Hermes

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Hermes
Messenger of the gods
God of trade, thieves, travelers, sports, athletes, and border crossings, guide to the Underworld
Hermes Ingenui Pio-Clementino Inv544.jpg
Hermes Ingenui (Vatican Museums). Roman copy of the 2nd century BC after a Greek original of the 5th century BC. Hermes wears his usual attributes: kerykeion, kithara, petasus (round hat), traveller's cloak and winged temples.
Symbol Talaria, Caduceus, Tortoise, Lyre, Rooster
Consort Merope, Aphrodite, Dryope, Peitho
Parents Zeus and Maia
Siblings Ares, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Dionysus, Hebe, Heracles, Helen of Troy, Hephaestus, Perseus, Minos, the Muses, the Graces
Children Pan, Hermaphroditus, Tyche, Abderus, Autolycus, and Angelia
Roman equivalent Mercury

Hermes (/ˈhɜrmz/; Greek: Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia. He is second youngest of the Olympian gods.

Hermes is a god of transitions and boundaries. He is quick and cunning, and moved freely between the worlds of the mortal and divine, as emissary and messenger of the gods,[1] intercessor between mortals and the divine, and conductor of souls into the afterlife. He is protector and patron of travelers, herdsmen, thieves,[2] orators and wit, literature and poets, athletics and sports, invention and trade.[3] In some myths he is a trickster, and outwits other gods for his own satisfaction or the sake of humankind. His attributes and symbols include the herma, the rooster and the tortoise, purse or pouch, winged sandals, winged cap, and his main symbol is the herald's staff, the Greek kerykeion or Latin caduceus which consisted of two snakes wrapped around a winged staff.[4]

In the Roman adaptation of the Greek pantheon (see interpretatio romana), Hermes is identified with the Roman god Mercury,[5] who, though inherited from the Etruscans, developed many similar characteristics, such as being the patron of commerce.

Etymology[edit]

The earliest form of the name Hermes is the Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀔𐁀, *e-ma-a2 (e-ma-ha), written in the Linear B syllabic script.[6] Most scholars derive "Hermes" from Greek herma[7] (a stone, roadside shrine or boundary marker), dedicated to Hermes as a god of travelers and boundaries; the etymology of herma itself is unknown. "Hermes" may be related to Greek hermeneus ("the interpreter"), reflecting Hermes's function as divine messenger.[8][9][10] Plato offers a Socratic folk-etymology for Hermes's name, deriving it from the divine messenger's reliance on eirein (the power of speech).[10] Scholarly speculation that "Hermes" derives from a more primitive form meaning "one cairn" is disputed.[9] The word "hermeneutics", the study and theory of interpretation, is derived from hermeneus. In Greek a lucky find is a hermaion.

It is also suggested that Hermes is cognate of the Vedic Sarama (Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology), who is, like Hermes, a messenger of Indra, the chief Vedic God, as well as a 'person' of quick movement (Yaska's nirukta).

Mythology[edit]

Early Greek sources[edit]

Hermes with his mother Maia. Detail of the side B of an Attic red-figure belly-amphora, c. 500 BC.
Kriophoros Hermes (which takes the lamb), late-Roman copy of Greek original from the 5th century BC. Barracco Museum, Rome

Homer and Hesiod portrayed Hermes as the author of skilled or deceptive acts, and also as a benefactor of mortals. In the Iliad he was called "the bringer of good luck," "guide and guardian" and "excellent in all the tricks." He was a divine ally of the Greeks against the Trojans. However, he did protect Priam when he went to the Greek camp to retrieve the body of his son Hector, and he accompanies them back to Troy.[11]

Hermes stole Apollo's cattle when he was born. He jumped out of his crib and hid the cattle. Just when Apollo realized, Hermes jumped back into his crib and pretended to be innocent. Apollo took Hermes by the scruff of the neck and took him to his father, Zeus. Apollo said he was unhappy with the way he was being treated. Instead of punishing young Hermes, Zeus just laughed and found the matter funny.

He also rescued Ares from a brazen vessel where he had been imprisoned by Otus and Ephialtes. In the Odyssey he helped his great-grand son, the protagonist, Odysseus, informing him about the fate of his companions, who were turned into animals by the power of Circe, and instructed him to protect himself by chewing a magic herb; he also told Calypso Zeus' order for her to free the same hero from her island to continue his journey back home. When Odysseus killed the suitors of his wife, Hermes led their souls to Hades.[12] In The Works and Days, when Zeus ordered Hephaestus to create Pandora to disgrace humanity by punishing the act of Prometheus giving fire to man, every god gave her a gift, and Hermes's gift was lies and seductive words, and a dubious character. Then he was instructed to take her as wife to Epimetheus.[13]

Aeschylus wrote in The Eumenides that Hermes helped Orestes kill Clytemnestra under a false identity and other stratagems,[2] and also said that he was the god of searches, and those who seek things lost or stolen.[14] In PhiloctetesSophocles invokes Hermes when Odysseus needs to convince Philoctetes to join the Trojan War on the side of the Greeks, and in EuripidesRhesus Hermes helps Dolon spy on the Greek navy.[2]

Aesop featured him in several of his fables, as ruler of the gate of prophetic dreams, as the god of athletes, of edible roots, and of hospitality. He also said that Hermes had assigned each person his share of intelligence.[15]

The Homeric hymn to Hermes invokes him as the one "of many shifts (polytropos), blandly cunning, a robber, a cattle driver, a bringer of dreams, a watcher by night, a thief at the gates, one who was soon to show forth wonderful deeds among the deathless gods."[16] Hermes, as an inventor of fire,[17] is a parallel of the Titan Prometheus. In addition to the lyre, Hermes was believed to have invented many types of racing and the sports of wrestling and boxing, and therefore was a patron of athletes.[18]

Hellenistic Greek sources[edit]

Several writers of the Hellenistic period expanded the list of Hermes's achievements. Callimachus said he disguised himself as a cyclops to scare the Oceanides and was disobedient to his mother.[19] One of the Orphic Hymns Khthonios is dedicated to Hermes, indicating that he was also a god of the underworld. Aeschylus had called him by this epithet several times.[20] Another is the Orphic Hymn to Hermes, where his association with the athletic games held in tone is mystic.[21]

Phlegon of Tralles said he was invoked to ward off ghosts,[22] and Pseudo-Apollodorus reported several events involving Hermes. He participated in the Gigantomachy in defense of Olympus; was given the task of bringing baby Dionysus to be cared for by Ino and Athamas and later by nymphs of Asia, followed Hera, Athena and Aphrodite in a beauty contest; favored the young Hercules by giving him a sword when he finished his education and lent his sandals to Perseus.[23] The Thracian princes identified him with their god Zalmoxis, considering his ancestor.[24]

Anyte of Tegea of the 3rd century BC,[25] in translation by R Aldington, wrote:[26]

I Hermes stand here at the crossroads by the wind beaten orchard, near the hoary grey coast; and I keep a resting place for weary men. And the cool stainless spring gushes out.

called Hermes of the Ways after the patronage of travellers.[27][28]

Epithets of Hermes[edit]

Kriophoros[edit]

Argeiphontes[edit]

Hermes's epithet Ἀργειφόντης Argeiphontes (Latin: Argicida), meaning "Argus-slayer",[29][30] recalls his slaying of the hundred-eyed giant Argus Panoptes, who was watching over the heifer-nymph Io in the sanctuary of Queen Hera herself in Argos. Hermes placed a charm on Argus's eyes with the caduceus to cause the giant to sleep, after this he slew the giant.[7] Argus' eyes were then put into the tail of the peacock, symbol of the goddess Hera.

Messenger and guide[edit]

  • Diactoros, (angelos[31]) the messenger,[32] is in fact only seen in this role, for Zeus, from within the pages of the Odyssey (Brown 1990).[2]

... Oh mighty messenger of the gods of the upper and lower worlds ... (Aeschylus).[33]

Explicitly, at least in sources of classical writings, of Euripides Electra and Iphigenia in Aulis[34] and in Epictetus Discourses.[35] According to Blackwood's Edinburgh magazine (1849) the chief office of the God was as messenger.[36]

Sarpedon’s body carried by Hypnos and Thanatos (Sleep and Death), while Hermes watches. Side A of the so-called “Euphronios krater”, Attic red-figured calyx-krater signed by Euxitheos (potter) and Euphronios (painter), ca. 515 BC.

The messenger divine and herald of the Gods, he wears the gifts from his father, the Petasus and Talaria ...[37]

and also

  • hodios patron of travelers and wayfarers[29]
  • oneiropompus, conductor of dreams[29]
  • poimandres, shepherd of men[38]
  • psychopompos, conveyor or conductor of souls[32][39] and psychogogue, conductor or leader of souls in (or through) the underworld[40][41]

the factor of travelling or motion with or without others with respect to the physical landscape, or the landscape of the soul , is the core attribute of the god as messenger and guide[42][43][44]

Trade[edit]

So-called "Logios Hermes" (Hermes Orator). Marble, Roman copy from the late 1st century BC - early 2nd century AD after a Greek original of the 5th century BC.

and deception (Euripides)[53] and (possibly evil) tricks and trickeries,[54][55][56][57] crafty (from lit. god of craft[58]), the cheat,[59] god of stealth[60] and of cunning,[61] (see also to act secretively as kleptein in reference - EL Wheeler), of treachery,[62] the schemer,[63] wily,[64] was worshipped at Pellene [Pausanias, vii. 27, 1]),[65] and invoked through Odysseus.[66]

(As the ways of gain are not always the ways of honesty and straightforwardness, Hermes obtains a bad character and an in-moral (amoral [ed.]) cult as Dolios)

[67]

Hermes is amoral[68] like a baby.[69] although Zeus sent Hermes as a teacher to humanity to teach them knowledge of and value of justice and to improve inter-personal relationships ("bonding between mortals").[70]

  • Empolaios "engaged in traffic and commerce"[55]

Additional[edit]

Other epithets included:

  • chthonius - At the festival Athenia Chytri sacrifices are made to this visage of the god only.[71][72]
  • cyllenius, born on Mount Kyllini
  • epimelios, guardian of flocks[29]
  • koinos[73]
  • kriophoros "ram-bearer"[74]
  • ploutodotes, giver of wealth (as inventor of fire)[75]
  • proopylaios, "before the gate" (Edwardson 2011), (guardian of the gate),[76]Pylaios "doorkeeper"[77]
  • strophaios, "standing at the door post"[55][78]
  • Stropheus, "the socket in which the pivot of the door moves" (Kerényi in Edwardson) or "door-hinge". Protector of the door (that is the boundary), to the temple[45][79][80][81][82]

Worship and cult[edit]

Statue of Hermes wearing the petasos, a voyager's cloak, the caduceus and a purse. Roman copy after a Greek original (Vatican Museums).

Prior to being known as Hermes, Frothingham thought the god to have existed as a snake-god.[83] Angelo (1997) thinks Hermes to be based on the Thoth archetype.[84] The absorbing ("combining") of the attributes of Hermes to Thoth developed after the time of Homer amongst Greek and Roman; Herodotus was the first to identify the Greek god with the Egyptian (Hermopolis), Plutarch and Diodorus also, although Plato thought the gods to be dis-similar (Friedlander 1992).[85][86]

A cult was established in Greece in remote regions, likely making him a god of nature, farmers, and shepherds. It is also possible that since the beginning he has been a deity with shamanic attributes linked to divination, reconciliation, magic, sacrifices, and initiation and contact with other planes of existence, a role of mediator between the worlds of the visible and invisible.[87]

During the 3rd century BC, a communication between Petosiris (a priest) to King Nechopso, probably written in Alexandria c. 150 BC, states Hermes is the teacher of all secret wisdoms available to knowing by the experience of religious ecstasy.[38][88][89]

Due to his constant mobility, he was considered the god of commerce and social intercourse, the wealth brought in business, especially sudden or unexpected enrichment, travel, roads and crossroads, borders and boundary conditions or transient, the changes from the threshold, agreements and contracts, friendship, hospitality, sexual intercourse, games, data, the draw, good luck, the sacrifices and the sacrificial animals, flocks and shepherds and the fertility of land and cattle. In addition to serving as messenger to Zeus, Hermes carried the souls of the dead to Hades, and directed the dreams sent by Zeus to mortals.[90][91][92]

Temples[edit]

One of the oldest places of worship for Hermes was Mount Cilene in Arcadia, where the myth says that he was born. Tradition says that his first temple was built by Lycaon. From there the cult would have been taken to Athens, and then radiate to the whole of Greece, according to Smith, and his temples and statues became extremely numerous.[90] Lucian of Samosata said he saw the temples of Hermes everywhere.[93]

In many places, temples were consecrated in conjunction with Aphrodite, as in Attica, Arcadia, Crete, Samos and in Magna Graecia. Several ex-votos found in his temples revealed his role as initiator of young adulthood, among them soldiers and hunters, since war and certain forms of hunting were seen as ceremonial initiatory ordeals. This function of Hermes explains why some images in temples and other vessels show him as a teenager. As a patron of the gym and fighting, Hermes had statues in gyms and he was also worshiped in the sanctuary of the Twelve Gods in Olympia, where Greeks celebrated the Olympic Games. His statue was held there on an altar dedicated to him and Apollo together.[94] A temple within the Aventine was consecrated in 495 BC.[95][96]

Symbols of Hermes were the palm tree, turtle, rooster, goat, the number four, several kinds of fish, incense. Sacrifices involved honey, cakes, pigs, goats, and lambs. In the sanctuary of Hermes Promakhos in Tanagra is a strawberry tree under which it was believed he had created,[97] and in the hills Phene ran three sources that were sacred to him, because he believed that they had been bathed at birth.

Festival[edit]

Hermes's feast was the special Hermaea was celebrated with sacrifices to the god and with athletics and gymnastics, possibly having been established in the 6th century BC, but no documentation on the festival before the 4th century BC survives. However, Plato said that Socrates attended a Hermaea. Of all the festivals involving Greek games, these were the most like initiations because participation in them was restricted to young boys and excluded adults.[98]

Hermai/Herms[edit]

This circular Pyxis or box depicts two scenes. The one shown presents Hermes awarding the golden apple of the Hesperides to Aphrodite, whom he has selected as the most beautiful of the goddesses.[99] The Walters Art Museum.

In Ancient Greece, Hermes was a phallic god of boundaries. His name, in the form herma, was applied to a wayside marker pile of stones; each traveller added a stone to the pile. In the 6th century BCE, Hipparchos, the son of Pisistratus, replaced the cairns that marked the midway point between each village deme at the central agora of Athens with a square or rectangular pillar of stone or bronze topped by a bust of Hermes with a beard. An erect phallus rose from the base. In the more primitive Mount Kyllini or Cyllenian herms, the standing stone or wooden pillar was simply a carved phallus. In Athens, herms were placed outside houses for good luck. "That a monument of this kind could be transformed into an Olympian god is astounding," Walter Burkert remarked.[100]

In 415 BCE, when the Athenian fleet was about to set sail for Syracuse during the Peloponnesian War, all of the Athenian hermai were vandalized one night. The Athenians at the time believed it was the work of saboteurs, either from Syracuse or from the anti-war faction within Athens itself. Socrates' pupil Alcibiades was suspected of involvement, and Socrates indirectly paid for the impiety with his life.[101]

Hermes's possible offspring[edit]

Pan[edit]

The satyr-like Greek god of nature, shepherds and flocks, Pan, could possibly be the son of Hermes through the nymph Dryope.[102] In the Homeric Hymn to Pan, Pan's mother fled in fright from her newborn son's goat-like appearance.[citation needed]

Priapus[edit]

Depending on the sources consulted, the god Priapus could be understood as a son of Hermes.[103]

Autolycus[edit]

Autolycus, the Prince of Thieves, was a son of Hermes and Chione (mortal) and grandfather of Odysseus.[104][105]

Extended list of Hermes's lovers and children[edit]

  1. Acacallis
    1. Cydon
  2. Aglaurus
    1. Eumolpus
  3. Amphion[106]
  4. Alcidameia of Corinth
    1. Bounos
  5. Antianeira / Laothoe
    1. Echion, Argonaut
    2. Erytus, Argonaut
  6. Apemosyne
  7. Aphrodite
    1. Hermaphroditus
    2. Tyche (possibly)
  8. Astabe, daughter of Peneus
    1. Astacus
  9. Carmentis
    1. Evander
  10. Chione / Stilbe / Telauge[107]
    1. Autolycus
  11. Chryses, priest of Apollo
  12. Chthonophyle
    1. Polybus of Sicyon
  13. Crocus
  14. Daeira the Oceanid
    1. Eleusis
  15. Dryope, Arcadian nymph
    1. Pan (possibly)
  16. Erytheia (daughter of Geryones)
    1. Norax[108]
  17. Eupolemeia (daughter of Myrmidon)
    1. Aethalides
  18. Hecate
    1. three unnamed daughters[109]
  19. Herse
    1. Cephalus
    2. Ceryx (possibly)
  20. Hiereia
    1. Gigas[110]
  21. Iphthime (daughter of Dorus)
    1. Lycus
    2. Pherespondus
    3. Pronomus
  22. Libye (daughter of Palamedes)
    1. Libys[111]
  23. Ocyrhoe
    1. Caicus
  24. Odrysus[112]
  25. Orsinoe, nymph[113]
    1. Pan (possibly)
  26. Palaestra, daughter of Choricus
  27. Pandrosus
    1. Ceryx (possibly)
  28. Peitho
  29. Penelope
    1. Nomios
    2. Pan (possibly)
  30. Persephone (unsuccessfully wooed her)
  31. Perseus[114]
  32. Phylodameia
    1. Pharis
  33. Polydeuces[115]
  34. Polymele (daughter of Phylas)
    1. Eudorus
  35. Rhene, nymph
    1. Saon of Samothrace[116]
  36. Sicilian nymph
    1. Daphnis
  37. Sose, nymph
    1. Agreus
  38. Tanagra, daughter of Asopus
  39. Theobula / Clytie / Clymene / Cleobule / Myrto / Phaethusa the Danaid
    1. Myrtilus
  40. Therses[117]
  41. Thronia
    1. Arabus
  42. Urania, Muse
    1. Linus (possibly)
  43. Unknown mothers
    1. Abderus
    2. Angelia
    3. Dolops
    4. Palaestra

Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology[edit]

Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology
Uranus
Gaia
Oceanus
Hyperion
Coeus
Crius
Iapetus
Mnemosyne
Cronus
Rhea
Tethys
Theia
Phoebe
Themis
Zeus
Hera
Hestia
Demeter
Hades
Poseidon
Ares
Hephaestus
Hebe
Eileithyia
Enyo
Eris
Metis
Maia
Leto
Semele
Aphrodite
Athena
Hermes
Apollo
Artemis
Dionysus

Art and iconography[edit]

Archaic bearded Hermes from a herm, early 5th century BC.
Hermes Fastening his Sandal, early Imperial Roman marble copy of a Lysippan bronze (Louvre Museum)

The image of Hermes evolved and varied according to Greek art and culture. During Archaic Greece he was usually depicted as a mature man, bearded, dressed as a traveler, herald, or pastor. During Classical and Hellenistic Greece he is usually depicted young and nude, with athleticism, as befits the god of speech and of the gymnastics, or a robe, a formula is set predominantly through the centuries. When represented as Logios (speaker), his attitude is consistent with the attribute. Phidias left a statue of a famous Hermes Logios and Praxiteles another, also well known, showing him with the baby Dionysus in his arms. At all times, however, through the Hellenistic periods, Roman, and throughout Western history into the present day, several of his characteristic objects are present as identification, but not always all together.[90][118]

Among these objects is a wide-brimmed hat, the Petasos, widely used by rural people of antiquity to protect themselves from the sun, and that in later times was adorned with a pair of small wings, sometimes the hat is not present, but may then have wings rising from the hair. Another object is the Porta a stick, called rhabdomyolysis (stick) or skeptron (scepter), which is referred to as a magic wand. Some early sources say that this was the bat he received from Apollo, but others question the merits of this claim. It seems that there may have been two canes, with time in a cast, one of a shepherd's staff, as stated in the Homeric Hymn, and the other a magic wand, according to some authors. His bat also came to be called kerykeion, the caduceus, in later times. Early depictions of the staff it show it as a baton stick topped by a golden way that resembled the number eight, though sometimes with its top truncated and open. Later the staff had two intertwined snakes and sometimes it was crowned with a pair of wings and a ball, but the old form remained in use even when Hermes was associated with Mercury by the Romans.[90][119]

Hyginus explained the presence of snakes, saying that Hermes was traveling in Arcadia when he saw two snakes intertwined in battle. He put the caduceus between them and parted, and so said his staff would bring peace.[120] The caduceus, historically, there appeared with Hermes, and is documented among the Babylonians from about 3500 BC. The two snakes coiled around a stick was a symbol of the god Ningishzida, which served as a mediator between humans and the mother goddess Ishtar or the supreme Ningirsu. In Greece itself the other gods have been depicted holding a caduceus, but it was mainly associated with Hermes. It was said to have the power to make people fall asleep or wake up, and also made peace between litigants, and is a visible sign of his authority, being used as a sceptre.[90]

He was represented in doorways, possibly as an amulet of good fortune, or as a symbol of purification. The caduceus is not to be confused with the Rod of Asclepius, the patron of medicine and son of Apollo, which bears only one snake. The rod of Asclepius was adopted by most Western doctors as a badge of their profession, but in several medical organizations of the United States, the caduceus took its place since the 18th century, although this use is declining. After the Renaissance the caduceus also appeared in the heraldic crests of several, and currently is a symbol of commerce.[90]

His sandals, called pédila by the Greeks and talaria by the Romans were made of palm and myrtle branches, but were described as beautiful, golden and immortal, made a sublime art, able to take the roads with the speed of wind. Originally they had no wings, but late in the artistic representations, they are depicted. In certain images, the wings spring directly from the ankles. He has also been depicted with a purse or a bag in his hands, and wearing a robe or cloak, which had the power to confer invisibility. His weapon was a sword of gold, which killed Argos; lent to Perseus to kill Medusa.[90]

In other religions[edit]

Christianity[edit]

In Acts 14, Paul the Apostle visited Lystra and was mistaken for Hermes.[121]

Modern psychological interpretation[edit]

For Carl Jung[122] Hermes was guide to the underworld[123] is become the god of the unconscious,[124] the mediator of information between the conscious and unconscious factors of the mind, and the archetypal messenger conveying communication between realms. Hermes is seminally the guide for the inner journey.[125][126] Jung considered the gods Thoth and Hermes to be counterparts (Yoshida 2006).[127] In Jungian psychology especially (by Combs and Holland 1994[128] ), Hermes is thought relevant to study of the phenomenon of synchronicity[129] ( together with Pan and Dionysus)[130][131]

Hermes is ... the archetypal core of Jung's psyche, theories ...

—DL Merritt[132]

In the context of psycho-therapy Hermes is our inner friendliness bringing together the disparate and perhaps isolated core elements of our selves belonging to the realms of the other gods;

...He does not fight with the other gods... it is Hermes in us who befriends our psychological complexes centered by the other gods...

— López-Pedraza

He is for some identified as the archetype of healer (López-Pedraza 2003)...[133] in ancient Greece he healed through magic[134](McNeely 2011).

In the context of abnormal psychology Samuels (1986) states that Jung considers Hermes the archetype for narcissistic disorder, but also lending the disorder a "positive" (beneficious) aspect, that is Hermes is both the good and bad of narcissism.[135]

For López-Pedraza, Hermes is the protector of psychotherapy.[136] For McNeely, Hermes is a god of the healing arts(p. 88[137]).

In a consideration of all the roles Hermes was understood to have fulfilled in ancient Greece Christopher Booker gives the genius of the god to be a guide or observer of transition.[138][139]

The trickster[edit]

For Jung, the trickster is the guide in total for the psychotherapeutic process (p. 86)[140]

Hermes in popular culture[edit]

See Greek mythology in popular culture: Hermes

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Iris had a similar role as divine messenger.
  2. ^ a b c d Brown, Norman Oliver. Hermes the thief: the evolution of a myth. Steiner Books, 1990. pp. 3–10
  3. ^ Walter Burkert, Greek Religion 1985 section III.2.8.
  4. ^ The Latin word cādūceus is an adaptation of the Greek κηρύκειον kērukeion, meaning "herald's wand (or staff)", deriving from κῆρυξ kērux, meaning "messenger, herald, envoy". Liddell and Scott, Greek-English Lexicon; Stuart L. Tyson, "The Caduceus", The Scientific Monthly, 34.6, (1932:492–98) p. 493
  5. ^ Bullfinch's Mythology, (1978), Crown Publishers, p. 926.
  6. ^ Joann Gulizio UDQ 292.11 University of texas Retrieved 2011-11-26
  7. ^ a b Greek History and the Gods. Grand Valley State University (Michigan). Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  8. ^ Silver, Morris (1992). Taking Ancient Mythology Economically. Leiden: Brill. pp. 159–160. ISBN 90-04-09706-6. 
  9. ^ a b Davies, Anna Morpurgo & Duhoux, Yves. Linear B: a 1984 survey. Peeters Publishers, 1985. p. 136
  10. ^ a b Plato. Cratylus 383.
  11. ^ Homer. The Iliad. The Project Gutenberg Etext. Trad. Samuel Butler
  12. ^ Homer. The Odyssey. Plain Label Books, 1990. Trad. Samuel Butler. pp. 40, 81–82, 192–195.
  13. ^ Hesiod. Works And Days. ll. 60–68. Trad. Hugh G. Evelyn-White, 1914
  14. ^ Aeschylus, Suppliant Women 919. Quoted in God of Searchers. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology
  15. ^ Aesop. Fables 474, 479, 520, 522, 563, 564. Quoted in God of Dreams of Omen; God of Contests, Athletics, Gymnasiums, The Games, Theoi The Project: Greek Mythology
  16. ^ Hymn to Hermes 13. The word polutropos ("of many shifts, turning many ways, of many devices, ingenious, or much wandering") is also used to describe Odysseus in the first line of the Odyssey.
  17. ^ In the Homeric hymn, "after he had fed the loud-bellowing cattle... he gathered much wood and sought the craft of fire. He also invented written music and many other things. He took a splendid laurel branch, gripped it in his palm, and twirled it in pomegranate wood" (lines 105, 108–10)
  18. ^ "First Inventors... Mercurius [Hermes] first taught wrestling to mortals." – Hyginus (c.1st CE), Fabulae 277.
  19. ^ Callimachus. Iambia, Frag. 12. Quoted in of Memory and Learning. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology
  20. ^ Orphic Hymn 57 to Chthonian Hermes Aeschylus. Libation Bearers. Cited in Guide of the Dead. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology
  21. ^ Orphic Hymn 28 to Hermes. Quoted in God of Contests, Athletics, Gymnasiums, The Games. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology
  22. ^ Phlegon of Tralles. Book of Marvels, 2.1. Quoted in Guide of the Dead. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology
  23. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus. The Library. Quoted in Hermes Myths 2, Hermes Myths 3, Hermes Favour. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology
  24. ^ Herodotus. Histories, 5.7. Quoted in Identified with Foreign Gods. The Theoi Project: Greek Mythology
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