Pembroke College, Cambridge
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2014)|
|Colleges of the University of Cambridge
|Full name||The College or Hall of Valence Mary (commonly called Pembroke College) in the University of Cambridge|
|Founder||Marie de St Pol, Countess of Pembroke|
|Named after||Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke|
|Previously named||Marie Valence Hall (1347-?)
Pembroke Hall (?–1856)
|Master||Sir Richard Dearlove|
|Sister college||Queen's College, Oxford|
|Location||Trumpington Street (map)|
|Boat Club website|
Pembroke College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. The college is the third oldest college of the university and has over seven hundred students and fellows. Physically, it is one of the university's larger colleges, with buildings from almost every century since its founding, as well as extensive gardens.
As of 2012[update] the college has a financial endowment of £53.3 million. Pembroke has a level of academic performance among the highest of all the Cambridge colleges; in 2013 and 2014 Pembroke was placed second in the Tompkins Table.
Pembroke is home to the first chapel designed by Sir Christopher Wren and is one of the Cambridge colleges to have educated a British prime minister, William Pitt the Younger. The college library, with a Victorian neo-gothic clock tower, is endowed with an original copy of the first encyclopaedia to contain printed diagrams.
On Christmas Eve 1347, Edward III granted Marie de St Pol, widow of the Earl of Pembroke, the licence for the foundation of a new educational establishment in the young university at Cambridge. The Hall of Valence Mary ("Custos & Scolares Aule Valence Marie in Cantebrigg'"), as it was originally known, was thus founded to house a body of students and fellows. The statutes were notable in that they both gave preference to students born in France who had already studied elsewhere in England, and that they required students to report fellow students if they indulged in excessive drinking or visited disreputable houses.
The college was later renamed Pembroke Hall, and finally became Pembroke College in 1856.
The first buildings comprised a single court (now called Old Court) containing all the component parts of a college – chapel, hall, kitchen and buttery, master's lodgings, students' rooms – and the statutes provided for a manciple, a cook, a barber and a laundress. Both the founding of the college and the building of the city's first college Chapel (1355) required the grant of a papal bull.
The original court was the university's smallest at only 95 feet (29 m) by 55 feet (17 m), but was enlarged to its current size in the nineteenth century by demolishing the south range.
The college's gatehouse is the oldest in Cambridge.
The original Chapel now forms the Old Library and has a striking seventeenth century plaster ceiling, designed by Henry Doogood, showing birds flying overhead. Around the Civil War, one of Pembroke's fellows and Chaplain to the future Charles I, Matthew Wren, was imprisoned by Oliver Cromwell. On his release after eighteen years he fulfilled a promise by hiring his nephew Christopher Wren to build a great Chapel in his former college. The resulting Chapel was consecrated on St Matthew's Day, 1665, and the eastern end was extended by George Gilbert Scott in 1880, when it was consecrated on the Feast of the Annunciation.
An increase in membership over the last 150 years saw a corresponding increase in building activity. The Hall was rebuilt in 1875–6 by Alfred Waterhouse after he had declared the medieval Hall unsafe. As well as the Hall, Waterhouse built a new range of rooms, Red Buildings (1871–72), in French Renaissance style, designed a new Master's Lodge on the site of Paschal Yard (1873, later to become N staircase), pulled down the old Lodge and the south range of Old Court to open a vista to the Chapel, and finally built a new Library (1877–78) in the continental Gothic style.
Waterhouse was dismissed as architect in 1878 and succeeded by George Gilbert Scott, who, after extending the Chapel, provided additional accommodation with the construction of New Court in 1881, with letters on a series of shields along the string course above the first floor spelling out the Psalm text "Nisi Dominus aedificat domum…" ("Except the Lord build the house, their labour is but vain that build it").
Building work continued into the 20th century with W. D. Caröe as architect. He added Pitt Building (M staircase) between Ivy Court and Waterhouse's Lodge, and extended New Court with the construction of O staircase on the other side of the Lodge. He linked his two buildings with an arched stone screen, Caröe Bridge, along Pembroke Street in a late Baroque style, the principal function of which was to act as a bridge by which undergraduates might cross the Master's forecourt at first-floor level from Pitt Building to New Court without leaving the College or trespassing in what was then the Fellows' Garden.
In 1926, as the Fellows had become increasingly disenchanted with Waterhouse's Hall, Maurice Webb was brought in to remove the open roof, put in a flat ceiling and add two storeys of sets above. The wall between the Hall and the Fellows' Parlour was taken down, and the latter made into a High Table dais. A new Senior Parlour was then created on the ground floor of Hitcham Building. The remodelling work was completed in 1949 when Murrary Easton replaced the Gothic tracery of the windows with a simpler design in the style of the medieval Hall.
In 1933 Maurice Webb built a new Master's Lodge in the south-east corner of the College gardens, on land acquired from Peterhouse in 1861. Following the war, further accommodation was created with the construction in 1957 of Orchard Building, so called because it stands on part of the Foundress's orchard. Finally, in a move to accommodate the majority of junior members on the College site rather than in hostels in the town, in the 1990s Eric Parry designed a new range of buildings on the site of the Master's Lodge, with a new Lodge at the west end. "Foundress Court" was opened in 1997 in celebration of the College's 650th Anniversary. In 2001 the Library was extended to the east and modified internally.
Pembroke's enclosed grounds also house some particularly well-kept gardens, sporting a huge array of carefully selected vegetation. Highlights include "The Orchard" (a patch of semi-wild ground in the centre of the college), an impressive row of Plane Trees and an immaculately kept bowling green, re-turfed in 1996, which is reputed to be among the oldest in continual use in Europe.
Pembroke College has both graduate and undergraduate students, termed Valencians, after the College's original name. The undergraduate student body is represented by the Junior Parlour Committee (JPC). The graduate community is represented by the Graduate Parlour Committee (GPC). Pembroke is unusual in having its recreational rooms named as "parlours" rather than the more standard "combination room".
There are many clubs and societies organised by the students of the college, such as the boat club Pembroke College Boat Club and the college's dramatic society the Pembroke Players, which has been made famous by alumni such as Peter Cook, Eric Idle, Tim Brooke-Taylor, Clive James and Bill Oddie and is now in its 50th year.
Pembroke is the only Cambridge college to have an International Programmes Department, providing opportunities for international students to spend a semester (mid-January to mid-June), or part of the summer, in Cambridge. The Spring Semester Programme is a competitive programme for academically outstanding students who wish to follow a regular Cambridge degree course as fully matriculated members of the University. There are around thirty places each year.
In the summer there are three programmes for British and international students: the Pembroke-King's Programme, the International Security and Intelligence Programme, and the Pembroke College-National Academy of Writing Summer Programme. For the eight-week Pembroke-King’s Programme (PKP), as well as the academic content, trips are made to locales such as London, and the programme has a series of formal halls, which are described as "three-course candlelit meals" serving "interesting" fare in Pembroke's historic dining hall. The Pembroke-King's Programme is also the programme for which the prestigious Thouron Prize is awarded, fully supporting nine American undergraduates from Harvard, Yale, and UPenn. The International Security and Intelligence and Creative Writing programmes are four-week programmes open to undergraduates, graduates and professionals.
People associated with Pembroke
|Lancelot Andrewes||1555||1626||Master, Dean of Westminster, Bishop of Chichester, Ely, Winchester|
|C.F. Andrews||1871||1940||Author and supporter of Indian Independence|
|David Armitage Bannerman||1886||1979||Ornithologist|
|John Bradford||1510||1550||Fellow, prebendary of St. Paul's, Martyr|
|Clive Betts||1950||British politician|
|Marcus Buckingham||1966||Award-winning author and motivational speaker|
|William Burkitt||1650||1703||New Testament commentator, Vicar & Lecturer of Dedham, Essex|
|Roger Bushell||1910||1944||Leader of "The Great Escape"|
|"RAB" Butler||1902||1982||British politician|
|Richard Crashaw||c.1613||1649||Anglican cleric and later Catholic convert, poet associated with Metaphysical poets and religious poetry, Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge|
|William Crashaw||1572||1626||Appointed preacher at the Inner Temple, Anglican divine and poet, author of anti-Catholic tracts and pamphlets|
|Seamus Deane||1940||Novelist, poet and literary critic|
|C. H. Douglas||1879||1952||Engineer; pioneer of the Social Credit movement|
|Timothy Dudley-Smith||1926||Hymn writer and clergyman of the Church of England|
|Edward James Eliot||1758||1797||British politician|
|William Eliot, 2nd Earl of St Germans||1767||1845||British politician|
|Archibald Fargus||1878||1963||Cricketer, scholar, clergyman|
|Femi Fani-Kayode||1960||Former Nigerian Minister of Culture and Tourism|
|William Fowler||1911||1995||Nobel prize winner|
|Arthur Gilligan||1894||1976||England cricket captain|
|Alexander Grantham||1899||1978||Governor of Hong Kong|
|Stephen Greenblatt||1943||Literary critic, pioneer of New Historicism|
|Bendor Grosvenor||1977||Art historian|
|Rupert Gwynne||1871||1924||MP for Eastbourne 1910–1924.|
|Tom Harrisson||1911||1976||Ornithologist, anthropologist, soldier, co-founder of Mass-Observation Project|
|Samuel Harsnett||1561||1631||Master, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, later Archbishop of York and theological writer|
|Oliver Heald||1954||British politician|
|Eric Idle||1943||Entertainer, comedian, member of Monty Python|
|Atma Jayaram||1915||1990||Former Director of the Indian Intelligence Bureau|
|Bryan Keith-Lucas||1912||1996||Political scientist|
|David MacMyn||1903||1978||Rugby union international (Scotland and Lions) player and administrator|
|Sir Henry James Sumner Maine||1822||1888||Jurist and Historian|
|D. H. Mellor||1938||Philosopher|
|Tom Morris||1964||Theatre director and producer|
|Sir Allan Mossop||1887||1965||Chief Judge of the British Supreme Court for China|
|David Munrow||1942||1976||Musician, composer, music historian|
|Richard Murdoch||1907||1990||Actor, comedian|
|Bill Oddie||1941||Comedian, Ornithologist|
|William Pitt||1759||1806||British politician; Prime Minister 1783-1801, 1804-06|
|Rodney Porter||1917||1985||Nobel prize winning Biochemist|
|George Maxwell Richards||1931||President of Trinidad and Tobago|
|Nicholas Ridley||c.1502||1555||Bishop of London, Martyr|
|Edmund Grindal||c.1519||1571||Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop of York, Bishop of London|
|Christopher Smart||1722||1771||Poet, hymnist, journalist, actor|
|Chris Smith, Baron Smith of Finsbury||1951||British politician|
|George Gabriel Stokes||1819||1903||Mathematician, physicist|
|John Sulston||1942||Chemist, Nobel prize winner|
|Peter Taylor, Baron Taylor of Gosforth||1930||1997||Lord Chief Justice|
|Karan Thapar||1955||Writer, Journalist, Broadcaster, Editor|
|P. K. van der Byl||1923||1999||Rhodesian politician|
|Lawrence Wager||1904||1965||Geologist, explorer and mountaineer|
|Wavell Wakefield, 1st Baron Wakefield of Kendal||1898||1983||Rugby player|
|Yorick Wilks||1939||Computer Scientist|
|Leonard Whibley||1864||1941||Greek scholar|
|Roger Williams||1603||1683||Statesman, Theologian, founder of Rhode Island|
|George Crichton Wells||1914||1999||Dermatologist, first described Well's syndrome|
Institutions named after the college
Pembroke College, the former women's college at Brown University in the United States, was named for the principal building on the women's campus, Pembroke Hall, which was itself named in honour of the Pembroke College (Cambridge) alumnus Roger Williams, a co-founder of Rhode Island.
In 1981, a decade after the merger of Pembroke College into Brown University, the Pembroke Center for Teaching and Research on Women was named in honour of Pembroke College and the history of women's efforts to gain access to higher education.
- Pembroke College, Cambridge (30 June 2012). "College Endowment".p. 17
- Plea Rolls of the Court of Common Pleas; National Archives; CP 40/555; dated 1399, first year of King Henry IV; http://aalt.law.uh.edu/H4/CP40no555/aCP40no555fronts/IMG_0163.htm ; sixth entry
- "Semester Abroad Scheme". Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Accommodation and Meals – Pembroke College
- "Pembroke-King’s Programme". Retrieved 15 September 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pembroke College, Cambridge.|