| ETPRP (1969-1989)
Soviet Union (1969-1989)
Mongolian People's Republic (1960-1989)
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
|Commanders and leaders|
|Yusupbek Mukhlisi|| Abdullah Mansour
Hasan Mahsum †
Abdul Haq †
Abdul Shakoor al-Turkistani †
|Xinjiang Minority Refugee Army|
The Xinjiang conflict is an ongoing separatist struggle in the People's Republic of China (PRC) far-west province of Xinjiang. A group of Uyghur separatists claim that the region, which they refer to as East Turkestan, is not a part of China, but that the Soviet supported Second East Turkestan Republic was incorporated by the PRC in 1949 and has since been under Chinese occupation. The separatist movement is led by Turkic Islamist militant organizations, most notably the East Turkestan independence movement, against the national government in Beijing.
“We have to conquer our own country and purify it of all infidels. Then, we should conquer the infidels’ countries and spread Islam. The infidels who are usurping our countries have announced war against Islam and Muslims, forcing Muslims to abandon Islam and change their beliefs.” - Abdullah Mansour, leader of the Uyghur separatist movement Turkistan Islamic Party (East Turkestan Islamic Movement), from “The Duty of Faith and Support,” Voice of Islam/al-Fajr Media Center, August 26, 2009.
The Xinjiang Wars were a series of armed conflicts which took place in the early and mid 20th century, during the Warlord Era of the Republic of China; and during the Chinese Civil War, which saw the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The wars also played an important role in the East Turkestan independence movement.
After the establishment of the Soviet Union, many Uyghurs who studied in Soviet Central Asia added Russian suffixes to Russify their surnames and make them look Russian. Urban Uyghurs sometimes select Russian names when naming their children, in cities such as Qaramay and Urumqi.
The Soviet Union supported the Uyghur Second East Turkestan Republic in the Ili Rebellion against the Republic of China. Many of the Turkic peoples of the Ili region of Xinjiang had close cultural, political, and economic ties with Russia and then the Soviet Union. Many of them were educated in the Soviet Union and a community of Russian settlers lived in the region. As a result, many of the Turkic rebels fled to the Soviet Union and obtained Soviet assistance in creating the Sinkiang Turkic People's Liberation Committee (STPNLC) in 1943 to revolt against Kuomintang rule during the Ili Rebellion. The pro-Soviet Uyghur who later became leader of the revolt and the Second East Turkestan Republic, Ehmetjan Qasim, was Soviet educated and described as "Stalin's man" and as a "communist-minded progressive".
According to her autobiography, Dragon Fighter: One Woman's Epic Struggle for Peace with China, the Uyghur activist Rebiya Kadeer's father served with pro-Soviet Uyghur rebels under the Second East Turkestan Republic in the Ili Rebellion (Three Province Rebellion) in 1944-1946, using Soviet assistance and aid to fight the Republic of China government under Chiang Kai-shek. Kadeer and her family were close friends with White Russian exiles living in Xinjiang and Kadeer recalled that many Uyghurs thought Russian culture was "more advanced" than that of the Uyghurs and they "respected" the Russians a lot.
Conversely, some Han Chinese opponents of the movement are unhappy at being, in their perspective, treated as second-class citizens by PRC policies, in which many of the ethnic autonomy policies are discriminatory against them (see Autonomous entities of China). Some go so far as to posit that since previous Chinese dynasties owned Xinjiang before the Uyghur Empire, the region belongs to them as opposed to the Uyghurs. Supporters of the movement, on the other hand, have labelled Chinese rule in Xinjiang, as Chinese imperialism.
Uyghur nationalist historians such as Turghun Almas claim that Uyghurs were distinct and independent from Chinese for 6000 years, and that all non-Uyghur peoples are non-indigenous immigrants to Xinjiang. However, the Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) established military colonies (tuntian) and commanderies (duhufu) to control Xinjiang from 120 BCE, while the Tang Dynasty (618-907) also controlled much of Xinjiang until the An Lushan rebellion. Chinese historians refute Uyghur nationalist claims by pointing out the 2000-year history of Han settlement in Xinjiang, documenting the history of Mongol, Kazakh, Uzbek, Manchu, Hui, Xibo indigenes in Xinjiang, and by emphasizing the relatively late "westward migration" of the Huigu (equated with "Uyghur" by the PRC government) people from Mongolia the 9th century. The name "Uyghur" was associated with a Buddhist people in the Tarim Basin in the 9th century, but completely disappeared by the 15th century, until it was revived by the Soviet Union in the 20th century.
Uyghur nationalists often incorrectly claim that 5% of Xinjiang's population in 1949 was Han, and that the other 95% was Uyghur, erasing the presence of Kazakhs, Huis, Mongols, |Xibes and others, and ignoring the fact that Hans were around one third of Xinjiang's population in 1800, during the time of the Qing Dynasty. Professor of Chinese and Central Asian History at Georgetown University, James A. Millward wrote that foreigners often mistakenly think that Urumqi was originally a Uyghur city and that the Chinese destroyed its Uyghur character and culture, however, Urumqi was founded as a Chinese city by Han and Hui (Tungans), and it is the Uyghurs who are new to the city. While a few people try to give a misportrayal of the historical Qing situation in light of the contemporary situation in Xinjiang with Han migration, and claim that the Qing settlements and state farms were an anti-Uyghur plot to replace them in their land, Professor James A. Millward pointed out that the Qing agricultural colonies in reality had nothing to do with Uyghur and their land, since the Qing banned settlement of Han in the Uyghur Tarim Basin and in fact directed the Han settlers instead to settle in the non-Uyghur Dzungaria and the new city of Urumqi, so that the state farms which were settled with 155,000 Han Chinese from 1760-1830 were all in Dzungaria and Urumqi, where there was only an insignificant amount of Uyghurs, instead of the Tarim Basin oases. Han and Hui mostly live in northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria), and are separated from areas of historical Uyghur dominance south of the Tian Shan mountains (the Tarim Basin in southwestern Xinjiang), where Uyghurs account for about 90% of the population.
At the start of the 19th century, 40 years after the Qing reconquest, there were around 155,000 Han and Hui Chinese in northern Xinjiang and somewhat more than twice that number of Uyghurs in southern Xinjiang. A census of Xinjiang under Qing rule in the early 19th century tabulated ethnic shares of the population as 30% Han and 60% Turkic, while it dramatically shifted to 6% Han and 75% Uyghur in the 1953 census, however a situation similar to the Qing era-demographics with a large number of Han has been restored as of 2000 with 40.57% Han and 45.21% Uyghur. Professor Stanley W. Toops noted that today's demographic situation is similar to that of the early Qing period in Xinjiang. In northern Xinjiang, the Qing brought in Han, Hui, Uyghur, Xibe, and Kazakh colonists after they exterminated the Zunghar Oirat Mongols in the region, with one third of Xinjiang's total population consisting of Hui and Han in the northern are, while around two thirds were Uyghurs in southern Xinjiang's Tarim Basin. Before 1831, only a few hundred Chinese merchants lived in southern Xinjiang oases (Tarim Basin) and only a few Uyghurs lived in northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria).
Critics have argued that the government's response to Uyghur concerns do little to address the underlying causes of their discontent.
Uyghur views by oasis
Uyghur views vary by the oasis they live in. China has historically favored Turpan and Hami. Uyghurs in Turfan and Hami and their leaders like Emin Khoja allied with the Qing against Uyghurs in Altishahr. During the Qing dynasty, China enfeoffed the rulers of Turpan and Hami (Kumul) as autonomous princes, while the rest of the Uyghurs in Altishahr (the Tarim Basin) were ruled by Begs. Uyghurs from Turpan and Hami were appointed by China as officials to rule over Uyghurs in the Tarim Basin. Turpan is more economically prosperous and views China more positively than the rebellious Kashgar, which is the most anti-China oasis. Uyghurs in Turpan are treated leniently and favourably by China with regards to religious policies, while Kashgar is subjected to controls by the government. In Turpan and Hami, religion is viewed more positively by China than religion in Kashgar and Khotan in southern Xinjiang. Both Uyghur and Han Communist officials in Turpan turn a blind eye to the law and allow religious Islamic education for Uyghur children. Celebrating at religious functions and going on Hajj to Mecca is encouraged by the Chinese government, for Uyghur members of the Communist party. From 1979-1989, 350 mosques were built in Turpan. Han, Hui, and the Chinese government are viewed much more positively by Uyghurs specifically in Turpan, with the government providing better economic, religious, and political treatment for them.
Soviet support for Uyghur uprisings
The Soviet Union incited separatist activities in Xinjiang through propaganda, encouraging Kazakhs to flee to the Soviet Union and attack China. China responded by reinforcing the Xinjiang-Soviet border area specifically with Han Bingtuan militia and farmers. The Soviets massively intensified their broadcasts inciting Uyghurs to revolt against the Chinese via Radio Tashkent since 1967 and directly harbored and supported separatist guerilla fighters to attack the Chinese border, in 1966 the amount of Soviet sponsored separatist attacks on China numbered 5,000. The Soviets doubled Uighur language broadcasts of Radio Tashkent in 1967. The Soviets transmitted a radio broadcast from Radio Tashkent into Xinjiang on 14 May 1967, boasting of the fact that the Soviets had supported the Second East Turkestan Republic against China. In addition to Radio Tashkent, other Soviet media outlets aimed at disseminating propaganda towards Uyghurs urging that they proclaim independence and revolt against China included Radio Alma-Ata and the Alma-Ata published Sherki Türkistan Evazi ("The Voice of Eastern Turkestan") newspaper. After the Sino-Soviet split in 1962, over 60,000 Uyghurs and Kazakhs defected from Xinjiang to the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, in response to Soviet propaganda which promised Xinjiang independence. Uyghur exiles later threatened China with rumors of a Uyghur "liberation army" in the thousands that were supposedly recruited from Sovietized emigres.
The Soviet Union was involved in funding and support to the East Turkestan People's Revolutionary Party (ETPRP), the largest militant Uyghur separatist organization in its time, to start a violent uprising against China in 1968. In the 1970s, the Soviets also supported the United Revolutionary Front of East Turkestan (URFET) to fight against the Chinese.
"Bloody incidents" in 1966-67 flared up as Chinese and Soviet forces clashed along the border as the Soviets trained anti-Chinese guerillas and urged Uyghurs to revolt against China, hailing their "national liberation struggle". On January 30, 1967, it was reported that in Xinjiang, guerilla attacks were being carried out by a "Soviet-based Turkestan refugee army." In 1969, Chinese and Soviet forces directly fought each other along the Xinjiang-Soviet border.
The Soviet Union supported Uyghur nationalist propaganda and Uyghur separatist movements against China. The Soviet historians claimed that the Uyghur native land was Xinjiang and Uyghur nationalism was promoted by Soviet versions of history on turcology. Soviet turcologists like D.I. Tikhonov wrote pro-independence works on Uyghur history and the Soviet supported Uyghur historian Tursun Rakhimov wrote more historical works supporting Uyghur independence and attacking the Chinese government, claiming that Xinjiang was an entity created by China made out of the different parts of East Turkestan and Zungharia. These Soviet Uyghur historians were waging an "ideological war" against China, emphasizing the "national liberation movement" of Uyghurs throughout history. The Soviet Communist Party supported the publication of works which glorified the Second East Turkestan Republic and the Ili Rebellion against China in its anti-China propaganda war. Soviet propaganda writers wrote works claiming that Uyghurs lived better lives and were able to practice their culture only in Soviet Central Asia and not in Xinjiang. In 1979 Soviet KGB agent Victor Louis wrote a thesis claiming that the Soviets should support a "war of liberation" against the "imperial" China to support Uighur, Tibetan, Mongol, and Manchu independence. The Soviet KGB itself supported Uyghur separatists against China. Among some Uyghurs, the Soviet Union was viewed extremely favorably and several of them believed that people of Turkic origin ruled the Soviet Union, claiming that one of these Turkic Soviet leaders was Mikhail Gorbachev.
Uyghur nationalist historian Turghun Almas and his book Uyghurlar (The Uyghurs) and Uyghur nationalist accounts of history were galvanized by Soviet stances on history, "firmly grounded" in Soviet Turcological works, and both heavily influenced and partially created by Soviet historians and Soviet works on Turkic peoples. Soviet historiography spawned the rendering of Uyghur history found in Uyghurlar. Almas claimed that Central Asia was "the motherland of the Uyghurs" and also the "ancient golden cradle of world culture".
Xinjiang's importance to China increased after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, leading to China's perception of being encircled by the Soviets. China supported the Afghan mujahideen during the Soviet invasion, and broadcast reports of Soviet atrocities on Afghan Muslims to Uyghurs in order to counter Soviet propaganda broadcasts into Xinjiang, which boasted that Soviet minorities lived better and incited Muslims to revolt. Chinese radio beamed anti-Soviet broadcasts to Central Asian ethnic minorities like the Kazakhs. The Soviets feared disloyalty among the non-Russian Kazakh, Uzbek, and Kyrgyz in the event of Chinese troops attacking the Soviet Union and entering Central Asia. Russians were goaded with the taunt "Just wait till the Chinese get here, they'll show you what's what!" by Central Asians when they had altercations. The Chinese authorities viewed the Han migrants in Xinjiang as vital to defending the area against the Soviet Union. China opened up camps to train the Afghan Mujahideen near Kashgar and Khotan and supplied them with hundreds of millions of dollars worth of small arms, rockets, mines, and anti-tank weapons.
In the 1980s, there was a scattering of student demonstrations and riots against police action that took on an ethnic aspect; and the Baren Township riot in April, 1990, an abortive uprising, resulted in more than 50 deaths.
A police round-up and execution of 30 suspected separatists during Ramadan resulted in large demonstrations in February 1997 which were characterized as riots in the Chinese media, but which the western media allege were peaceful.[unreliable source?] These demonstrations culminated in the Gulja Incident on the 5th of February, in which a People's Liberation Army (PLA) crackdown on the demonstrations led to at least nine deaths and perhaps more than 100. The Ürümqi bus bombings of February 25, 1997 killed nine and injured 68. The situation in Xinjiang was relatively quiet from the late nineties through mid-2006, though inter-ethnic tensions no doubt remained.
A chain of aggressive and belligerent press releases in the 1990s making false claims about violent insurrections in Xinjiang, and exaggerating both the number of Chinese migrants and the total number of Uyghurs in Xinjiang were made by the former Soviet supported URFET leader Yusupbek Mukhlisi.
In 1997 the Ghulja Incident occurred as a result of a series of demonstrations.
In 2007, the world's attention was brought to the conflict following the Xinjiang raid on an alleged terrorist training camp,[unreliable source?] a thwarted 2008 suicide bombing attempt on a China Southern Airlines flight, and the 2008 Xinjiang attack, which resulted in the deaths of sixteen police officers four days before the Beijing Olympics. See 2008 Uyghur unrest for further details.
On 25/26 June 2009, the Shaoguan incident occurred in Guangdong province.
Further incidents include the July 2009 Ürümqi riots, the September 2009 Xinjiang unrest, and the 2010 Aksu bombing that led to the trials of 376 people. The 2011 Hotan attack in July led to the deaths of 18 civilians. Although all of the attackers were Uyghur, both Han and Uyghur people were victims. In 2011, six ethnic Uyghur men attempted to hijack an aircraft heading to Ürümqi, but failed after passengers and crew resisted and restrained the hijackers. In 2011, a series of knife and bomb attacks occurred.
On 28 December 2011, the Pishan hostage crisis occurred.
On 28 February 2012, the 2012 Yecheng attack occurred.
On 24 April 2013, clashes in Bachu occurred between a group of armed men and social workers, then with police near Kashgar. The violence left at least 21 people dead, including 15 police and officials. A local government official said that the clashes broke out after three local officials had reported suspicious men armed with knives who were hiding at a house in Selibuya township, outside Kashgar. On 30 April 2014, a knife attack and bombing occurred in Ürümqi.
Two months later, on 26 June 2013, 27 people were killed in Shanshan riots; 17 of them were killed by rioters, while the other ten people were alleged assailants who were shot dead by police in the township of Lukqun.
On 1 March 2014, a group of knife-wielding assailants attacked people at the Kunming Railway Station killing at least 29 and injuring 130 others. China blamed Xinjiang militants for the attack. Over 380 were arrested in the following crackdown and four people were charged on June 30 for the incident, in which 29 people were killed and 140 injured. Three of the suspects were accused of "leading and organising a terror group, and intentional homicide". They did not take part in the attack as they were arrested two days before. On September 12, a Chinese court sentenced three people to death and one to life in prison for the attack, in which 31 people were killed and 141 injured.
On 18 April 2014, a group of 16 Chinese citizens identified as ethnic Uyghurs engaged in a shootout with Vietnamese border guards after seizing their guns as they were being detained to be returned to China. Five Uyghurs and two Vietnamese guards died in the incident. Ten of the Uyghurs were men and the rest were women and children.
On 30 April 2014, two attackers stabbed people before detonating their suicide vests at an Ürümqi train station. Three people, including the two attackers, were killed.
On 22 May 2014, twin suicide car bombings occurred after the occupants had thrown multiple explosives out of their vehicles at an Ürümqi street market. The attacks killed 31 people and injured more than 90, making it the deadliest attack yet in the Xinjiang conflict.
On June 5, 2014, China sentenced 9 persons to death for terrorist attacks - they were seeking to overthrow Chinese rule, inspired by global jihadi ideology, in Xinjiang.
On 28 July 2014, an incident occurred in the towns of Elixku and Huangdi in Shache county. The Chinese state media Xinhua said 37 civilians were killed by a gang armed with knives and axes in Xinjiang, with 59 attackers killed by security forces. Xinhua said 215 attackers were arrested after they stormed a police station and government offices. It said 30 police cars had been damaged or destroyed and dozens of Uyghur and Han Chinese civilians had been killed or injured. The incident is disputed as the Uyghur American Association (UAA) said that local Uyghurs had been protesting at the time of the attack. On 30 July 2014, the imam of China's largest mosque, Jume Tahir, in the city of Kashgar in Xinjiang, died after reportedly being stabbed after morning prayers for his reported pro-Beijing stance.
On September 21, 2014, Chinese state media Xinhua reported a series of bomb blasts killed in total 50 people in Luntai County, southwest of the regional capital, Urumqi. This consisted of 6 civilians, 4 police, and 44 'rioters' 
On October 12, 2014, four ethnic minority Uyghur men armed with knives and explosives attacked a farmers' market in northwestern China's Xinjiang region, which according to police, left 22 people dead - including police officers and the attackers themselves.
Al-Qaeda support for Uyghur militants
Al Qaeda appointed TIP (ETIM) member Abdul Haq al Turkistani to their Shura Majlis. Al Qaeda also appointed TIP (ETIM) member Abdul Shakoor Turkistani as military commander of their forces in the FATA region of Pakistan.
TIP (ETIM) sent the "Turkistan Brigade" (Katibat Turkistani) to take part in the Syrian Civil War, most noticeably in the 2015 Jisr al-Shughur offensive.  TIP (ETIM) members in Syria fight alongside the Al-Qaeda branch Al Nusrah Front since TIP is allied to Al-Qaeda in Pakistan and Afghanistan and conducted suicide bombings for Nusrah Front. Members of TIP have been killed in battle in Syria.
A total of 2,500+ people were killed in the Xinjiang conflict since 1989.
- Potter 2013, pp. 71-74.
- [http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/65479.pdf FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS p. 237.
- Potter 2013, p. 74.
- "Beijing, Kunming, Urumqi and Guangzhou: The Changing Landscape of Anti-Chinese Jihadists". Jamestown Foundation. 23 May 2014.
- MacLean, William (2013-11-23). "Islamist group calls Tiananmen attack 'jihadi operation': SITE". Reuters.
- ed. Starr 2004, p. 96.
- The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur identity, Language, Policy, and Political discourse (PDF), East West center
- Uyghur Separatist conflict, American
- Ismail, Mohammed Sa'id; Ismail, Mohammed Aziz (1960) [Hejira 1380], Moslems in the Soviet Union and China (Privately printed pamphlet) 1, Translated by U.S. Government, Joint Publications Service, Tehran, IR, p. 52 translation printed in Washington: JPRS 3936, 19 September 1960.
- McGregor, Andrew (March 11, 2010). "Will Xinjiang’s Turkistani Islamic Party Survive the Drone Missile Death of its Leader?" (PDF). Terrorism Monitor (The Jamestown Foundation) 8 (10).
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 115.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 117.
- Forbes 1986, pp.172-173. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Forbes 1986, p. 174. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Kadeer 2009, p. 9.
- Kadeer 2009, p. 13.
- Bovingdon 2010, pp. 25, 30–31
- Bovingdon 2010, pp. 25–26
- Bovingdon 2010, p. 28
- Bovingdon 2010, p. 197
- Millward 1998, p. 133.
- Millward 1998, p. 134.
- Millward 2007, p. 104.
- Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
- Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian crossroads: A history of Xinjiang. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3. p. 306
- Toops, Stanley (May 2004). "Demographics and Development in Xinjiang after 1949" (PDF). East-West Center Washington Working Papers (East–West Center) (1): 1.
- ed. Starr 2004, p. 243.
- Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian crossroads: A history of Xinjiang. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3. p. 104
- Hasmath, R., “Responses to Xinjiang Ethnic Unrest Do Not Address Underlying Causes”, South China Morning Post, 5 July 2013.
- Rudelson & Rudelson 1997, p. 31.
- Rudelson & Rudelson 1997, pp. 46-7.
- Central Asia Monitor 1993, p. 19.
- Mackerras 2003, p. 118.
- Svanberg & Westerlund 2012, p. 202.
- Rudelson & Rudelson 1997, p. 81.
- Rudelson & Rudelson 1997, p. 129.
- Svanberg & Westerlund 2012, p. 205.
- Starr 2004, p. 138.
- Starr 2004, p. 139.
- Steele 1984, p. 140.
- Forbes 1986, p. 188.
- "Dickens, 1990.". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Bovingdon 2010, pp. 141–142
- Dillon 2003, p. 57.
- Clarke 2011, p. 69.
- Dillon 2008, p. 147.
- Nathan & Scobell 2008,.
- Reed 2010, p. 37.
- "Ryan 1969, p. 3.". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Turkestan Refugees Report Raids on Chinese Sinkiang". 31 January 1967. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Kenjali Tinibai. "Tinibai 2010, Bloomberg Businessweek p. 1". Businessweek.com. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Tinibai 2010, gazeta.kz.". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Tinibai 2010, Transitions Online.". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "ON SOVIET-CHINA BORDER, THE THAW IS JUST A TRICKLE". 6 July 1983. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 37.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 38.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 39.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 40.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 41.
- Wong 2002, p. 172.
- Liew 2004, p. 175.
- Wang 2008, p. 240.
- Rudelson & Rudelson 1997, p. 62.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 42.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 33.
- Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 4.
- Clarke 2011, p. 76.
- "Radio war aims at China Moslems 1981, p. 11.". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "Meehan 1980.". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Clarke 2011, p. 78.
- Starr 2004, p. 149.
- Starr 2004, p. 158.
- 1997 Channel 4 (UK) news report on the incident on YouTube
- "Xinjiang to intensify crackdown on separatists", China Daily, 10/25/2001
- Amnesty International Document - "China: Remember the Gulja massacre? China's crackdown on peaceful protesters", Web Action WA 003/07 AI Index: ASA 17/002/2007, Start date: 01/02/2007 The amnesty.org article.[dead link]
- "Human Rights Watch". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- See Hierman, Brent. "The Pacification of Xinjiang: Uighur Protest and the Chinese State, 1988–2002." Problems of Post-Communism, May/Jun2007, Vol. 54 Issue 3, pp 48–62
- Wayne 2007, p. 46.
- Millward 2007, p. 341.
- "Chinese police destroy terrorist camp in Xinjiang, one policeman killed". CCTV International. 1 October 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2008.[unreliable source?]
- Elizabeth Van Wie Davis, "China confronts its Uyghur threat," Asia Times Online, 18 April 2008.
- Jacobs, Andrew (5 August 2008). "Ambush in China Raises Concerns as Olympics Near". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- "Waterhouse Caulfield Cup breakthrough".[dead link]
- "China prosecuted hundreds over Xinjiang unrest". London: The Guardian. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.[dead link]
- Choi, Chi-yuk (2011-07-22). "Ban on Islamic dress sparked Uygur attack". Hotan: South China Morning Post.
- Krishnan, Ananth (2011-07-21). "Analysts see Pakistan terror links to Xinjiang attack". The Hindu. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- "China's Xinjiang hit by deadly clashes". BBC News. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Violence in western Chinese region of Xinjiang kills 21". CNN. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "21 dead in Xinjiang terrorist clash". CNTV. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Violence erupts in China's restive Xinjiang". Al Jazeera. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "State media: Violence leaves 27 dead in restive minority region in far western China". Washington Post. June 26, 2013.[dead link]
- "Unidentified Assailant kills 29 at Kunming Railway Station in China". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Blanchard, Ben (2014-03-01). "China blames Xinjiang militants for station attack". Reuters. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
- "China charges four in Kunming attack, sentences 113 on terror crimes". Reuters. Reuters. 2014-06-30.
- "Four sentenced in China over Kunming station attack". Reuters. Reuters. 2014-09-12.
- "Three get death for China train station attack". Reuters. Reuters. 2014-09-12.
- "Seven killed in China-Vietnam border shootout". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2014-04-19. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- [dead link]
- "Shooting sounds alarm for cross-border activities". Global Times. 2014-04-21. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "7 die in shooting at China-Vietnam border". World Uyghur Congress. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "Deadly China blast at Xinjiang railway station". BBC News (BBC). 30 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- Li, Jing (30 April 2014). "Security tightened after three killed in bomb, knife attack at Urumqi train station". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 1 May 2014. (subscription required)
- "Urumqi car and bomb attack kills dozens". The Guardian. 2014-05-22. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
- Denyer, Simon (2014-05-22). "Terrorist attack on market in China’s restive Xinjiang region kills more than 30". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
- Bodeen, Christopher (June 5, 2014). "China Sentences 9 Persons to Death for Xinjiang Attacks". Time (Xinjiang: Time). Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- "Xinjiang violence: China says 'gang' killed 37 last week" BBC News, August 3, 2014
- "China says 15 killed in "terrorist attack" in Xinjiang". AFP. 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
- "Beijing, Kunming, Urumqi and Guangzhou: The Changing Landscape of Anti-Chinese Jihadists". Jamestown Foundation. 23 May 2014.
- Weiss, Caleb (23 April 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria involved in new Idlib offensive". Long War Journal.
- See Blasts, clashes in China's restive region kill 12 - World news
- "At least 28 die in 'terrorist' attack at Chinese train station: reports". Reuters. 1 March 2014.
- "BBC News - Xinjiang station attack: President Xi Jinping urges action". BBC News. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "BBC News - Urumqi attack kills 31 in China's Xinjiang region". BBC News. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "BBC News - China Xinjiang: Police kill 13 attackers". BBC News. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "Almost 100 killed during attacks in China's Xinjiang last week". Reuters. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "40 rioters dead in Luntai county violence in Xinjiang". Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- Bellér-Hann, Ildikó, ed. (2007). Situating the Uyghurs Between China and Central Asia (illustrated ed.). Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0754670414. ISSN 1759-5290. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Bovingdon, Gardner (2010), The Uyghurs: Strangers in Their Own Land, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231519419
- BURNS, JOHN F. (July 6, 1983). "ON SOVIET-CHINA BORDER, THE THAW IS JUST A TRICKLE". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Clarke, Michael E. (2011). Xinjiang and China's Rise in Central Asia - A History. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1136827064. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Dickens, Mark (1990). "The Soviets in Xinjiang 1911-1949". OXUS COMMUNICATIONS. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Dillon, Michael (2008). Contemporary China - An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 1134290543. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Dillon, Michael (2003). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Far Northwest. Routledge. ISBN 1134360967. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Forbes, Andrew D. W. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949 (illustrated ed.). CUP Archive. ISBN 0521255147. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Kadeer, Rebiya (2009). Dragon Fighter: One Woman's Epic Struggle for Peace with China. Alexandra Cavelius (illustrated ed.). Kales Press. ISBN 0979845610. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Liew, Leong H.; Wang, Shaoguang, eds. (2004). Nationalism, Democracy and National Integration in China. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0203404297. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Mackerras, Colin; Professor and Head of School of Asian and International Studies Colin Mackerras (2003). China's Ethnic Minorities and Globalisation. Routledge. ISBN 1134392885. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Meehan, Lieutenant Colonel Dallace L. (May–June 1980). "Ethnic Minorities in the Soviet Military implications for the decades ahead". Air University Review. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804729336. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231139241. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Nathan, Andrew James; Scobell, Andrew (2013). China's Search for Security (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231511647. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Reed, J. Todd; Raschke, Diana (2010). The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 0313365407. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Rudelson, Justin Jon; Rudelson, Justin Ben-Adam (1997). Oasis Identities: Uyghur Nationalism Along China's Silk Road (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231107862. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- RYAN, William l. (Jan 2, 1969). "Russians Back Revolution in Province Inside China". The Lewiston Daily Sun. p. 3. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Starr, S. Frederick, ed. (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0765613182. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Svanberg, Ingvar; Westerlund, David (2012). Islam Outside the Arab World. Routledge. ISBN 1136113304. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Tinibai, Kenjali (May 28, 2010). "China and Kazakhstan: A Two-Way Street". Bloomberg Businessweek. p. 1. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Tinibai, Kenjali (2010-05-28). "Kazakhstan and China: A Two-Way Street". Gazeta.kz. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Tinibai, Kenjali (27 May 2010). "Kazakhstan and China: A Two-Way Street". Transitions Online. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Wang, Gungwu; Zheng, Yongnian, eds. (2008). China and the New International Order (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0203932269. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Wayne, Martin I. (2007). China's War on Terrorism: Counter-Insurgency, Politics and Internal Security. Routledge. ISBN 1134106238. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Wong, John; Zheng, Yongnian, eds. (2002). China's Post-Jiang Leadership Succession: Problems and Perspectives. World Scientific. ISBN 981270650X. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Central Asia Monitor. Contributor Institute for Democratic Development. Central Asia Monitor. 1993. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- AP (January 31, 1967). "Turkestan Refugees Report Raids on Chinese Sinkiang". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- UPI (Sep 22, 1981). "Radio war aims at China Moslems". The Montreal Gazette. p. 11. Retrieved 12 May 2014.