List of Caribbean folk music traditions

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This is a list of folk music traditions, with styles, dances, instruments and other related topics. The term folk music can not be easily defined in a precise manner; it is used with widely varying definitions depending on the author, intended audience and context within a work. Similarly, the term traditions in this context does not connote any strictly-defined criteria. Music scholars, journalists, audiences, record industry individuals, politicians, nationalists and demagogues may often have occasion to address which fields of folk music are distinct traditions based along racial, geographic, linguistic, religious, tribal or ethnic lines, and all such peoples will likely use different criteria to decide what constitutes a "folk music tradition". This list uses the same general categories used by mainstream, primarily English-language, scholarly sources, as determined by relevant statements of fact and the internal structure of works.

These traditions may coincide entirely, partially or not at all with geographic, political, linguistic or cultural boundaries. Very few, if any, music scholars would claim that there are any folk music traditions that can be considered specific to a distinct group of people and with characteristics undiluted by contact with the music of other peoples; thus, the folk music traditions described herein overlap in varying degrees with each other. rackbar

The Caribbean music area includes all the islands of the Caribbean, including Cuba, Antigua and Barbuda, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Anguilla, Martinique, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe and Trinidad and Tobago. In addition, the mainland South American countries of Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana are generally grouped with the Caribbean countries, as is the non-Caribbean island nation of the Bahamas. The island of Bermuda is not Caribbean, and its folk music is little studied; for convenience, it is included herein though it may or may not be typical of the Caribbean music area.

Country Elements Dance Instrumentation Other topics
Antiguan and Barbudan[1][2] benna - iron band Highland fling - quadrille banjar - bass drum - boompipe - kettle drum - toombah - triangle Old Time Christmas Festival
Aruban See Dutch Antillean
Bahamian[3] ant'em - goombay - junkanoo - rake-and-scrape - rhyming spiritual - ring-play - shape-note quadrille - ring-dance goombay - guitar - maraca - saw Obeah
Barbadian[4] tuk band hornpipe - Jean and Johnnie - jig - march banjo - bones - bow-fiddle - calabash - cymbal - guitar - pump - rook jaw - shak-shak - shukster - snare drum - triangle - tum tum crop over - Landship - tea meeting
Bermuda ballad Gombey bagpipe - fife - gombey - guitar - kettle drum - snare drum
Bonaire See Dutch Antillean
Carriacou See Grenada
Cayman Islander[5] Christmas carol - serenade accordion - drum - fiddle - grater - mouth organ Batabano - Pirate's Week
Cuban[6][7][8][9][10][11] afro - bachata - bembé - bolero - bunga - canción - chambelona - changüí - cierre - cinquillo - cocoyé - criolla - décima - diana - fragaya - guaracha - guajira - habanera - kiribá - lloraos - martillo - montuno - nengones - pregón - punto guajiro - repique - rumba - salamaleco - son - sucu-sucu - tonada - toque - tumbao areito - bembé - chuchumbé - columbia - contradanza - danón - guaguancó - guaracha - makúa - makuta - maní - mañunga - masón - quadrille - rumba - sucu-sucu - tango congo - yambú - yuba - yuka - zapateo aberikula - agogós - bandora - bandurria - batá - biankomé - bocú - bongo - bongó del monte - bonkoenchemiyá - botija - bulá - cajón - catá - cencerro - chachá - chaworó - chekere - cheré - claves - conga - cornetas chinas - ekwé - efí - efó - enú - güiro - guagua - guataca - guayo - guitar - ilú - itótele - judíos batá - junga - kinfuiti - kuchí-yeremá - laúd - maraca - marimbula - maruga - ngoma - nkembi - obí-apá - ogán - okónkolo - pailas - palito - quinto - segon - segundo - sese eribó - tingo talango - tiple - tres - tumba - tumbadore abakuá - aché - arará - cabildo - Casa de la Trova - clave - comparsa - controversia - iremes - iyesá - ñáñigos - Palo - piquete - potencias - plantes - sandunga - Santería - toque - trovadore - tumba francesca
Curaçao See Dutch Antillean
Dominica[12][13] bélé - caristo - chanté mas - jing ping - kont bidjin (biguine) - flirtation - lancer - mazourk (mazurka) - mereng (merengue) - polka pil (pure polka) - quadrille - sotis (schottische) - vals o vyenn (Viennese waltz) chakchak (maracas) - lapo kabwit (drums) - tanbou bélé - triangle (tingting) lavèyé
Dominican Republic[6][7][11][14] bachata - gaga - jaleo - merengue - merengue típico cibaeño - perico ripiao merengue accordion - cuatro - güira - guayo - güiro - marimba - palo - tambora drum - vaksin misterios - velacione
Dutch Antillean[15][16] belua - dan simadan - remailo - seú - tambú - tumba bari - tambú - wapa agan (iron or ploughshare) - bastèl (calabash) - chapi (hoe) - conga (drum) - guitar - kachu (cow's horn) - karko - quarta - tambú (drum) - triangle - wiri Simadan
French Guianese[17] awassa - cassé-co - kawina - mato - songé - soussa bigi pokoe
Grenadan[18][19] cantique - chantey - lullaby - saraca big drum - heel-and-toe polka - picquet - quadrille - reel boula - cut drum Carriacou nations - saraca - Tombstone Feast
Guadeloupe[6][7][11][20] gwo ka boula - gwo ka - markeur (maké) lewoz - masquerade - mizik vidé
Haitian[6][7][11][21][22] kongo - ibo - mereng - méringue - quintolet - ra-ra - ti - yanvalou carabinier - chica - gragement - juba - menwat - méringue big - boula - graj - guitar - kóné - lanbi - mamman - marimba - mosquito drum - ogan - segon - shekere - tambou - tcha-tcha - vaksin bann rara - Haitian Carnival - majó jonk - Rada - Petwo - twoubadou - Vodou
Indo-Caribbean[7][23] bhajan - birha - chautal - dingolay - gali - matkor (matticore) - maulud - nirgun (funereal song) - qasida - sohar - tan - tassa matkor (matticore) dhantal - dholak - tabla - tassa Mariamman theater - Hossay - pandit - phagwa - picong
Jamaican[6][7][11] baccra - burru - etu - gumbe - kumina - mento - nyabhingi - ring play - tambu mento banjo - bongo - fife - funde - guitar - kalimba jonkonnu - grounation - Pocomania - Revival Zion
Kittitian and Nevisian[24][25] big drum - iron band big drum baha (blown metal pipe) - fife - guitar - quarto - shack-shack (tin can with beads inside) - triangle tea meeting
Lucian[26][27] blòtjé - chanté abwè - chanté kont (jwé chanté) - chanté siay - gém - jwé - jwé dansé - Kélé drumming - kont - koutoumba - listwa - sankey - séwinal bélè - comette - débòt (circle dance) - dézyèm fidji - faci - grande ronde (gwan won) - jwé pòté (circle dance) - koutoumba - kwadril (quadrille) - lakonmèt (mazurka, mazouk) - latwiyèm fidji (avantwa, lanmen dwèt) - manpa (maynan) - moulala - omans (waltz) - polka - pwémyé fidji - schottische - solo (couple dance) - yonbòt (circle dance) baha (wooden trumpet) - banjo - bwa poye (skroud banjo) - chak-chak (rattle) - cuatro - fiddle - guitar - gwaj (scraper) - ka - mandolin - tambourine (tanbouwen) - tibwa - zo (bones) chantwèl - Kélé - La Marguerite - La Rose - lang dévivé - wibòt
Martinican[6][7][11][20] biguine vidé - chouval bwa - groups à pied - gwo ka - ti bwa bélè - biguine - manege accordion - bélè - bell - clarinet - chacha (rattle) - flute - kazoo - tanbour - tanbou débonda - tibwa - trombone lewoz - masquerade
Montserratian[28][29] jumbie bam-chick-lay - country dance (goatskin, drum dance) - jumbie - polka - quadrille accordion - babala (jumbie drum, tambourine) - bagpipe - boom pipe - fife (pulley) - French reel (skin drum, woowoo, jumbie drum) - gradge - shak-shak - triangle - cuatro (yokolee, ukulele) obeah - rum shop
Puerto Rican[6][7][11][30] aguinaldo - bomba - copla (music) - danza - jíbaro - plena - requinto - seis - tipica bomba bomba - bongo - conga - cowbell - cuatro - güiro - maraca - pandereta - requinto - seguidora controversia - parranda - trovador
Surinamese[7][8][20][23] aleko - badji - birha - gali (women's humor song) - kaseko - kawina - lonsei - matkor (matticore) - nirgun (funereal song) - sohar (women's childbirth song) - tan - Baithak Gana matkor (matticore) dhantal - dholak - djas - hari kawina - koti kawina - kwatro - papai benta - rattle - skratji - timbal ampuku - kumanti - obia pee - vodu - Winti
Trinidadian and Tobagan[6][7] bamboula - belair - calypso - gayap - juba - lavway - parang - steelpan calinda bandolin - bo - cuatro - dhantal - dholak - omele - steelpan - tassa calypso tent - camboulay - chantwell - Jamette - j'ouvert - picong - Shango - Trinidad and Tobago Carnival
Turks and Caicos[31] ripsaw accordion - glass bottle - box guitar - musical saw - concertina - conch horn - conga drum - harmonica - maraca - mouth organ - triangle
Vincentian[32][33] bele - Big Drum - string band big drum - quadrille Big Drum chantwell - Vincy mas
Virgin Islander[34] bamboula - cariso - scratch (fungi) band - quelbe (quelbay)-iron bands- masquerade jig - quadrille (Imperial Quadrille, Flat German Quadrille)-Bamboula accordion - ass pipe - banjo - flute - drum (double-headed barrel) - gourd - guitar - squash - tambourine - ukulele - violin - washboard David and Goliath - masquerade - tea meeting

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ McDaniel, Lorna, "Antigua and Barbuda" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, pp. 798–800
  2. ^ "Calypso". Antigua and Barbuda's Cultural Heritage. Retrieved December 3, 2005. 
  3. ^ Kaliss, "Junkanoo and Sloop John B.", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 317–324
  4. ^ Janice Millington, "Barbados", in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 2, pp. 813–821
  5. ^ "Christmas Traditions in the Cayman Islands". Caymannet News. Archived from the original on March 23, 2006. Retrieved July 20, 2006. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Manuel, Popular Musics
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Manuel, Caribbean Currents
  8. ^ a b Turino, "Sub-Saharan Africa" in Excursions in World Music
  9. ^ Fairley, Jan, "¡Que Rico Bailo Yo! How Well I Dance" and "Troubadours Old and New", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 386–407 and 408–413
  10. ^ Leymarie, Isabelle 2002. Cuban fire: the story of salsa and Latin jazz. Continuum, London. pp. 9 - 43
  11. ^ a b c d e f g World Music Central
  12. ^ "Dominica's Quadrilles". Division of Culture. Retrieved December 3, 2005. 
  13. ^ Jocelyne Guilbault, "Dominica", in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 2, pp. 840-844
  14. ^ Harvey, Sean and Sue Steward, "Merengue Attacks", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 414–420
  15. ^ "Curaçao's Culture". Curaçao Culture and Folklore. Retrieved December 3, 2005. 
  16. ^ Charles De Ledesma Charles and Gene Scaramuzzo, "Dance-Funk Creole-Style" in the World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp. 289-303
  17. ^ Manuel, Caribbean Currents, pp. 221–231
  18. ^ "Caribbean Voyage: Carriacou Calaloo". Musical Traditions. Retrieved September 9, 2005. 
  19. ^ "Tombstone - Big Drum - Saraca". Paradise Inn. Retrieved September 10, 2005. 
  20. ^ a b c de Ledesma, Charles and Gene Scaramuzzo, "Dance-Funk Creole-Style", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 289–303
  21. ^ Harvey, Sean and Sue Steward, "Merengue Attacks" and "Compas Points", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 414–420 and pp. 421–429
  22. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music
  23. ^ a b Manuel, Peter (2001). "Indo-Caribbean Music". Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. New York and London: Garland Publishing. pp. 813–818. ISBN 0-8240-6040-7. 
  24. ^ "SKNVibes". St. Kitts - Nevis Carnival History. Retrieved December 5, 2005. 
  25. ^ "Caribbean Voyage: Nevis & St Kitts". Musical Traditions. Retrieved December 5, 2005. 
  26. ^ Campbell, David (1997). "Musical Traditions of St Lucia". Musical Traditions. Retrieved May 7, 2006. 
  27. ^ Jocelyne Guilbault, "Saint Lucia" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume Two: South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean
  28. ^ "Music of Montserrat". Montserrat First, Montserrat Chamber of Commerce & Industry (MCCI) Inc. Archived from the original on January 7, 2006. Retrieved December 8, 2005. 
  29. ^ John Mesener, "Montserrat", in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume Two: South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, pp. 922-926
  30. ^ Sweeney, Philip, "Not Quite the 52nd State", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pp. 481–487
  31. ^ "Ripsaw Music and Our Cultural Heritage". Times of the Islands. Retrieved June 18, 2006. [dead link]
  32. ^ "The Arts and Literature". Cultural Profiles Project. Retrieved September 27, 2005. 
  33. ^ "Holidays". Cultural Profiles Project. Retrieved September 27, 2005. 
  34. ^ Sheehy, Daniel, "The Virgin Islands" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume Two: South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean

Sources[edit]

  • Broughton, Simon and Mark Ellingham (eds.) (2000). Rough Guide to World Music (First edition ed.). London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-636-0. 
  • Lankford, Ronald D. Jr. (2005). The Changing Voice Music of Protest USA. New York: Schirmer Trade Books. ISBN 0-8256-7300-3. 
  • Philip V. Bohlman; Bruno Nettl, Charles Capwell, Thomas Turino and Isabel K. F. Wong (1997). Excursions in World Music (Second edition ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-230632-8. 
  • Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 2. Routledge. 1999. ISBN 0-8153-1865-0. 
  • Leymarie, Isabelle (2002). Cuban Fire: The Story of Salsa and Latin Jazz. London: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-6566-8. 
  • Manuel, Peter (1988). Popular Musics of the Non-Western World. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505342-7. 
  • Nettl, Bruno (1965). Folk and Traditional Music of the Western Continents. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 
  • Fujie, Linda, James T. Koetting, David P. McAllester, David B. Reck, John M. Schechter, Mark Slobin and R. Anderson Sutton (1992). Jeff Todd Titan (Ed.), ed. Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples (Second Edition ed.). New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-872602-2. 
  • van der Merwe, Peter (1989). Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-316121-4. 
  • "International Dance Glossary". World Music Central. Archived from the original on February 7, 2006. Retrieved April 3, 2006.