The Mediterranean race (sometimes Mediterranid race) is one of the sub-races into which the Caucasian race was categorized by most anthropologists in the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. According to various definitions, it was said to be prevalent in Southern Europe (including Southern France), Latin America (through Spanish and Portuguese ancestry), parts of Eastern Europe (including Romania), North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia, and in certain parts of the British Isles and Germany. It is characterized by medium stature to tall stature, long (dolichocephalic) or moderate (mesocephalic) skull, aquiline nose or straight nose, any hair color, any eye color, and any skin tone, though olive complexion is most common.
The conception of the Mediterranean race was originally developed by Giuseppe Sergi. Sergi subscribed to the Hamitic hypothesis that claimed that all the European peoples were Eurafricans of Hamitic origin and rejected claims of Europeans being Eurasians of Aryan origin. Sergi claimed that that Mediterraneans were a "brunet race which has appeared in Europe ... derived neither from the black nor white peoples, but constitut[ing] an autonomous stock in the human family".:24–27 Sergi claimed that the light-skinned Nordic race descended from the Mediterranean race.:24–27 Such claims of the Nordic type descending from Mediterranean type were later supported by prominent anthropologists such as Carleton S. Coon in his work The races of Europe (1939) who subscribed to depigmentation theory that claimed that Nordic race's light-coloured skin was the result of depigmentation from their ancestors of the Mediterranean race.
Sergi's conception of Hamitic origins of the Mediterranean race was rejected by others who recognized the Mediterranean race such as by Benito Mussolini and the Italian Fascist movement that viewed Mediterraneans as a subtype of the Aryan race. Italian Fascists identified Italians as part of the white race. Nazi racial theorist Hans F. K. Günther identified the Mediterranean race as being one of five subtypes of the Aryan race, the others being Nordic, Dinaric, Alpine, and East Baltic.
Mediterraneanism is an ideology that claims that there are distinctive characteristics that Mediterranean cultures have in common. Sergi claimed that the Mediterranean race was "the greatest race".:24–27 Italian Fascism initially adhered strongly to a version of Mediterraneanism. Italian Fascism's Mediterraneanism was defined by Mussolini since the early 1920s as identifying Italians as being a Mediterranean branch of the Aryan race.:11 It asserted that Italians were part of the white race, and utilized white supremacism to justify colonialism. However, with the rise in influence of pro-Nordicist Nazi Germany in Europe and Fascist Italy's alliance with it, the Fascist regime gave Italian Nordicists prominent positions, which aggravated Mediterraneanists in the party.:188, 146 In the summer of 1938, the Fascist government officially recognized Italians as being of Nordic-Mediterranean descent.:188
These differentiations occurred following long-standing claims about the alleged differences between the Nordic and the Mediterranean people. Such debates arose from responses to ancient writers who had commented on differences between northern and southern Europeans. For the Greeks and Romans, Germanic and Celtic peoples were often stereotyped as wild red haired barbarians. Pseudo-Aristotle argued that the Greeks were an ideal people because they possessed a medium skin-tone, in contrast to pale northerners and dark southerners. By the nineteenth century long-standing cultural and religious differences between Protestant northwestern Europe and the Roman Catholic south were being reinterpreted in racial terms.
In the nineteenth century the division of humanity into distinct races became a matter for scientific debate. In 1870, Thomas Huxley argued that there were four basic racial categories (Xanthocroic, Mongoloid, Australioid and Negroid). The Xanthocroic race were the "fair whites" of north and Central Europe. According to Huxley,
On the south and west this type comes into contact and mixes with the "Melanochroi," or "dark whites"...In these regions are found, more or less mixed with Xanthochroi and Mongoloids, and extending to a greater or less distance into the conterminous Xanthochroic, Mongoloid, Negroid, and Australioid areas, the men whom I have termed Melanochroi, or dark whites. Under its best form this type is exhibited by many Irishmen, Welshmen, and Bretons, by Spaniards, South Italians, Greeks, Armenians, Arabs, and high-caste Brahmins...I am much disposed to think that the Melanochroi are the result of an intermixture between the Xanthochroi and the Australoids. It is to the Xanthochroi and Melanochroi, taken together, that the absurd denomination of "Caucasian" is usually applied.
By the late nineteenth century, Huxley's Xanthochroi group had been redefined as the "Nordic" race, while his Melanochroi became the Mediterranean race.
William Z. Ripley The Races of Europe (1899) created a tripartite model that was later popularised by Madison Grant. It divided Europeans into three main subcategories: Teutonic, Alpine and Mediterranean.
|Alpine (Celtic)||Round||Broad||Dark blonde, light chestnut, brown||Hazel, gray, brown||Medium, stocky||Variable; rather broad; heavy||Occidental (Deniker), Homo Alpinus (Lapouge)|
|Mediterranean||Long||Long||Black, brown||Hazel, brown||Medium, slender||Variable; narrow|
|Teutonic||Long||Long||Blonde, dark blonde||Blue||Tall||Narrow; aquiline||Nordic (Deniker), Homo Europaeus (Lapouge)|
In Germany, Britain and the USA, it became common for white supremacists to promote the merits of the blond, blue-eyed Nordic race as the most advanced of human population groups: the "master race". Southern/Eastern Europeans were deemed to be inferior, an argument that dated back to Arthur de Gobineau's Nordicist claims that racial mixing was responsible for the decline of the Roman Empire. However, in southern Europe itself alternative models were developed which stressed the merits of Mediterranean peoples, drawing on established traditions dating from ancient and Renaissance claims about the superiority of civilization in the south. Some of these arguments were taken up by black African-American writers to counter the arguments of Nordicists who considered any deviation from "pure" whiteness to be a taint.
The fact that Mediterranean peoples were responsible for the most important of ancient civilizations was a problem for the promoters of Nordic superiority. Giuseppe Sergi's much-debated book The Mediterranean Race (1901) argued that the Mediterranean race had in fact originated in Africa, probably in the Sahara region, and that it also included a number of dark-skinned peoples from the African continent (North Africa and the Horn of Africa), such as Ethiopians and Somalis. In 1901, The Nation magazine summed up the studies and origin theories of Sergi, Brinton and Keane as follows: "The Mediterranean family of races includes Iberians, Ligurians, Pelasgians, Khatti (Hethei, Chittim. or Hittite), and Libyans. It is to be understood that, probably in Quaternary times, the ancestors of all these peoples came from northern Africa." According to the studies by the American anthropologist Madison Grant (added in his book The passing of the great Race) "The Berbers of north Africa to-day  are racially identical with the Spaniards and south Italians while the ancient Egyptians and their modern descendants, the fellaheen, are merely well marked varieties of this Mediterranean race." Sergi added that the Mediterranean race "in its external characters is a brown human variety, neither white nor negroid, but pure in its elements, that is to say not a product of the mixture of Whites with Negroes or Negroid peoples.":250 In his book The Mediterranean Race, Sergi also hypothesized that the Mediterranean, the African, and the Nordic races all originated from an original Eurafrican species.:259 According to Sergi, the Mediterranean race was the "greatest race of the world" and was singularly responsible for the most accomplished civilizations of ancient times, including but not limited to those of Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, India, Carthage, Greece, and Rome. To Sergi, the Semites were a branch of the Eurafricans who were closely related to the Mediterraneans.
Sergi identified the modern-day Berbers as North African descendants of those Hamitic peoples, and identified them as within the Mediterranean race but declared that successive migrations had diluted their race to the point that they were no longer pure Mediterranean like that of Italians, Spaniards, or French. Sergi identified certain contemporary African peoples as retatining a diluted Mediterranean heritage such as Egyptians but viewed Arabs as a whole as non-Mediterranean. Aldobrandino Mochi identified the Hamitic people as originating in the Horn of Africa, and identified contemporary Ethiopians as a mixed race people whom descended from Hamitic people and later mixed with Negroid and Semitic heritage.
In the USA, the idea that the Mediterranean race included certain populations on the African continent was taken up in the early twentieth century by African-American writers such as W. E. B. Du Bois, who used it to attack white supremacist ideas about racial "purity". Such publications as the Journal of Negro History stressed the cross-fertilization of cultures between Africa and Europe, and adopted Sergi's view that the "civilizing" race had originated in Africa itself.
The first Physical and Social description of the Mediterranean race (then termed "Celtic race") was given by the Scottish scientist William Rhind in 1851. In -Section XV – The Caucasian race and its sub-races- Rhind gave the following description:
"The Celtic Race (anc. Galatae, Pyreni), are characterised by a well-formed head, elongated from front to back, and moderate in breadth; face oval; features well defined and elegantly formed; complexion dark; dark brown or black eyes; black hair turning early gray; form middle size, handsome; feet and hands small. Mental powers quick, active, and energetic, rather than profound. Passions and affections strong. Fond of society, but not forgetful of injuries. Monarchial in their governments. They occupy the southern and insular parts of Europe."
According to C. S. Coon, typically marked Mediterranean features include skin color ranging "from pink or peaches-and-cream to a light brown", a relatively prominent and aquiline nose, considerable body hair, and dark brown to black hair.
According to Renato Biasutti: "Skin color 'matte'-white or brunet-white, chestnut or dark chestnut eyes and hair, not excessive pilosity; medium-low stature (162), body of moderately longilinear forms; dolichomorphic skull (78) with rounded occiput; oval face; leptorrhine nose (68) with straight spine, horizontal or inclined downwards base of the septum; large open eyes."
Giuseppe Sergi (1841–1936) was an influential Italian anthropologist of the early twentieth century, best known for his opposition to Nordicism in his books on the racial identity of ancient Mediterranean peoples. His concept of the Mediterranean race, became important to the modelling of racial difference in the early twentieth century.
Berbers were identified as a Mediterranean people whom were viewed as more European-looking with a lighter skin tone than the neighbouring Arabs. Sergi identified the Berbers as within the Mediterranean race but declared that successive migrations had diluted their race to the point that they were no longer pure Mediterranean like that of Italians, Spaniards, or French. Famous Catholic theologian Augustine of Hippo may have been of Berber descent.
Mediterraneanism is an ideology that claims that there are distinctive characteristics that Mediterranean cultures have in common.
Conception by Giuseppe Sergi and similar conceptions
Italian anthropologist Giuseppe Sergi claimed that the Mediterranean race was "the greatest race in the world", he defined it as "the finest brunet race which has appeared in Europe…derived neither from the black nor white peoples, but constitut[ing] an autonomous stock in the human family.".:24–27 Sergi claimed that the Mediterranean Race probably historically spoke a Hamitic language related to the language of the prehistoric Egyptians, Iberians, and Libyans.:24–27 Sergi noted that the Roman Empire led to the spread of Mediterranean civilization across Europe and thus contemporary European civilization was bound by ancestry to the Mediterranean race.:24–27
Sergi staunghly rejected Nordicism's claims of Nordic peoples being strongly Aryan, saying that Aryans were not Nordic in appearance.:24–27 Instead he claimed that Nordics were "Aryanized Euroafricans", and that the Nordic race is related to Mediterranean race.:24–27 Sergi responded to typical Nordicist claims of superiority of Nordics over Mediterraneans, by saying that the reason for the lack of wealth or progress in Latin countries as compared with countries of Northern Europe was because the Aryans of the North, including northern Italians, living in frigid climates had developed close-knit groups that allowed them to survive in that environment, as such they became more disciplined, productive civic-minded than southern Italians.:24–27 Because of this, Sergi claimed that the northern Italians, whom he identified as having significant Aryan heritage, were more advanced than southern Italians.:24–27 However Sergi rejected claims that Aryans who were a Euroasian people were responsible for founding Greco-Latin civilization. Sergi described the original Aryans in Europe in a negative manner: "The Aryans were savages when they invaded Eurpe: they destroyed in part the superior civilization of the Neolithic populations, and could not have created the Greco-Latin civilization".:24–27 Sergi claimed that the only contribution by the ancient Aryans to European civilization was Indo-European languages.:24–27 He claimed that the ancient Aryans interbred with the Mediterranean race north of the Po Valley but declined south of it and became insignificant south of Rome.:24–27
Sergi claimed the Nordics had made no substantial contribution to pre-modern civilization, noting that "in the epoch of Tacitus the Germans ... remained barbarians as in prehistoric times".:24–27 He claimed that the Romans were unable to Romanize the Germans because the Germans were averse to the Romans' civilizing influence.:24–27 He rejected Germanic scholars' claims that Germans were the saviors of a decadent post-Roman Italy.:24–27 Instead Sergi claimed that the Germans were responsible for bringing forward the Dark Ages in the Medieval period and that the Germans of the Medieval period were known for "delinquency, vagabondage, and ferocity".:24–27
C. G. Seligman supported Mediterraneanist claims, stating "it must, I think, be recognized that the Mediterranean race has actually more achievement to its credit than any other, since it is responsible for by far the greater part of Mediterranean civilization, certainly before 1000 B.C. (and probably much later), and so shaped not only the Aegean cultures, but those of Western as well as the greater part of Eastern Mediterranean lands, while the culture of their near relatives, the Hamitic pre-dynastic Egyptians, formed the basis of that of Egypt."
French historian Fernand Braudel in the 1920s invoked the conception of the Mediterraneanism including claims of Mediterranean universalism to justify French colonialism in Algeria. Braudel had entered his doctrinal studies in the 1920s at the precise time when the issue of Mediterranean unity was being fiercely debated. Braudel supported the pro-unity argument. The argument for Mediterranean unity justified French colonialism in Algeria and viewed the Berbers in a place of privilege amongst the peoples of Africa, as retainers of the lost Roman legacy in Africa. It was claimed that if the Berbers could be culturally separated from the Arabo-Islamic surrounding culture, that the Berbers would become natural allies of the French through their Mediterranean heritage that would challenge anti-colonial sentiment.
Italian Fascist conception
Italian Fascism promoted a variant of Mediterraneanism. In a 1921 speech in Bologna, Benito Mussolini stated that "Fascism was born... out of a profound, perennial need of this our Aryan and Mediterranean race".:11 In this speech Mussolini was referring to Italians as being the Mediterranean branch of the Aryan Race, Aryan in the meaning of people of an Indo-European language and culture.:39 Italian Fascism emphasized that race was bound by spiritual and cultural foundations, and identified a racial hierarchy based on spiritual and cultural factors.:39 While Italian Fascism based its conception of race on spiritual and cultural factors, Mussolini explicitly rejected notions that biologically "pure" races existed though biology was still considered a relevant factor in race. It identified Italians as part of the white race, and claimed that as such Italy had the right to rule over the black race in Africa, while asserting that racial segregation of whites and blacks in its colonies.
Italian Fascism strongly rejected the common Nordicist conception of the Aryan Race that idealized "pure" Aryans as having certain physical traits that were defined as Nordic such as blond hair and blue eyes.:188 The antipathy by Mussolini and other Italian Fascists to Nordicism was over the existence of what they viewed as the Mediterranean inferiority complex that they claimed had been instilled into Mediterraneans by the propagation of such theories by German and Anglo-Saxon Nordicists who viewed Mediterranean peoples as racially degenerate and thus in their view inferior.:188 However traditional Nordicist claims of Mediterraneans being degenerate due to having a darker colour of skin than Nordics had long been rebuked in anthropology through the depigmentation theory that claimed that lighter skinned peoples had been dipigmented from a darker skin, this theory has since become a widely accepted view in anthropology. Nordicism was rebuked by prominent anthropologist Frank H. Haskins in his work The Racial Basis of Civilization: A Critique of Nordic Doctrine (1926) in which he rejected Nordicist claims of Nordic racial purity and superiority. Anthropologist Carleton S. Coon in his work The races of Europe (1939) subscribed to depigmentation theory that claimed that Nordic race's light-coloured skin was the result of depigmentation from their ancestors of the Mediterranean race. Mussolini refused to allow Italy to return again to this inferiority complex, initially rejecting Nordicism.:188 In 1938, with the rise in power of Nazi Germany and Führer Adolf Hitler's emphasis on a Nordicist conception of the Aryan Race, Mussolini was concerned that if Italian Fascism did not recognize Nordic heritage within Italians, that the Mediterranean inferiority complex would return to Italian society.:188 Therefore in summer 1938, the Fascist government officially recognized Italians as having Nordic heritage and being of Nordic-Mediterranean descent, and in June 1938 in a meeting with PNF members (according to the Diary of Giuseppe Bottai) Mussolini identified himself as Nordic and declared that previous policy of focus on Mediterraneanism was to be replaced by a focus on Aryanism.:188
From the late 1930s through World War II, the Italian Fascists became divided in their stance on Mediterraneanism, with the Fascist regime seeking unity with Nazi Germany, the influence of Italian adherents of Nordicism grew in the PNF which aggravated the Mediterraneanists in the party.:168 Prominent Nordicists such as Julius Evola rejected Mediterraneanism and in particular Evola denounced Sergi's association of Europeans with Africans as "dangerous".:168 Evola rejected biological determinism for race but was a supporter of spiritual Nordicism.:168 Mediterraneanists remained dominant in the education system in Italy though Evola sought to challenge this.:168
The Manifesto of Racial Scientists (1938) declared that Mediterranean Europeans were distinct from Mediterranean Africans and Mediterranean Asians and rejected claims that European Mediterraneans were related to Semitic or Hamitic peoples.
In 1941 the PNF's Mediterraneanists through the influence of Giacomo Acerbo put forward a comprehensive definition of the Italian race.:146 However these efforts were challenged by Mussolini's endorsement of Nordicist figures with the appointment of staunch spiritual Nordicist Alberto Luchini as head of Italy's Racial Office in May 1941, as well as with Mussolini becoming interested with Evola's spiritual Nordicism in late 1941.:146 Acerbo and the Mediterraneanists in his High Council on Demography and Race sought to bring the regime back to supporting Mediterraneanism by thoroughly denouncing the pro-Nordicist Manifesto of the Racial Scientists.:146 The Council recognized Aryans as being a linguistic-based group, and condemned the Manifesto for denying the influence of pre-Aryan civilization on modern Italy, saying that the Manifesto "constitutes an unjustifiable and undemonstrable negation of the anthropological, ethnological, and archaeological discoveries that have occurred and are occurring in our country".:146 Furthermore, the Council denounced the Manifesto for "implicitly" crediting Germanic invaders of Italy in the guise of the Lombards for having a "a formative influence on the Italian race in a disproportional degree to the number of invaders and to their biological predominance".:146 The High Council claimed that the obvious superiority of the ancient Greeks and Romans in comparison with the ancient Germanic tribes made it inconceivable that Italian culture owed a debt to ancient Aryan Germans.:146 The Council denounced the Manifesto's Nordicist attitude towards Mediterraneans that it claimed was "considering them as slaves" and was "a repudiation of the entire Italian civilization".:146
Later 20th century
Later in the 20th century the concept of a distinctive Mediterranean race was still considered useful by theorists such as Earnest Hooton in Up From the Ape (1931) and Carleton S. Coon in his revised edition of Ripley's Races of Europe (1939). These writers thought the Nordic race was the northern variety of Mediterraneans that lost pigmentation through natural selection due to the environment.
Hooton argued that even a skilled anthropologist would have a difficult time separating a Nordic from Mediterranean skeleton. He thought a stabilized blend of the two existed mostly in Britain that he labeled "Nordic-Mediterranean", with hazel eyes (rather than pure brown), dark hair color (mainly dark brown) and dolichocephalic skull.
According to Carleton Coon, the "homeland and cradle" of the Mediterranean race is in North Africa and Southwest Asia, in the area from Morocco to Iran and Northern India. He argued that smaller Mediterraneans traveled by land from the Mediterranean basin north into Europe in the Mesolithic era. Taller Mediterraneans (Atlanto-Mediterraneans) were Neolithic seafarers who sailed in reed-type boats and colonized the Mediterranean basin from a Near Eastern origin. He argued that they also colonized Britain where their descendants may be seen today, characterized by dark brown hair, dark eyes and robust features. He stressed the central role of the Mediterraneans in his works, claiming "The Mediterraneans occupy the center of the stage; their areas of greatest concentration are precisely those where civilization is the oldest. This is to be expected, since it was they who produced it and it, in a sense, that produced them".
In 2012, National Geographic Society released a new Genealogical DNA test which enables members of the public to participate in the Genographic Project. The test included a Mediterranean genetic component among its 43 reference populations. The component was found at its highest frequencies in individuals from the Levant, North Africa, Southern Europe, the Caucasus and Iran – people from Sardinia (67%), Lebanon (66%), Egypt (65%), Tunisia (62%), Georgia (61%), Kuwait (57%), Greece (54%), Italy (54%), Iberian peninsula (48%), Northern Caucasus (46%), and Iran (42%) in their reference populations. It is also found at lower frequencies throughout the rest of Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. According to the authors, this component is "likely the signal of the Neolithic population from the Middle-east, beginning around 8,000 years ago, likely from the western part of the Fertile Crescent."
- Race (human classification)
- Genetic history of Europe
- History of the Mediterranean region
- Mediterranean sea (oceanography)
- Karim Murji, John Solomos (2005). Racialization: Studies In Theory And Practice. Oxford University Press. p. 215. ISBN 0199257035.
- John Higham (2002). Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925. Rutgers University Press. p. 273. ISBN 0-8135-3123-3.
- Bryan S Turner (1998). The Early Sociology of Class. Taylor & Francis. p. 241. ISBN 0-415-16723-X.
- The Races of Europe by Carlton Stevens Coon. From Chapter XI: The Mediterranean World – Introduction: "The next strip to follow, in a geographical sense, would be the whole highland belt of central Europe stretching over to the Balkans, to Asia Minor, and across to the Caucasus and Turkestan. This second zone, however, is one of immense racial complexity. In it various branches of the greater Mediterranean family, of Neolithic date and later, have been modified by combining in various proportions with each other and with the autochthonous Alpine race. The key to the complexity of this zone lies in the genetic action of this last entity, which is apparently a reduced, somewhat foetalized, or more highly evolved branch of the old Paleolithic stock than those which we have been studying in the north. Since, however, it is the action of this element upon the Mediterranean family which is important here, it will be easier to study this zone after having surveyed the population of a third belt, that occupied by the purest living representatives of the Mediterranean race. This third racial zone stretches from Spain across the Straits of Gibraltar to Morocco, and thence along the southern Mediterranean shores into Arabia, East Africa, Mesopotamia, and the Persian highlands; and across Afghanistan into India. This zone is one of comparative racial simplicity. In it the brunet Mediterranean race lives today in its various regional forms without, in most cases, the complication of the Paleolithic survivals and reemergences which have so confused the racial picture on the ground of Europe itself. Only in the mountains of Morocco and Algeria, and in the Canary Islands, is such a survival of any importance. The Careful study of living populations of the Mediterranean race in its early homelands will do much to simplify the task which lies ahead."
- The Races of Europe by Carlton Stevens Coon. From Chapter X: The British Isles: "The Neolithic economy was probably first brought to Britain by the bearers of the Windmill Hill culture from the Continent, and they in turn were members of the group which had invaded western Europe from North Africa by way of Gibraltar. The racial type to which these Windmill Hill people presumably belonged was a small Mediterranean, but there is little or no direct skeletal evidence from England to confirm this. By far the most important Neolithic movement into Great Britain, and into Ireland as well, came by sea from the eastern Mediterranean lands, using Spain as a halting point on the way. It was this invasion which passed up the Irish Channel to western and northern Scotland, and around to Denmark and Sweden. The settlers who came by sea were the Megalithic people, and belonged to a clearly differentiated variety of tall, extremely long-headed Mediterranean, which was presumably for the most part brunet. This racial group furnished both Great Britain and Ireland, which consisted, before their arrival, of nearly empty land, with a numerous and civilized population which has left many descendants today."
- Patrizia Palumbo. A Place in the Sun: Africa in Italian Colonial Culture from Post-Unification to the Present. University of California Press, 2003. P. 66.
- Anne Maxwell. Picture Imperfect: Photography and Eugenics, 1870–1940. Paperback edition. Sussex Academic Press, 2010. P. 150.
- Patricia M. E. Lorcin. Imperial Identities: Stereotyping, Prejudice and Race in Colonial Algeria. P. 209.
- Aaron Gillette (2001/2002). Racial Theories in Fascist Italy. Routledge.
- Melville Jacobs, Bernhard Joseph Stern. General anthropology. Barnes & Noble, 1963. P. 57.
- Lynn M. Gunzberg. Strangers at Home: Jews in the Italian Literary Imagination. University of California Press, 1992. P. 237.
- Aristotle A. Kallis. Fascist Ideology: Expansionism in Italy and Germany 1922–1945. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2000. P. 45.
- Bruce David Baum. The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity. New York, New York, USA; London, England, UK: New York University Press, 2006. P. 156.
- William Vernon Harris. Rethinking The Mediterranean. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2005. P. 1.
- Neocleous, Mark. Fascism. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. p. 35
- G. W. F. Hegel claimed that the Latin people maintained "the principle of disharmony" in contrast to the Germans. Johann Fichte asserted that the Mediterraneans were deficient because of the corruption of their language. See Poliakov, L., The Aryan Myth, 1974
- On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind, Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1870)
- William Z. Ripley, The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1899)
- Ripley (1899), The Races of Europe, p. 121; Synonyms column shortened
- See Gobineau and Chamberlain. Such ideas were repeated by Gobineau's admirers such as Houston Stewart Chamberlain and Richard Wagner (in his essay Herodom and Christianity), and later by the Nazis. See Der Reichsführer SS/SS-Hauptamt, Rassenpolitik (SS handbook on race)
- The Nation (1901). The Nation – Vol.73. New York.
- Grant, Madison (1922). The Passing of the Great Race. New York.
- Giuseppe Sergi (2008). The Mediterranean Race: A Study of the Origin of European Peoples. BiblioBazaar, LLC.
- The African Origin of the Grecian Civilization, Journal of Negro History, 1917, pp. 334–344
- Wells, H.G. The Outline of History New York:1920 Doubleday & Co. Volume I Chapter XI "The Races of Mankind" Pages 131–144 See Pages 98, 137, and 139
- Nida, Eugene Albert (1954). Customs and Cultures. Pasadena.
- Rhind, William (1851). Second-Class Book of Physical Geography. Edinburgh.
- Carleton S. Coon on the Mediterranean Race – from C.S. Coon, Caravan : the Story of the Middle East, 1958, pp. 154–157
- Mordechai Nisan. Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-Expression. McFarland, 2002. P. 54.
- The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 54. (Jan. – Jun., 1924), p. 30.
- Paul A. Silverstein. Algeria in France: Transpolitics, Race, and Nation. P. 66.
- Glenda Sluga. The Problem of Trieste and the Italo-Yugoslav Border: Difference, Identity, and Sovereignty in Twentieth-Century. SUNY Press, 2001. P. 52.
- Alan W. Ertl. Toward an Understanding of Europe:A Political Economic Précis of Continental Integration. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: Universal Publishers, 2008. P. 8.
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- Stanislao G. Pugliese. Fascism, Anti-Fascism, and the Resistance in Italy: 1919 To the Present. Rowman & Littlefield, 2004. P. 195.
- "Our area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, is the homeland and cradle of the Mediterranean race. Mediterraneans are found also in Spain, Portugal, most of Italy, Greece and the Mediterranean islands, and in all these places, as in Southwest Asia, they form the major genetic element in the local populations. In a dark-skinned and finer-boned form they are also found as the major population element in Pakistan and northern India ... The Mediterranean race, then, is indigenous to, and the principal element in, the Southwest Asia, and the greatest concentration of a highly evolved Mediterranean type falls among two of the most ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, notably the Arabs and the Jews (Although it may please neither party, this is the truth.). The Mediterraneans occupy the center of the stage; their areas of greatest concentration are precisely those where civilization is the oldest. This is to be expected, since it was they who produced it and it, in a sense, that produced them.", Carleton Coon, the Story of the Middle East, 1958, pp. 154–157
- Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, "Dans le Bassin méditerranéen, la ressemblance entre tous les peuples vivant des deux côtés de la mer est remarquable" ("In the Mediterranean Basin, the similarity between all peoples living on both sides of the sea is great"), Evolution biologique, évolution culturelle (L'evoluzione della cultura), Odile Jacob, 2005, p. 119
- Jean-Michel Dugoujon, "Les populations du pourtour méditerranéen forment une entité anthropologique de loin plus cohérente que celles proposées par les découpages entre pays ou entre continents." ("The people around the mediterranean sea form an anthropological entity much more coherent than those proposed by the divisions between countries and between continents."), Diversité des allotypes des immunoglobulines d’une population berbère de la vallée de Tacheddirt, Dugoujon, 2005
- Eleven populations around the Mediterranean basin were analysed by Tomas et al. 2008 (Catanzaro, Cosenza, Reggio di Calabria, Sicily from the South of Italy; Valencia, Ibiza and Majorca from the East of Spain; Tunisia; Morocco; Turkey and Iraq and the genetic distance between them was very low (except for Moroccans). Tunisians and Middle Eastern populations did not show a significant level of differentiation with northern populations. The conclusion was :"Tunisians did not show a significant level of differentiation with northern populations as mentioned by others. (...) The genetic distance between populations in the Middle East and the western part of the Mediterranean area was very low, most likely reflecting the effect of the Neolithic Wave and recent migration events. Only the Moroccan population showed a significant genetic distance from the remaining Mediterranean populations including populations that are geographically close to it, showing the importance of the Strait of Gibraltar as a geographic barrier and supporting the idea of a low impact of the Neolithic demic diffusion and more recent migrations in North-West Africa", X-chromosome SNP analyses in 11 human Mediterranean populations show a high overall genetic homogeneity except in North-west Africans (Moroccans), Tomas et al. 2008
- "The genetic proximity observed between the Berbers and southern Europeans reveals that these groups shared a common ancestor. Two hypotheses are discussed: one would date these common origins in the Upper Paleolithic with the expansion of anatomically modern humans, from the Near East to both shores of the Mediterranean Sea; the other supports the Near Eastern origin, but would rather date it from the Neolithic, around 10,000 years ago (Ammerman & Cavalli-Sforza 1973; Barbujani et al. 1994; Myles et al. 2005; Rando et al. 1998). Common polymorphisms (i.e. those defining H and V lineages) between Berbers and south Europeans also could have been introduced or supported by genetic flows through the Straits of Gibraltar. For example, genetic exchanges could have taken place during prehistory, while European populations retreated from ice sheets and expanded from refuge, around 15,000 years ago (as evidenced by the H and U5b mitochondrial lineages).", The Complex and Diversified Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Berber Populations, Coudray et al., december 2008
- Who Am I: Regions Overview
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