List of border incidents involving North Korea

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The following is a partial list of border incidents involving North Korea since the Korean Armistice Agreement of July 27, 1953, ended large scale military action of the Korean War. Most of these incidents took place near either the Korean Demilitarized Zone or the Northern Limit Line. This list includes engagements on land, air, and sea, but does not include alleged incursions and terrorist incidents that occurred away from the border.

Many of the incidents occurring at sea are due to border disputes. In 1977 North Korea claimed an Exclusive Economic Zone over a large area south of the disputed western maritime border, the Northern Limit Line in the Yellow Sea.[1] This is a prime fishing area, particularly for crabs, and clashes commonly occur. According to the 5 January 2011 Korea Herald, since July 1953 North Korea has violated the armistice 221 times, including 26 military attacks.[2]

1950s[edit]

  • 16 February 1958: North Korean agents hijack a South Korean airliner to Pyongyang en route from Pusan to Seoul; 1 American pilot, 1 American passenger, 2 West German passengers, and 24 other passengers were released in early March, but 8 other passengers remained in the North.[3]

1960s[edit]

  • 1964: North Korea creates an underground group: Revolution Party for Reunification, this group is ground down and eliminated by South Korean authorities by 1969 [4]
  • April 27, 1965: Two North Korean MiG-17s attack a United States EC-121 Warning Star reconnaissance plane above the Sea of Japan, 80 km (50 mi) from the North Korean shore. The aircraft was damaged, but managed to land at Yokota Air Base, Japan.[5][6]
  • January 17, 1968: In an incident known as the Blue House Raid, a 31-man detachment from the Korean People's Army secretly crosses the DMZ on a mission to kill South Korean President Park Chung-hee on January 21, nearly succeeding. The incursion was discovered after South Korean civilians confronted the North Koreans and informed the authorities. After entering Seoul disguised as South Korean soldiers, the North Koreans attempt to enter the Blue House (the official residence of the President of South Korea). The North Koreans are confronted by South Korean police and a firefight ensued. The North Koreans fled Seoul and individually attempted to cross the DMZ back to North Korea. Of the original group of 31 North Koreans, 28 were killed, one was captured, and two are unaccounted for. Additionally, 68 South Koreans were killed and 66 were wounded, the majority of whom were soldiers and police officers. Three American soldiers were also killed and three were wounded.[7]
  • January 23, 1968: The United States Naval ship the USS Pueblo is boarded and captured, along with its crew, by North Korean forces in the Sea of Japan. The entire crew of 83 is captured, with the exception of one sailor killed in the initial attack on the vessel, and the vessel was taken to a North Korean port. All the captives were released on December 23 of the same year via the Bridge of No Return at the DMZ. The USS Pueblo is still in North Korean possession and is docked in Pyongyang and is on display as a museum ship.[8]
  • From March 1968 and March 1969, various military skirmishes took place in the Paektusan region between the North Korean and Chinese armed forces.[9]
  • October 30, 1968: From October 30 to November 2, 120 to 130 North Korean commandos land on the northeast shore of South Korea, allegedly to establish a base in order to wage a guerrilla war against the South Korean government. A total of 110 to 113 were killed, seven were captured, and 13 escaped. Around 20 South Korean civilians, law enforcement officers, and soldiers were killed.[6][10]
  • March 1969: Six North Korean commandos kill a South Korean police officer near Jumunjin, Gangwon-do. Seven American soldiers are killed in a North Korean attack along the DMZ.[11]
  • April 1969: An EC-121, US reconnaissance plane is shot down 90 miles (140 km) east of the North Korean coast, leaving 31 dead.
  • November 1969: Four US soldiers are killed by North Koreans in the Demilitarized Zone.
  • December 11, 1969: North Korean agent Cho Ch'ang-hǔi hijacked a Korean Air Lines YS-11 flying from Gangneung Airbase in Gangneung, Gangwon-do to Gimpo International Airport in Seoul. It was carrying four crewmembers and 46 passengers (excluding Cho); 39 of the passengers were returned two months later, but the crew and seven passengers remained in North Korea. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair on landing.

1970s[edit]

  • April 1970: In Geumchon, a region of Paju south of the DMZ, a clash leaves three North Korean soldiers dead and five South Korean soldiers wounded.
  • June 1970: The North Korean navy seizes a broadcast vessel from the South near the Northern Limit Line. 20 crew are captured.
  • February 1974: Two South Korean fishing vessels are sunk and 30 crew detained by the North.
  • 1974: The first tunnel into ROK is discovered (the three following tunnels were found in 1975, 1978, 1990)[12]
  • June 1976: An incursion south of the DMZ in Gangwon-do leaves three dead from the North and six from the South.
  • August 18, 1976: The Axe murder incident -- an attempt to clear brush in the Demilitarized Zone near Panmunjom ends with two US soldiers dead.
  • July 14, 1977: Army Chinook strayed into N Korea territory and was shot down, killing three and wounding one. The one captured was soon released.
  • October 1979: Three North Koreans enter the eastern DMZ. One is killed.
  • December 1979: One US Army soldier killed, three US soldiers wounded after stumbling into a North Korean minefield in a heavy fog while patrolling DMZ. One body is recovered from the North Koreans five days later.

1980s[edit]

  • March 1980: Three North Koreans are killed while trying to cross the Han River estuary.
  • May 1980: North Koreans engage OP Ouillette on DMZ in firefight. One North Korean WIA.
  • March 1981: Three North Koreans try to enter the South in Geumhwa-eup, Cheorwon, Gangwon-do; one is killed.
  • July 1981: Three North Koreans are killed trying to cross the Imjin River to the South.
  • November 1984: Nine North Korean soldiers and one South Korean soldier die, and one American soldier is wounded during the firefight that erupted when a North Korean security detail chased a defecting Soviet citizen (Vasily Matusak) across the MDL into the southern-controlled sector of the Joint Security Area.
  • November 1987: One South Korean killed on DMZ central sector by North Korean sniper fire.

1990s[edit]

  • May 1992: Three Northern soldiers in South Korean uniforms are killed in Cheolwon, Gangwon-do; three South Korean soldiers are wounded.
  • December 1994: North Koreans shoot down US Army helicopter. One US KIA and one US POW for 13 days.
  • May 1995: North Korean forces fire on a South Korean fishing boat, killing three.
  • October 1995: Two armed North Koreans are discovered at the Imjin River; one is killed.
  • April 1996: Several hundred armed North Korean troops cross repeatedly into the Demilitarized Zone.
  • May 1996: Seven Northern soldiers cross south of the Demilitarized Zone, but withdraw after warning shots are fired.
  • May & June 1996: North Korean vessels twice cross the Northern Limit Line and have a several-hour standoff with the South Korean navy.
  • April 1997: Five North Korean soldiers cross the Demilitarized Zone in Cheolwon, Gangwon-do, and fire on South Korean positions.
  • June 1997: Three North Korean vessels cross the Northern Limit Line and attack South Korean vessels two miles (3 km) south of the line. On land, fourteen North Korean soldiers cross 70 m south of the center of the DMZ, leading to a 23-minute exchange of fire.
  • June 1999: A series of clashes between North and South Korean vessels take place in the Yellow Sea near the Northern Limit Line.

2000s[edit]

  • 2001: On twelve separate occasions, North Korean vessels cross the Northern Limit Line and then withdraw.
  • November 27, 2001: North and South Korean forces exchange fire without injuries.
  • June 29, 2002: Renewed naval clashes near the Northern Limit Line lead to the deaths of four South Korean sailors and the sinking of a South Korean vessel. The number of North Koreans killed is unknown.
  • November 16, 2002: South Korean forces fire warning shots on a Northern boat crossing the Northern Limit Line. The boat withdraws. The similar incident is repeated on November 20.
  • February 19, 2003: A North Korean fighter plane crosses seven miles (11 km) south of the Northern Limit Line, and returns north after being intercepted by six South Korean planes.
  • March 2, 2003: Four North Korean fighter jets intercept a US reconnaissance plane over the Sea of Japan.
  • July 17, 2003: North and South Korean forces exchange fire at the DMZ around 6 AM. The South Korean army reports four rounds fired from the North and seventeen from the South. No injuries are reported.[13]
  • November 1, 2004: North Korean vessels, claiming to be in pursuit of illegal fishing craft, cross the Northern Limit Line and are fired upon by the South. The vessels withdraw 3 hours later.
  • July 30, 2006: Several rounds are exchanged near a South Korean post in Yanggu, Gangwon.
  • November 10, 2009: Naval vessels from the two Koreas exchanged fire in the area of the NLL, reportedly causing serious damage to a North Korean patrol ship.[14] For more details of this incident, see Battle of Daecheong.

2010s[edit]

  • March 26, 2010: A South Korean naval vessel, the ROKS Cheonan, was allegedly sunk by a North Korean torpedo near Baengnyeong Island in the Yellow Sea. A rescue operation recovered 58 survivors but 46 sailors were killed. On May 20, 2010, a South Korean led international investigation group concluded that the sinking of the warship was in fact the result of a North Korean torpedo attack.[15][16] North Korea denied involvement.[17] The United Nations Security Council made a Presidential Statement condemning the attack but without identifying the attacker.[18]
  • November 23, 2010: North Korea fired artillery at South Korea's Greater Yeonpyeong island in the Yellow Sea and South Korea returned fire. Two South Korean marines and two South Korean civilians were killed, six were seriously wounded, and ten were treated for minor injuries. About seventy South Korean houses were destroyed.[19][20][21] North Korean casualties were unknown, but Lee Hong-gi, the Director of Operations of the South Korean Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), claimed that as a result of the South Korean retaliation "there may be a considerable number of North Korean casualties".[22]
  • October 10, 2014: North Korean forces fired anti-aircraft rounds at propaganda balloons launched from Paju. South Korean military returned fire after a pre-warning.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maritime Claims Reference Manual - Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (North Korea) (Report). U.S. Department of Defense. June 23, 2005. DoD 2005.1-M. Archived from the original on 2012-09-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20120915174104/http://www.jag.navy.mil/organization/documents/mcrm/korea_north.pdf. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
  2. ^ "N.K. Commits 221 Provocations Since 1953". Korea Herald. 5 January 2011. 
  3. ^ http://www.fas.org/man/crs/RL30004.pdf
  4. ^ Seth, Michael. "12 North Korea: Recovery, Transformation, and Decline, 1953 to 1993". A History of Korea: History to Antiquity. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 
  5. ^ "Cold War Shootdowns". Retrieved 2007-12-09. 
  6. ^ a b "North Korean Provocative Actions, 1950 - 2007" (PDF). United States Congress. 2007-04-20. Retrieved 2007-12-09. 
  7. ^ Daniel, Bolger. "3: A Continuous Nightmare". Scenes from an Unfinished War: Low-Intensity Conflict in Korea, 1966-1968. Command and General Staff College. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  8. ^ "Pueblo". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. United States Navy. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  9. ^ http://chinaperspectives.revues.org/806
  10. ^ "filtration of North Korean Commando Troops into Ulchin-Samchok Area". Koreascope. 2006-08-31. Retrieved 2007-12-12. 
  11. ^ "7 GIs Die in Korean DMZ Fighting". The Hartford Courant. March 17, 1969. 
  12. ^ Seth, Michael. "12 North Korea: Recovery, Transformation, and Decline, 1953 to 1993". A History of Korea: History to Antiquity. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 
  13. ^ "North, South Trade Fire Along DMZ". VOA News. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  14. ^ Kim, San (November 10, 2009). Koreas clash in Yellow Sea, blame each other. Yonhap.
  15. ^ Foster, Peter; Moore, Malcolm (20 May 2010). "North Korea condemned by world powers over torpedo attack". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  16. ^ Park In-kook (4 June 2010), Letter dated 4 June 2010 from the Permanent Representative of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council, United Nations Security Council, S/2010/281, retrieved 11 July 2010 
  17. ^ "Press Conference on Situation in Korean Peninsula: DPRK Permanent Representative to the United Nations Sin Son Ho". Department of Public Information (United Nations). 15 June 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  18. ^ "Presidential Statement: Attack on Republic of Korea Naval Ship ‘Cheonan’". United Nations Security Council (United Nations). 9 July 2010. S/PRST/2010/13. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  19. ^ "북한 해안포 도발 감행, 연평도에 포탄 100여발 떨어져". Chosun Ilbo. November 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-23. 
  20. ^ "GLOBAL MARKETS: European Stocks Seen Lower On Korea News". The Wall Street Journal. November 23, 2010. 
  21. ^ Gabbatt, Adam (November 23, 2010). "North Korea fires on South Korea – live coverage". The Guardian (London). 
  22. ^ Gwon, Seung-jun (23 November 2010). "합참 "우리 군 대응사격으로 북한 측 피해도 상당할 것"". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  23. ^ Joohee Cho (October 10, 2014). "Koreas Trade Gunfire as Kim Jong-un Mystery Deepens". ABC News. 

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