Northern Tai languages
Distribution of the Tai–Kadai language family.
- Saek (Laos and northeast Thailand; listed outside Tai proper in the Ethnologue classification, though said to be similar to Tai Maen, which is listed as Northern Tai)
- Tai Maen (Laos)
- Yoy (Thailand) [?]
- Bouyei (Buyi) (China) (incl. Yay of Vietnam)
- Central Hongshuihe Zhuang
- Eastern Hongshuihe Zhuang
- Guibei Zhuang
- Guibian Zhuang
- Lianshan Zhuang
- Liujiang Zhuang
- Liuqian Zhuang
- Qiubei Zhuang
- Yongbei Zhuang
- Youjiang Zhuang
(See varieties of Zhuang.)
Pittayaporn (2009:300) distinguishes a similar group of Zhuang varieties as group "N", defined by the phonological shifts *ɯj, *ɯw → *aj, *aw. He moves the prestige dialect of Zhuang, Wuming, from the Northern Tai Yongbei Zhuang to Yongnan Zhuang (purportedly Central Tai), as it lacks these shifts. The various languages and localities Pittayaporn includes in group N, along with their Ethnologue equivalents, are:
- Bouyei 布依 (incl. Yay of Vietnam)
- Po-ai 剥隘
- (Wenshan Prefecture, Yunnan)
- (Baise Prefecture, Guangxi)
- (Nanning Prefecture, Guangxi)
- (Guigang Prefecture, Guangxi)
- Laibin 来宾 Prefecture, Guangxi = Hongshuihe Zhuang (south Laibin), Liujiang Zhuang (north Laibin)
- (Hechi Prefecture, Guangxi)
- (Liuzhou Prefecture, Guangxi)
- Longsheng 龙胜县, Guilin 桂林, Guangxi = Guibei Zhuang
- Dong’an 东安县, Yongzhou 永州, Hunan
- Lianshan 连山县, Qingyuan 清远, Guangdong = Lianshan Zhuang
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Northern Tai". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Pittayaporn classified Yoy as Southwestern Tai, but does not provide supporting analysis.
- Pittayaporn, Pittayawat. 2009. The Phonology of Proto-Tai. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Linguistics, Cornell University.