Pluteus salicinus

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Pluteus salicinus
Pluteus salicinus.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Pluteaceae
Genus: Pluteus
Species: P. salicinus
Binomial name
Pluteus salicinus
(Pers.) P.Kumm. (1871)
Synonyms[1]

Agaricus salicinus Pers. (1798)
Rhodosporus salicinus (Pers.) J.Schröt. (1889)

Pluteus salicinus
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Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium

cap is convex

or flat
hymenium is free
stipe is bare
spore print is pink
ecology is saprotrophic

edibility: psychoactive

or edible

Pluteus salicinus is a widely distributed psychedelic mushroom that grows on wood. It is an edible mushroom after parboiling.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

The species was originally described by Christian Hendrik Persoon as Agaricus salicinus in 1798.[3] Paul Kummer transferred it to the genus Pluteus in 1871.[4]

Description[edit]

  • Cap: 2 — 5(8) cm in diameter, convex becoming broadly convex to plane, silver-gray to brownish-gray, often with blue or greenish tint in age, smooth, with tiny scales near the center, darker at the margin, slightly translucent-striate when moist, unlined cap margin, flesh white with a grayish tinge, thin to moderate. Cap skin fibrous.
  • Gills: Crowded, broad, free, at first white, becoming pink-flesh colored; ventricose. Edges discoloring or bruising grayish.
  • Stipe: 3 — 5(10) long, 0.2 — 0.6 cm thick, more or less equal or slightly swollen at the base, flesh white with grayish-green to bluish-green tones, especially near the base. Ring absent. Firm, full or stuffed.
  • Taste: Unpleasant, indefinite or somewhat raphanoid (like radish).
  • Odor: Unpleasant, indefinite or somewhat raphanoid.
  • Spores: pink, smooth, 7 — 8.5 x 5 - 6 µm. Spore print pink-flesh colored to brown-pink.
  • Microscopic features: Pleurocystidia fusiform with slightly thickened walls 50 — 70 x 11 — 18 µm; with 3 — 5 horn-like projections.

Habitat and distribution[edit]

This mushroom is widely distributed across Europe and the United States. It is often found on alder and willow. It is always found growing on wood. Summer-fall, solitary or gregarious on dead wood of hardwoods, in damp forests on flood-plains.

Common Name[edit]

The 'Knackers Crumpet' is a localised, common name referring to Pluteus salicinus. Its use is most prominent in the North of England.

Chemistry[edit]

The concentration of psilocybin and psilocin in the dried sample of P. salicinus has been reported in the range of 0.21-0.35 and 0.011-0.05%, respectively.[5][6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pluteus salicinus (Pers.) P. Kumm. 1871". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  2. ^ Konuk, Muhsin; Afyon, Ahmet; Yağız, Dursun (September 2006). "Chemical composition of some naturally growing and edible mushrooms". Pakistan Journal of Botany 38 (3): 799–804. ISSN 0556-3321. 
  3. ^ Icones et Descriptiones Fungorum Minus Cognitorum (in Latin) 1. Leipzig, Germany: Breitkopf-Haertel. 1798. pp. 1–26. 
  4. ^ Kummer P. (1871). Der Führer in die Pilzkunde (in German) (1 ed.). Zerbst, Germany: C. Luppe. p. 99. 
  5. ^ Christiansen, A. L.; Rasmussen, K. E.; Høiland, K. (August 1984). "Detection of psilocybin and psilocin in Norwegian species of Pluteus and Conocybe". Planta Medica 50 (4): 341–343. doi:10.1055/s-2007-969726. PMID 17340325.  Closed access
  6. ^ Ohenoja, E.; Jokiranta, J.; Mäkinen, T.; Kaikkonen, A.; Airaksinen, M. M. (Jul–Aug 1987). "The occurrence of psilocybin and psilocin in Finnish fungi". Journal of Natural Products 50 (4): 741–744. doi:10.1021/np50052a030. PMID 3430170.  Closed access

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  • Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0.