Lawrence Prince

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Lawrence Prince
— Pirate —
Type Buccaneer
Born fl. 1630
Place of birth Amsterdam, Netherlands
Died 1717
Allegiance England
Years active c. 1659-1671
Rank Lieutenant-Colonel
Base of operations Caribbean
Battles/wars Raid on Granada (1670)
Sack of Panama (1671)

Laurens Prins known in English as Lawrence Prince[1] (1630s, Amsterdam - 27 April 1717, off Cape Cod) was a 17th-century Dutch buccaneer and an officer under Captain Sir Henry Morgan. He and Major John Morris led one of the columns against Panama in 1671.

Biography[edit]

According to Spanish accounts, Lawrence Prince was a Dutchman from Amsterdam who arrived in the Caribbean in the late 1650s. In 1659, he was one of four men, including John Morris and Robert Searle, who bought a captured Spanish prize from Commodore Christopher Myngs following his ten-week voyage.[1][2] Prior to joining Morgan's forces at Port Royal in November 1670, he had previously sailed up to Rio Magdalena intending to raid the town of Mompos located 150 miles inland. Prince was forced to retreat, however, when they were surprised by cannon fire from a recently built island fort protecting the settlement. Prince and his men, determined to "make voyage", sailed north to Nicaragua in August. As in Colombia, Prince sailed up the San Juan River, captured a Spanish fort and paddled by canoe to Lake Nicaragua where they successfully raided Granada. This was almost identical to the Morgan's raid in 1664. Official Spanish reports of the incident claimed that Prince "made havoc and a thousand destructions, sending the head of a priest in a basket and demanding 70,000 pesos in ransom." [3]

Arriving in Port Royal weeks later, he and two other captains were reproved by Governor Thomas Modyford for attacking the Spanish without a commission or letter of marque. Modyford thought it prudent not "to press the matter too far in this juncture" [3] and ordered them to join Morgan on his raid against Panama "which they were very ready to do".[3] Impressed by his raid at Granada, Morgan appointed Prince third in command under himself and Captain Edward Collier.[3] He and Major John Morris later led the vanguard, numbering 300 buccaneers, against the Spanish fortress on the morning of January 28, 1671. Prince supported the main force, around 600 men, with Morgan and Collier leading the right and left wings while the rearguard was commanded by Colonel Bledry Morgan.

In the final advance, he and Morris commanded the left flank. Advancing in a wide sweep around the Spanish right flank, they captured a hill overlooking the Spanish lines.[4] This not only forced the Spanish defenders into committing to an attack, it also disrupted plans by the commander Juan Perez de Guzman to stampede a herd of cattle and other livestock towards the advancing buccaneers. He had kept them behind his infantry line, intending to allow the buccaneers to pass through his lines, and setting them against the attackers. It was assumed this would have disrupted and disorganized their forces just before the Spanish foot made contact with the buccaneering force. Instead, the Spanish cattle drovers were scared away by Prince's attack, allowing the cattle to wander among the Spanish lines. A simultaneous assault on the hill and against Morgan's advancing buccaneers ended in disaster as concentrated volley fire decimated Spanish forces, who suffered 100 casualties in the first volley alone. The wandering cattle and concentrated fire, left between 400 and 500 dead and wounded before the Spanish finally retreated from he field.[5]

He was later appointed a lieutenant by Modyford's successor, Sir Thomas Lynch, who replaced Captain John Wilgress, commander of HMS Assistance, with Major William Beeston. Lynch may intended to initiate the restructuring of colonial administration, surrounding himself with known associates rather than appointed officials of the British crown.[6] By 1672, using his share from the Panama raid, he became a wealthy landowner on the Liguanea plain as it was opened up for cultivation and farming.[7]

In 1715, back in Bristol, England, Lawrence Prince was appointed as captain of the galley ship Whydah, and in the Fall of 1716 the Whydah was commissioned to take goods and treasure to the slave trading port of the African Kingdom of Whydah in present day Benin. After stuffing the Whydah with over 560 African slaves he traveled across the Atlantic to sell them in Jamaica in the Caribbean islands. But in February 1717, as he passed between Cuba and Hispaniola, he was chased by the Sultana captained by the pirate "Black Sam" Bellamy and the Marianna captained by pirate Paulsgrave Williams. After three days, captain Lawrence Prince surrendered without a fight. After taking command of the Whydah and making it his flag ship, Bellamy gave Prince his original flag ship Sultana along with a small amount of treasure, and sent Prince packing back to England. Lawrence Prince continued several slaving voyages before disappearing into history.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Marley, David. Wars of the Americas: A Chronology of Armed Conflict in the New World, 1492 to the Present. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 1998. (pg. 151, 158, 172) ISBN 0-87436-837-5
  2. ^ Snelders, Stephen. The Devil's Anarchy: The Sea Robberies of the Most Famous Pirate Claes G. Compaen. New York: Autonomedia, 2005. (pg. 90) ISBN 1-57027-161-5
  3. ^ a b c d Earle, Peter. The Sack of Panama: Captain Morgan and the Battle for the Caribbean. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2007. (pg. 150-151) ISBN 0-312-36142-4
  4. ^ Marley, David F. Historic Cities of the Americas: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2005. (pg. 351) ISBN 1-57607-027-1
  5. ^ Konstam, Angus. Scourge of the Seas: Buccaneers, Pirates and Privateers. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2007. (pg. 45-47) ISBN 1-84603-211-3
  6. ^ Davies, J.D. Gentlemen and Tarpaulins: The Officers and Men of the Restoration Navy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. (pg. 19) ISBN 0-19-820263-6
  7. ^ Pawson, Michael and David Buisseret. Port Royal, Jamaica. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 1974. (pg. 39) ISBN 976-640-098-9

Further reading[edit]

  • Roberts, Walter Adolphe. Sir Henry Morgan, Buccaneer and Governor. New York: Covici-Friede, 1933.
  • Winston, Alexander. No Man Knows My Grave: Sir Henry Morgan, Captain William Kidd, Captain Woodes Rogers in the Golden Age of Privateers and Pirates, 1665-1715. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1969.
  • Clifford, Barry and Turchi, Peter. The Pirate Prince: Discovering the Priceless Treasures of the Sunken Ship WHYDAH. New York/London: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
  • National Geographic Society and Arts & Exhibitions International and Clifford, Barry and Kinkor, Kenneth and Simpson, Sharon. "Real Pirates: The Untold Story of The WHYDAH from Slave Ship to Pirate Ship". Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2007.
  • Perry, Paul and Clifford, Barry. "Expedition WHYDAH: The Story of the World's First Excavation of a Pirate Treasure Ship and the Man Who Found Her". New York: Harper Collins, 1999. Kent, UK: Headline Book Publishing, 1999.