definition or identity. See homosexuality and bisexuality for criteria that have traditionally denoted lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people.

Kilian Meloy wrote:[4]

In a historical sense, literature as we understand it is a fairly new innovation, and the current concept of homosexuality is even fresher from the cultural oven. It's no great surprise, then, that gay literature — or even gay characters in literature — are so relatively new as to still be shiny. Nonetheless, there are gay characters that broke barriers and became cultural touchstones...

Items listed here must have verifiable third-party sources commenting on the sexuality of the character(s) in question, and additional explanation may be necessary. Citing the work itself may be appropriate if an applicable quote is provided. Additionally, only notable/significant characters from a given work (which may have multiple LGBT characters) need to be listed here.

A[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Carol Aird The Price of Salt Patricia Highsmith Bisexual; has a sexual/romantic relationship with another woman while married to a man. [5]
Alec i Amasa Nightrunner series Lynn Flewelling Bisexual [6]
Alec (David Alexander Tielman Campion, diuk Tremontaine) Riverside series Ellen Kushner
Alexander the Great Fire from Heaven
The Persian Boy
Mary Renault Bisexual [7]
Nico di Angelo Percy Jackson and the Olympians
The Heroes of Olympus
Rick Riordan Gay or bisexual (never directly labelled); he admits having had feelings for Percy Jackson after pressured by Cupid on the fourth book of The Heroes of Olympus series, The House of Hades. The only demigod to know of his feelings is Jason Grace, as Nico fears the others will judge him if they find out about his sexuality.
Armand The Vampire Chronicles Anne Rice Bisexual; In the novel The Vampire Armand, he is shown to have sexual relations with a number of people of both sexes, including Marius de Romanus and Bianca Solderini. [8]
Vanyel Ashkevron The Last Herald Mage trilogy Mercedes Lackey Gay; In the series, Vanyel has two sexual relationships, both with male partners. [9]
Nancy "Nan" Astley Tipping the Velvet Sarah Waters Lesbian; main character who has sexual/romantic relationships with three other women as well as other casual sexual encounters. [10]

B[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Bagoas The Persian Boy Mary Renault Gay [7]
Magnus Bane The Mortal Instruments "The Infernal Devices" Cassandra Clare Bisexual; has a sexual/romantic relationship with a main male character, Alec. He has presumably had numerous relations with both genders.
Florence Banner Tipping the Velvet Sarah Waters Lesbian; has a sexual/romantic relationship with the main character. [11]
Renly Baratheon A Song of Ice and Fire George R R Martin Gay; Never clearly stated in the books but hinted at having a sexual/romantic relationship with Loras Tyrell. In the TV-show it is made clear that they are lovers.
Therese Belivet The Price of Salt Patricia Highsmith Lesbian; has a sexual/romantic relationship with another woman. [5]
Elizabeth Bennett Gay Pride and Prejudice Kate Christie (author) Lesbian. Romantic relationships with Charlotte Lucas and Caroline Bingly. [12]
Mr. Benson Mr. Benson John Preston Gay [7]
Frank Berry The Hotel New Hampshire John Irving Identifies as gay. [13]
Berdine The Blood of the Fold Terry Goodkind Lesbian. Was in a relationship with Raina, a fellow Mord-Sith. [14]
Molly Bolt Rubyfruit Jungle Rita Mae Brown Lesbian; main character who has numerous romantic and sexual relationships with other women. [15]
Dave Brandstetter Dave Brandstetter Mysteries Joseph Hansen Gay [16]
Beebo Brinker The Beebo Brinker Chronicles Ann Bannon Lesbian [17]
Coach Harlan Brown The Front Runner Patricia Nell Warren Gay [7]
Richard Brown The Hours Michael Cunningham Gay [18]
Kitty Butler Tipping the Velvet Sarah Waters Bisexual; has a sexual/romantic relationship with the main character as well as marrying a man. [11]

C[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Barry Cabot Chocolates for Breakfast Pamela Moore Bisexual male Hollywood actor with a male lover; later has sex with the novel's fifteen-year-old female protagonist as well as her mother. [19]
Beth Ayers/Cullison The Beebo Brinker Chronicles Ann Bannon Lesbian [17]
Clay Less Than Zero and Imperial Bedrooms Bret Easton Ellis Bisexual
Fever Crumb Fever Crumb Series Philip Reeve Bisexual
Jason Carrillo Rainbow Boys Alex Sanchez Gay [20]
Luis Carruthers American Psycho Brett Easton Ellis Gay, Possibly Bisexual (In love with the male protagonist, later gets married to Courtney.)

D[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Anne Damer Life Mask Emma Donoghue Lesbian; has a sexual/romantic relationship with another woman. [21]
Ambassador Dannyl The Black Magician Trilogy Trudi Canavan Gay; referred to in novel as a 'lad'. [22]
Peggy Danziger Happy Endings Are All Alike Sandra Scoppettone Lesbian; has a sexual and romantic relationship with another woman. [5]
Infinite Darlene/Daryl Boy Meets Boy David Levithan Also, gay.Transgender. Formerly known as Daryl, now a drag queen called "Infinite Darlene". [23]
David Giovanni's Room James Baldwin Bisexual [7]
Selina Dawes Affinity Sarah Waters Lesbian; has a sexual/romantic relationship with another woman. [24]
Ennis del Mar Brokeback Mountain Annie Proulx Main character who has a long term sexual relationship with another man as well as being married to a woman. Critics have described him variously as gay, bisexual, or occasionally as a heterosexual. [25][26]
Paul Denton The Rules of Attraction Bret Easton Ellis Bisexual, falls in love with main character (a man) [27]
Sarah Dowling Patience and Sarah Isabel Miller [28]
Emil Drucker Pay This Amount Daniel Scott Gay [29]
Albus Dumbledore Harry Potter series JK Rowling Confirmed by Rowling to be gay, although nothing was said in the books. Some critics still doubt this- citing the principles of Authorial Intent. [30][31][32][33]
Clive Durham Maurice E. M. Forster Gay [34]

E[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Sieur Anton d'Escrivey The Books of Outremer series Chaz Brenchley Gay

F[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Alluvia Fairfax (Alice) Gut Symmetries Jeanette Winterson Bisexual; main character who falls in love with a man and a woman and has a sexual relationship with them both. [35]
Lucy Farinelli Kay Scarpetta novels Patricia Cornwell Lesbian; niece of the main character. Has several romantic relationships with other women as well as many casual sexual encounters with other women. [36]
Courtney Farrell Chocolates for Breakfast Pamela Moore Develops a crush on her female boarding school teacher. [19]
Simon Foster A Fairly Honourable Defeat Iris Murdoch Gay [37]

G[edit]

Dorian Gray was one of the first in a long list of hedonistic fellows whose homosexual tendencies secured a terrible fate.
 
— Drew Banks , as quoted in "Influential Gay Characters in Literature"
Character name Book Author Details Reference
Giovanni Giovanni's Room James Baldwin Gay [7]
Nelson Glassman Rainbow Boys Alex Sanchez Gay [20]
Michael Godwin Riverside series Ellen Kushner Bisexual
Dorian Gray The Picture of Dorian Gray Oscar Wilde Bisexual [7]
Lord John Grey Lord John series Diana Gabaldon Gay
Nick Guest The Line of Beauty Alan Hollinghurst Gay

H[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Darvish Shayrif Hakem The Fire's Stone Tanya Huff Bisexual, stated throughout the book. Falls in love with Aarin, another lead character from the book. [38]
Maurice Hall Maurice E. M. Forster Gay [39]
Basil Hallward The Picture of Dorian Gray Oscar Wilde Gay [40]
Baron Vladimir Harkonnen Dune Frank Herbert Gay; Harkonnen's sexual preference for men is implied in Dune and Children of Dune, and presented more explicitly in the Prelude to Dune prequel trilogy by Brian Herbert and Kevin J. Anderson. [41][42][43]
Basil Henderson Invisible Life
Just As I Am
Abide With Me
E. Lynn Harris Bisexual [7][44]
Sage Hendrix Almost Perfect, winner of the 2011 Stonewall Children's and Young Adult Literature Award Brian Katcher Transgender woman [45]

I[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Ilar i Sontir Nightrunner series Lynn Flewelling

J[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Ruth Jamison Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe Fannie Flagg Lesbian; main character who has long-term romantic relationship with another woman. [46]
Holland Jeager Keeping You a Secret Julie Anne Peters Lesbian; has relationship with female character as well as male character.
Jeanette Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit Jeanette Winterson Lesbian [47]
Jemel The Books of Outremer series Chaz Brenchley Gay

K[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Annie Kenyon Annie on My Mind Nancy Garden Lesbian. [48]
Joel Harrison Knox Other Voices, Other Rooms Truman Capote Gay. [49]
Keren Arrows of the Queen Mercedes Lackey Lesbian. Life bonded to Ylsa and then Sherrill. [50]

L[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Denise Lambert The Corrections Jonathan Franzen Lesbian [51]
Laura Landon The Beebo Brinker Chronicles Ann Bannon Lesbian [17]
Renee LaRoche Along the Journey River Carole LaFavor Lesbian protagonist [52]
Diana Leathaby Tipping the Velvet Sarah Waters Lesbian; has a sexual relationship with the main character and other women. [11]
Nicolas de Lenfent The Vampire Chronicles Anne Rice Probably gay. While human, Nicolas shares a sexual relationship with Lestat de Lioncourt. [8]
Alec Lightwood The Mortal Instruments Cassandra Clare Gay. Closeted in love with his best friend (who helps him realize he has no true feelings for him after all). In a secret relationship with his immortal boyfriend; Magnus Bane. Later in story comes out to everyone he knows by publicly kissing Magnus, despite homosexuality being despised by many. Has an uneasy relationship with parents who find it difficult coming to grips with his sexuality.
Maud Lilly Fingersmith Sarah Waters Lesbian; main character who has a sexual/romantic relationship with another woman. [53]
Lestat de Lioncourt The Vampire Chronicles Anne Rice Bisexual. Lestat is attracted to and has intense relationships with members of both sexes. [8]
Ronan Lynch The Raven Cycle Maggie Stiefvater Gay.

M[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Malone Dancer from the Dance Andrew Holleran Gay [54]
Marron The Books of Outremer series Chaz Brenchley Gay
Dirk McDonald Baby Be-Bop, Weetzie Bat Francesca Lia Block Gay [55]
Alice Meadows A Village Affair Joanna Trollope Married woman who has a sexual and romantic relationship with another woman. [5]
Kyle Meeks Rainbow Boys Alex Sanchez Gay [20]
Christopher Metcalfe Now and Then William Corlett Gay. Main character who has a sexual and romantic relationship as a boy with another boy at school. Later has sexual relationships with other men and eventually pursues a romantic relationship with another man.
Russel Middlebrook Geography Club Brent Hartinger Gay [5]
Paul Michel Hallucinating Foucault Patricia Duncker Openly homosexual writer, said to have many male lovers, including relationship with male main character/narrator. [56][57]
Luis Molina Kiss of the Spider Woman Manuel Puig Transgender [58]
Moirin Naamah's Kiss, Naamah’s Curse, Naamah’s Blessing Jacqueline Carey Main character, bisexual; has relationships with both men and women.
Annette Muscari The Ferryman Christopher Golden Lesbian

N[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
The Narrator Written on the Body Jeanette Winterson Bisexual; main character of unspecified gender who has sexual/romantic relationships with men and women. Some reviewers describe the narrator as a lesbian. [59][60]
Alex Nilsson A Fairly Honourable Defeat Iris Murdoch Gay [37]
Noah Boy Meets Boy David Levithan Gay. In love with Paul. [23]
Hélène Noris The Illusionist Françoise Mallet-Joris Has a sexual relationship with another woman. [5]

O[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Jeff O'Brien The Men from the Boys
Where The Boys Are
Men Who Love Men
William J. Mann Gay [7]
Oshima Kafka on the Shore Haruki Murakami Gay, transgender

P[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Patrick The Perks of Being a Wallflower Stephen Chbosky Gay; previously in a relationship with Brad
Paul Boy Meets Boy David Levithan Gay; main character. Ex-boyfriend of Kyle, in love with Noah. [7][23]
Phèdre nó Delaunay Kushiel's Legacy Jacqueline Carey Bisexual - Main character in first trilogy. [8]
Louis de Pointe du Lac The Vampire Chronicles Anne Rice Bisexual [8]
Margaret Prior Affinity Sarah Waters Lesbian; main character who pursues a romantic relationship with another woman. [24]

R[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Richie The Slap Christos Tsiolkas Gay; main character who has a sexual attraction to Hector. [61]

S[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Alec Scudder Maurice E. M. Forster Gay [7]
Seregil i Korit Solun Meringil Bokthersa Nightrunner series Lynn Flewelling Gay [6]
Danny Slocum The Confessions of Danny Slocum George Whitmore Gay [7]
Lisbeth Salander Millennium series Stieg Larsson Bisexual [62]
Tamara Soulerr The Illusionist Françoise Mallet-Joris Bisexual. Has sexual relationship with a man, and with his daughter. [5]
Neal Spence Some of Us Have to Get Up in the Morning Daniel Scott Gay [63]
Stefen The Last Herald Mage trilogy Mercedes Lackey Gay [9]
Stella Gut Symmetries Jeanette Winterson Bisexual; falls in love with and marries a man, falls in love with and has a sexual relationship with a woman. [35]
Milo Sturgis Alex Delaware series Jonathan Kellerman Gay
Sutherland Dancer from the Dance Andrew Holleran Gay [54]

T[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
David Talbot The Vampire Chronicles Anne Rice Bisexual; has sexual relationships with Lestat de Lioncourt, Joshua (both men) and Merrick Mayfair (a woman).
Tamaru 1Q84 Haruki Murakami Gay [64]
Idgie Threadgoode Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe Fannie Flagg Lesbian; main character who has long-term romantic relationship with another woman, and sexual encounters with one other woman. [46]
Tony Boy Meets Boy David Levithan Gay. Child of orthodox Jewish parents. [65][66]
Aud Torvingen The Blue Place Nicola Griffith Lesbian [5]
Tayend of Tremmelin The Black Magician Trilogy Trudi Canavan Gay; referred to in novel as a 'lad'. Lover of Ambassador Dannyl. [22]
Sue Trinder Fingersmith Sarah Waters Lesbian; main character who has a romantic/sexual relationship with another woman. [53]
Jack Twist Brokeback Mountain Annie Proulx Main character who has a long term sexual relationship with another man as well as being married to a woman and having sexual relationships with other men and a woman while married. Critics have described him variously as gay or bisexual. [25][26]
Jaret Tyler Happy Endings Are All Alike Sandra Scoppettone Lesbian; has a sexual and romantic relationship with another woman and identifies as a lesbian. [5]
Raymond Tyler Jr. Invisible Life
Just As I Am
Abide With Me
E. Lynn Harris Bisexual [7]

U[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Clodagh Unwin A Village Affair Joanna Trollope Lesbian; has a sexual and romantic relationship with another woman. [5]

V[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Clarissa Vaughan The Hours Michael Cunningham Lesbian; in a long-term relationship with another woman. [5]
Richard St. Vier Riverside series Ellen Kushner Bisexual
Villanelle The Passion Jeanette Winterson Falls in love with a woman.

W[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
Max Walker Golden Boy Abigail Tarttelin The story follows an intersex teenager, Max, and his family and in particular highlights the difficulties the family faces with many of the health care providers they encounter. [67]
Min Wei Geography Club Brent Hartinger Bisexual. [5]
Patience White Patience and Sarah Isabel Miller Lesbian. [28]
Liza Winthrop Annie on My Mind Nancy Garden Lesbian. [48]
Felicity Worthington The Gemma Doyle Trilogy Libba Bray Lesbian.
Jason Wyatt Sunningdale Golf and Country Club Libba Bray Gay.
Will Grayson Will Grayson, Will Grayson John Green and David Levithan Gay.
Wallace Wells Scott Pilgrim vs. the World Bryan Lee O'Malley Gay.

X[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
X   (Narrator's pseudonym) Boy Culture Matthew Rettenmund Gay; has sexual and romantic relationships with Andrew, Joe and other men. [7]

Y[edit]

Character name Book Author Details Reference
X   (Allison Mann) Y: The Last Man Brian K. Vaughan Lesbian. [1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shively, M.G.; Jones, C.; DeCecco, J. P. (1984). "Research on sexual orientation: definitions and methods". Journal of Homosexuality 9 (2/3): 127–137. doi:10.1300/J082v09n02_08. PMID 6376622. 
  2. ^ Gerdes, L.C. (1988). The Developing Adult (Second ed.). Durban: Butterworths; Austin, TX: Butterworth Legal Publishers. ISBN 0-409-10188-5. 
  3. ^ Sell, Randall L. (December 1997). "Defining and Measuring Sexual Orientation: A Review: How do you define sexual orientation?". Archives of Sexual Behavior 26 (6): 643–658. doi:10.1023/A:1024528427013. PMID 9415799. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  4. ^ "Influential Gay Characters in Literature"
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lo, Malinda (2007-05-22). "13 Lesbian and Bi Characters You Should Know". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-01. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  6. ^ a b Jamneck, Lynne (2005). "An Interview with Lynn Flewelling". Writing-World.com. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Meloy, Kilian (September 24, 2007). "Influential Gay Characters in Literature". AfterElton.com. Retrieved February 15, 2009. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Haggerty, George E. (1998). "Anne Rice and the queering of culture". Novel: A Forum on Fiction. Retrieved 2007-07-07. [dead link]
  9. ^ a b Lackey, Mercedes (2005). "Ask Misty Archive - Valdemar". The World of Mercedes Lackey. Retrieved 2007-07-22. 
  10. ^ "Tipping the Velvet by Sarah Waters (review)". Powell's Books. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  11. ^ a b c "Tipping the Velvet by Sarah Waters (review)". Barnes & Noble.com. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  12. ^ Gay Pride and Prejudice. 2012. p. 362. 
  13. ^ "The Hotel New Hampshire Review". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  14. ^ Blood of the Fold. Tor Books. 1997. p. 623. ISBN 978-0812551471. 
  15. ^ Day, Frances Ann (2000). Lesbian and Gay Voices: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide to Literature. Korea: Greenwood Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-313-31162-5. 
  16. ^ Walker, Peter. "Dave Brandstetter". ThrillingDetective.com. Retrieved 2007-07-22. 
  17. ^ a b c Yndigoyen, Rose (2005-07-16). "The Beebo Brinker Chronicles". Retrieved 2007-07-22. 
  18. ^ Young, Tory (2003). Michael Cunningham's the Hours: A Reader's Guide. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 37. ISBN 0-8264-1476-1. 
  19. ^ a b Moore, Pamela (1956). Chocolates for Breakfast. Harper. 
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  22. ^ a b Canavan, Trudi (2002). The Novice. Orbit. p. 480. ISBN 1-904233-67-8. 
  23. ^ a b c "Boy Meets Boy description". davidleviathan.com. 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  24. ^ a b Holcombe, Garan (2005). "Sarah Waters - Critical Perspective". ContemporaryWriters.com. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  25. ^ a b Phillips, Richard; Diane Watt (2000). De-Centering Sexualities: Politics and Representations Beyond the Metropolis. Routledge. pp. 2–5. ISBN 0-415-19465-2. 
  26. ^ a b Rood, Karen Lane (2001). Understanding Annie Proulx. Univ of South Carolina Press. pp. 187–190. ISBN 1-57003-402-8. 
  27. ^ Behling, Harold John (2002-07-03). "The Rules of Attraction's bleak originality shows character study". University Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  28. ^ a b Katz, Jonathan. "Writing and Publishing Patience and Sarah". Retrieved 2007-07-22. 
  29. ^ http://www.edgeboston.com/index.php?ch=entertainment&sc=books&sc3=fiction&id=81280
  30. ^ "JK Rowling says wizard Dumbledore is gay". Washington Post. 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2007-10-20. [dead link]
  31. ^ "JK Rowling outs Dumbledore as gay". BBC News. 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  32. ^ "Rowling dubs Dumbledore of Harry Potter books as gay". Daily News (New York). 2007-10-19. Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  33. ^ "J.K. Rowling outs Hogwarts character". Yahoo! News. 2007-10-20. Archived from the original on 2007-10-21. Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  34. ^ Hunter, Richard (2004). Plato's Symposium. Oxford University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-19-516079-7. 
  35. ^ a b Griffin, Gabriele (2000). Romancing the Margins?: Lesbian Writing in the 1990s. Haworth Press. p. 73. ISBN 1-56023-133-5. 
  36. ^ Mizejewski, Linda (2004). Hardboiled and High Heeled: The Woman Detective in Popular Culture. Routledge. p. 26. ISBN 0-415-96971-9. 
  37. ^ a b Grimshaw, Tammy (2005). Sexuality, Gender, And Power In Iris Murdoch's Fiction. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-8386-4061-3. 
  38. ^ Huff, Tanya (1990). The Fire's Stone. ISBN 0-88677-445-4. "Darvish made certain they had plenty to report as he filled his life with wine and his bed with every willing body he stumbled across..." 
  39. ^ Da Silva, Stephen (1998). "Transvaluing immaturity: reverse discourses of male homosexuality in E.M. Forster's posthumously published fiction". Criticism. Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  40. ^ Horan, Patrick M. (1997). The Importance of Being Paradoxical: Maternal Presence in the Works of Oscar Wilde. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-8386-3733-7. 
  41. ^ Herbert, Frank (1965). Dune. ISBN 0-399-12949-9. "'I'll be in my sleeping chambers,' the Baron said. 'Bring me that young fellow we bought on Gamont, the one with the lovely eyes. Drug him well. I don't feel like wrestling.'" 
  42. ^ Herbert, Frank (1965). Dune. ISBN 0-202-86504-5. "'Why haven't you ever bought a Bene Gesserit, Uncle?' Feyd-Rautha asked. 'With a Truthsayer at your side —' 'You know my tastes!' the Baron snapped ... 'This old fool saw through the shielded needle you'd planted in that slave boy's thigh. Right where I'd put my hand on it, eh?'" 
  43. ^ Though Harkonnen is the biological father of Lady Jessica, it is noted in Dune that this is because he "once permitted himself to be seduced."
  44. ^ Amazon.com Editorial review. "Abide With Me". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2007-10-12. "Basil Henderson ... is regularly attending therapy ... although it doesn't seem to be helping him deal with ... his denial of his bisexuality ..." 
  45. ^ Almost Perfect wins 2011 Stonewall Children's and Young Adult Literature Award
  46. ^ a b Greenhill/Tye (1998). Undisciplined Women: Tradition and Culture in Canada. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-7735-1615-8. 
  47. ^ Griffin, Gabriele (2002). Who's Who in Lesbian and Gay Writing. Routledge. p. 217. ISBN 0-415-15984-9. 
  48. ^ a b Day, Frances Ann (2000). Lesbian and Gay Voices: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide to Literature. Korea: Greenwood Press. p. 29. ISBN 0-313-31162-5. 
  49. ^ Richards, Gary (2005). Lovers And Beloveds: Sexual Otherness In Southern Fiction, 1936–1961. LSU Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-8071-3051-6. 
  50. ^ Lackey, Mercedes (1987). Arrows of the Queen. DAW. p. 320. ISBN 0886773784. 
  51. ^ Franzen, Jonathan (2001). The Corrections. New York, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 568. ISBN 0374129983. 
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  53. ^ a b Gilling, Tom (2002-02-24). "Our Mutual Attraction". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  54. ^ a b Bergman, David (2004). The Violet Hour: The Violet Quill and the Making of Gay Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-231-13050-3. 
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  57. ^ "Author! Author!". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 
  58. ^ Puig, Manuel (1987). Kiss of the Spider Woman. New York: Norton. p. 18. ISBN 0-393-31148-1. 
  59. ^ Stowers, Cath; Purvis, June (1995). (Hetero)sexual Politics - Journeying with Jeanette: Transgressive Travels in Winterson's Fiction. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-7484-0295-0. 
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  61. ^ Tsiolkas, Christos (2008). The Slap, p.139
  62. ^ Lorber, Judith (7 July 2011). "The Gender Ambiguity of Lisbeth Salander: Third-Wave Feminist Hero?". Dissent Magazine. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  63. ^ ((http://www.bookweb.org/news/finding-new-definition-crossover-gay-and-lesbian-publishing-bea))
  64. ^ Murakami, Haruki (2011). 1Q84. Tokyo, Japan: Shinchosa. p. 928. ISBN 978-0-307-59331-3. 
  65. ^ Amazon.com Editorial Reviews. Boy Meets Boy.
  66. ^ Webber, Carlie Kraft. Boy Meets Boy review - TeenReads.com
  67. ^ Cagney, Hannah (2013). "A story of a golden boy". The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 1 (4): e16. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70121-9. ISSN 2213-8587.