Creation and evolution in public education
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
The status of creation and evolution in public education has been the subject of substantial debate and conflict in legal, political, and religious circles. Globally, there is a wide variety of views on the topic; in some countries legislation forbids teachers to discuss either the evidence for evolution or the modern evolutionary synthesis, the explanatory scientific theory of evolution. In other countries legislation mandates that only evolutionary biology is to be taught in the appropriate scientific syllabuses.
While many doctrines do not raise theological objections to the modern evolutionary synthesis as an explanation for the present form of life on Earth, various fundamentalist sects, including many churches within Christianity, have objected vehemently. Some adherents are passionately opposed to the consensus view of the scientific community. Rigidly arbitrary interpretations, represented as being the literal meaning of religious texts, is the greatest cause of conflict with evolutionary and cosmological investigations and conclusions.
Globally, evolution is taught in science courses with limited controversy, with the exception of a few areas of the United States and several Islamic fundamentalist countries. In the United States, the Supreme Court has ruled the teaching of creationism as science in public schools to be unconstitutional, irrespective of how it may be purveyed in theological or religious instruction. In the United States, intelligent design (ID) has been represented as an alternative explanation to evolution in recent decades, but its "demonstrably religious, cultural, and legal missions" have been ruled unconstitutional by a lower court.
Although creationist views are popular among religious education teachers and creationist teaching materials have been distributed by volunteers in some schools, many Australian scientists take an aggressive stance supporting the right of teachers to teach the theory of evolution, unhindered by religious restrictions.
|“||An essential element in the teaching of science is the encouragement of students and teachers to critically appraise the evidence for notions being taught as science. The Society states unequivocally that the dogmatic teaching of notions such as Creationism within a science curriculum stifles the development of critical thinking patterns in the developing mind and seriously compromises the best interests of objective public education. This could eventually hamper the advancement of science and technology as students take their places as leaders of future generations.||”|
In Brazil, teaching of creationism in scientific education classes is forbidden by the Ministry of Education (MEC). Religious education is not forbidden as such, but the federal constitution states that the union can neither impose, nor promote, nor finance any religion, because by law Brazil is a secular state. In 2004 however, teachers of religious education classes in schools of the education department of Rio de Janeiro began to present creationism in their classes as scientific fact. The practice was directly initiated by politicians in power who were promoting their personal religious views, and their action moved Brazilian scientists to protest the abuse. Subsequently in congress a "religious bench," or faction, has become increasingly influential. For example, a Brazilian senator, Marcelo Crivella, the former Minister of Fishing and Aquiculture, publicly declared his religiously founded antagonism to evolution. Such prominent influences have drawn the attention of the defenders of the secular state.
Council of Europe
- Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Resolution 1580
On October 4, 2007, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) adopted its Resolution 1580 titled The dangers of creationism in education. The resolution observed that "The war on the theory of evolution and on its proponents most often originates in forms of religious extremism closely linked to extreme right-wing political movements," and urged member states "firmly oppose the teaching of creationism as a scientific discipline on an equal footing with the theory of evolution and in general the presentation of creationist ideas in any discipline other than religion."
- Drafting and adoption
The Assembly's work leading to adopting the resolution began in 2006, when several delegates of the assembly, led by British Labour Party politician Andrew McIntosh, suggested to adopt a recommendation on this theme. During drafting, the report and draft resolution were prepared by the delegate from the French Socialist Party, Guy Lengagne.
The report was returned by PACE to its Committee on Culture, Science and Education for revision in June 2007 with 63 votes against 46, at the request by the leader of the Christian Democratic group in the Assembly Luc Van den Brande. Reuters noted that calling off the debate and vote "also won support from east European deputies,[which?] who recalled that Darwinian evolution was a favorite theory of their former communist rulers." The procedure used for the referral was criticized by the Assembly's Committee on Culture, Science and Education. After the revision by a new rapporteur, Anne Brasseur, a delegate from Luxembourg representing the Liberal group in the Assembly and several amendments made by the Assembly, the resolution was adopted, by 48 votes against 25.
The resolution's aim is "to warn against certain tendencies to pass off a belief as science … the Parliamentary Assembly is worried about the possible ill-effect of the spread of creationist ideas within our education systems and about the consequences for our democracies. If we are not careful, creationism could become a threat to human rights." It rejects that creationism in any form, including "intelligent design," can be considered scientific (Para. 4), but considers possible its inclusion in religion and cultural classes (Para. 16). The resolution concludes that teaching creationism in school as a scientific theory may threaten civil rights (Paras. 13 and 18). The resolution summarizes itself in Para. 19:
The Parliamentary Assembly therefore urges the member states, and especially their education authorities to:
- defend and promote scientific knowledge;
- strengthen the teaching of the foundations of science, its history, its epistemology and its methods alongside the teaching of objective scientific knowledge;
- make science more comprehensible, more attractive and closer to the realities of the contemporary world;
- firmly oppose the teaching of creationism as a scientific discipline on an equal footing with the theory of evolution and in general the presentation of creationist ideas in any discipline other than religion;
- promote the teaching of evolution as a fundamental scientific theory in the school curricula.
- Coverage and reaction
After the rejection of Lengagne's report, the former rapporteur was interviewed on the subject by the French newspaper 20 Minutes, where he evaluated the events as follows: "We are witnessing a return to the Middle Ages."
The resolution was criticised by deputy head of the Department for External Church Relations of the Russian Orthodox Church, Archpriest Vsevolod Chaplin, stating that "those few fossils presented by the anthropologists as examples of ape-human transitional forms could be explained by random mutations. We don't claim to found a new species upon finding a fish with two heads." and by the president of Southern Baptist Theological Seminary Albert Mohler considering that "this can only mean that Europe (at least as represented by the Council of Europe) has forgotten even its Christian memory."
In February 2009, the resolution was a starting point of a conference held in Dortmund, Germany, and led by Dittmar Graf from the Dortmund University of Technology. The conference, including participation of Anne Brasseur, among others, was held in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Physiology, University of Vienna and Hacettepe University and with support from German Ministry of Education and Research.
Michael Poole, a King's College London Visiting Research Fellow in Science and Religion and a founding member of the International Society for Science and Religion, criticised the resolution for being too restrictive while disapproving of young Earth creationism and the intelligent design movement.
Deutsche Welle, covering the disagreement among members of the Assembly on whether the resolution constituted an attack on religious beliefs, and Die Welt, pointing to journalists-expressed suspicions of wishing to limit freedom of conscience and Brasseur's response that the aim was to draw a line between the spheres of faith and science.
On April 25, 2007, Member of Parliament Martin Henriksen (Danish People's Party) asked Education Minister Bertel Haarder (Liberal Party of Denmark) for information about how many educational institutions had received The Atlas of Creation (2006) by Harun Yahya. The minister responded that the Ministry of Education was not in possession of information about the number of educational institutions that had received the book. Further, he stated that the choice of educational materials is decided by local school boards. Moreover, it is his view that the end goal of primary school biology instruction is to enable students to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to explain the basic elements of heredity and evolution and to address the issues related to the biological coursework.
In interview sessions during 2002, less than 10% of the interviewed Danes declared the theory of evolution as being definitely false.
Iranian scientific development, especially the health-related aspects of biology, has been a goal of the Islamic government since the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Since Iranian traditional practice of Shi'a religion isn't preoccupied with Qur'anic literalism as in case of fundamentalist Wahhabism but ijtihad, many influential Iranian Shi'ite scholars, including several who were closely involved in the Iranian Revolution, are not opposed to evolutionary ideas in general, disagreeing that evolution necessarily conflicts with the Muslim mainstream. Iranian pupils since 5th grade of elementary school learn only about evolution, thus portraying geologists and scientists in general as an authoritative voices of scientific knowledge.
In the Netherlands some factions teach creationism in their own schools. In May 2005, a discussion on intelligent design erupted when Minister of Education Maria van der Hoeven suggested that debate about intelligent design might encourage discourse between the country's various religious parties. She sought to "stimulate an academic debate" on the subject. Following strong objection from the nation's scientists, she dropped plans of holding a conference on the matter. After the 2007 elections, she was succeeded by Ronald Plasterk, described as a "molecular geneticist, staunch atheist and opponent of intelligent design."
In 1986, Norway's then-Minister of Church and Education Affairs Kjell Magne Bondevik proposed new education plans for the elementary and middle school levels which included skepticism to the theory of evolution and would hold that a final answer to the origin of mankind was unknown. The proposal was withdrawn after it had generated controversy.
Poland saw a controversy over creationism in 2006 when Deputy Education Minister Mirosław Orzechowski denounced evolution as a lie taught in Polish schools. His superior, Minister of National Education Roman Giertych, has stated that the theory of evolution would continue to be taught in Polish schools, "as long as most scientists in our country say that it is the right theory." Giertych's father, Member of the European Parliament Maciej Giertych, has however opposed the teaching of evolution and has claimed that "in every culture there are indications that we remember dinosaurs. The Scots have Nessie; we Poles have the Wawel dragon."
In Serbia the teaching of evolution was suspended for one week in 2004, under Minister of Education and Sport Ljiljana Čolić, only allowing schools to reintroduce evolution into the curriculum if they also taught creationism. "After a deluge of protest from scientists, teachers and opposition parties" says the BBC report, Čolić's deputy, Milan Brdar, made the statement, "I have come here to confirm Charles Darwin is still alive" and announced that the decision was reversed. Čolić resigned after the government said that she had caused "problems that had started to reflect on the work of the entire government."
Although it has been claimed that evolution is not taught in Pakistani universities; the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, which is the federal body which sets standards of course content, has knowledge and understanding of evolution as being compulsory for several courses such as microbiology, bioinformatics, zoology, botany as well as others. In 2006, the Pakistan Academy of Sciences became a signatory of the InterAcademy Panel Statement on "The teaching of evolution." Many of the contemporary titles on the creation-evolution controversy, such as those by biologist Richard Dawkins, are available for general sale.
In 1998, Ioan Moisin, a Christian Democratic senator and a Greek Catholic priest, called upon Romania's Ministry of Education to establish a commission of Catholics who would revise biology textbooks and philosophical textbooks to not contradict Biblical creationism. Moisin disapproved of students learning from their religious teachers that God created human beings and then learning to the contrary from biology and philosophy teachers that humans descend from apes as a product of evolution by Darwinian natural selection. Moisin's proposal to establish the commission also sought to form a Council of Public Morality that would feature representatives composed of teachers and clergy, to oversee public education, and to be subordinated only to the direct authority of the President of Romania. Romania's Parliament and Ministry of Education never seriously considered the proposals.
In December 2006, a schoolgirl in Saint Petersburg, Russia, and her father took the issue of the teaching of evolution in Russian schools to court. The Russian Ministry of Education supports the theory of evolution. Representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church backed the suit. In February 2007, the first instance court, and in July, the second instance court, ruled in favour of the Ministry.
In August 2014 the Mayor of Kazan, Il'sur Metshin, expressed surprise at schools teaching the "theory of Darwin". He added that he intended to raise the question of the school curriculum at the federal level.
A Saudi 12th-grade textbook mentions evolution by name only where it claims that Charles Darwin has "denied Allah's creation of humanity". The rest of the textbook focuses on descriptions of the taxonomic ranks: it makes no further mention of evolution, only quoting Qur'an verses as relevant to certain groups of animals.
In Turkey, a mostly Islamic country, evolution is often a controversial subject. Evolution was added to the school curriculum shortly after the Turkish Revolution of the 1920s and 30s. There was some resistance to this, such as that of Said Nursî and his followers, but opposition was not particularly powerful. In fact, some prominent Turkish scholars during the first decades of the new-born Turkish republic, such as Ahmet Hamdi Akseki (d. 1951), who once served as the President of Religious Affairs of Turkey, and İzmirli İsmail Hakkı (d. 1946) thought that the theory of evolution cannot be seen as contrary to Islam because it was already to be found in the classical works of Muslim theology. In the 1980s, conservatives came into power, and used the ideas of scientific creationists in the US as a method of discrediting evolution (notwithstanding material on the age of the Earth, which Islamic creationism is less specific about).
One anti-evolutionist group in Turkey is the Istanbul based Bilim Araştırma Vakfı (BAV), or "Science Research Foundation," which was founded by Adnan Oktar in 1990. Its activities include campaigns against the teaching of evolution. It has been described as one of the strongest anti-evolution organizations outside of North America. US based creationist organizations such as the Institute for Creation Research (ICR) have worked alongside them. Some scientists have protested that anti-evolution books published by this group (such as The Evolution Deceit (1999) by Harun Yahya) have become more influential than real biology textbooks. The teaching of evolution in high schools has been fought by Ali Gören, a member of parliament and professor of medicine, who believes such education has negative effects.
The situation is very fragile, and the status of evolution in education varies from one government to the next. For example, in 1985 the Minister of National Education, Youth and Sports Vehbi Dinçerler had scientific creationism added to high school texts, and also had the discredited Lamarckism presented alongside Darwinism. Only in 1998 was this changed somewhat, with texts presenting a more balanced view, though still mentioning creationism and Lamarckism. At present the moderate Islamist Justice and Development Party, which is sympathetic to creationist views, holds power. It was elected in 2002 and again with a greater majority in 2007.
In general, material that conflicts with religious beliefs is highly controversial in Turkey. For example, in November 2007 a prosecutor launched a probe into whether Richard Dawkins' book The God Delusion (2006) is "an attack on religious values." Its publisher could face trial and up to one year in prison if the prosecutor concludes that the book "incites religious hatred" and insults religious values.
Turkish academics who have defended evolutionary theory have received death threats, for instance Turkish biologist Aykut Kence received an email telling him to enjoy his "final days." Kence helped establish the Evolution Group, whose aim is to improve public understanding of evolution. However, opposition to creationism is not very powerful; Umit Sayin, a neurologist, describes academics and universities as "slow and sluggish" in their response. Kence maintains that "if knowledgeable people keep quiet, it only helps those who spread nonsense."
In each of the countries of the United Kingdom, there is an agreed syllabus for religious education with the right of parents to withdraw their children from these lessons. The religious education syllabus does not involve teaching creationism, but rather teaching the central tenets of major world faiths. At the same time, the teaching of evolution is compulsory in publicly funded schools. For instance, the National Curriculum for England requires that students at Key Stage 4 (14–16) be taught:
- that the fossil record is evidence for evolution
- how variation and selection may lead to evolution or extinction
In 2003, the Emmanuel Schools Foundation (previously the Vardy Foundation after its founder, Sir Peter Vardy) sponsored a number of "faith-based" academies where evolution and creationist ideas would be taught side-by-side in science classes. This caused a considerable amount of controversy.
An organisation called Truth in Science has distributed teaching packs of creationist information to schools, and claims that fifty-nine schools are using the packs as "a useful classroom resource." The government has stated that "Neither intelligent design nor creationism are recognised scientific theories and they are not included in the science curriculum. The Truth in Science information pack is therefore not an appropriate resource to support the science curriculum." It is arranging to communicate this message directly to schools.
In the United States, creationists and proponents of evolution are engaged in a long-standing battle over the legal status of creation and evolution in the public school science classroom.
- Creation–evolution controversy
- Flying Spaghetti Monster
- Intelligent design in politics
- Level of support for evolution
- "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution"
- Religion and children
- Robinson, Bruce A. (November 1995). "Beliefs of the U.S. public about evolution and creation". ReligiousTolerance.org. Kingston, Ontario: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- Saletan, William (December 21, 2005). "Is Creationism Destructible?". Slate (Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post Company). Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- Witt, Jonathan (September 29, 2006). "Science magazine reviews The Language of God by Francis Collins, Ignores the Book's Intelligent Design". Evolution News & Views. Seattle, WA: Discovery Institute. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- Lundin, Leigh (May 4, 2008). "Evilution". Criminal Brief. Los Angeles, CA: CriminalBrief.com. Retrieved 2010-03-05.
- Annas, George J. (May 25, 2006). "Intelligent Judging — Evolution in the Classroom and the Courtroom". The New England Journal of Medicine (Waltham, MA: Massachusetts Medical Society) 354 (21): 2277–2281. doi:10.1056/NEJMlim055660. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 16723620. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- Minus, Jodie (June 25, 2010). "Creationism creeps into NSW schools". The Australian (Sydney: News Corp Australia). Retrieved 2011-02-26.
- "Intelligent Design Policy: Science Education and Creationism" (PDF). Geological Society of Australia. Sydney: Geological Society of Australia Incorporated. December 17, 2008. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- Takahashi, Fábio; Bedinelli, Talita (December 13, 2008). "MEC diz que criacionismo não é tema para aula de ciências" [MEC says that creationism is not subject for science class]. Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese) (São Paulo: Grupo Folha). Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (PDF). Textos básicos (n. 57). Translation by Istvan Vajda, Patricia de Queiroz Carvalho Zimbres, and Vanira Tavares de Souza (3rd ed.). Brasília: Documentation and Information Center; Publishing Coordination; Chamber of Deputies. 2010. p. 29. ISBN 978-85-736-5736-4. OCLC 705932082. See Title III, Chapter 1, Article 19.
- Gazir, Augusto (May 13, 2004). "Escolas do Rio vão ensinar criacionismo" [Schools of Rio will teach creationism]. Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese) (São Paulo: Grupo Folha). Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- MacKenzie, Debora (July 9, 2005). "Creationism special: A battle for science's soul". New Scientist (Reed Business Information) 187 (2507): 8–9. ISSN 0262-4079. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
Eighty years after the Scopes trial drew the battle lines over evolution and creationism, Darwin's theory is under renewed attack, this time from 'intelligent design'. It's an idea that is spreading into US culture and beyond.
- Severo, Felipe (December 12, 2011). "Um estado laico com bancada evangélica" [A secular state with evangelical bench]. revista o Viés (Blog) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- "Senado Federal: Secretaria-Geral da Mesa: Secretaria de Taquigrafia e Redação de Debates Legislativos". Senado Federal (in Portuguese). Brasília: Federal Senate. February 10, 2009. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- Crivella, Marcelo (February 10, 2009). "Criacionista, Crivella filosofa sobre origem da ameba" [Creationist, Crivella philosophical about the origin of the amoeba] (Adobe Flash Video) (in Portuguese). São Paulo: UOL. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- Coutinho, Simone Andréa Barcelos (August 23, 2011). "Escolha eleitoral deve considerar secularismo do Estado" [Electoral choice should consider secularism of the State]. Consultor Jurídico (in Portuguese) (São Paulo). ISSN 1809-2829. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- "The dangers of creationism in education". Committee on Culture, Science and Education (Resolution). Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. October 4, 2007. Resolution 1580. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "The dangers of creationism in education". Committee on Culture, Science and Education (Motion for a recommendation). Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. October 4, 2006. Doc. 11065. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "The dangers of creationism in education". Committee on Culture, Science and Education (Report). Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. June 8, 2007. Doc. 11297. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- White, Hilary (June 27, 2007). "Proposed Council of Europe Report Calls Creationism 'Dangerous,' 'Threat to Human Rights'". LifeSiteNews.com. Toronto, Ontario: Campaign Life Coalition. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "2007 Ordinary Session: (Third part): Report: Nineteenth Sitting: Monday 25 June 2007 at 11.30 a.m." (Verbatim record). Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. AACR19 / AS (2007) CR 19. Retrieved 2014-06-16. Verbatim record of the PACE sitting on June 25, 2007 - see para. 7.
- Reilhac, Gilbert (June 25, 2007). "European rights body calls off creationism vote". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Statement by PACE's Committee on Culture, Science and Education, 26 June 2007". PACE News (Strasbourg: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe). June 26, 2007. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "The dangers of creationism in education". Committee on Culture, Science and Education (Report). Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. September 17, 2007. Doc. 11375. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "2007 Ordinary Session: (Fourth part): Thirty-fifth Sitting: Thursday 4 October 2007 at 3 p.m.: Minutes of Proceedings" (Minutes). Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. AS (2007) PV 35. Retrieved 2014-06-16. Minutes of the PACE sitting on October 4, 2007.
- "Voting results (Participants)". Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2014-06-16. Voting results on the amendments and resolution ("The dangers of creationism in education" (Doc. 11375)). Vote on resolution: In favour: 48; against: 25; abstention: 3.
- "Council of Europe: Keep Creationism Out of Science Classes". Deutsche Welle (Berlin/Bonn, Germany: ARD). October 5, 2007. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- Lengagne, Guy (June 27, 2007). 'Le Conseil de l'Europe cède à des religieux intégristes' [The Council of Europe yields to religious fundamentalists]. 20 Minutes (in French). Interview with 20 Minutes (Oslo, Norway: Schibsted). Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- В Русской Православной Церкви критикуют резолюцию ПАСЕ, направленную против креационизма. Православие.Ru (in Russian). Moscow. October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- Jones, Lawrence (October 10, 2007). "Evangelical Theologian Disputes Creationism's Alleged 'Threat' to Human Rights". The Christian Post (Washington, D.C.: The Christian Post, Inc.). Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- Hemminger, Hansjörg (April 2009). "Einstellungen zu Evolution und Wissenschaft in Europa". Materialdienst (in German) (Berlin: Evangelical Church in Germany). ISSN 0721-2402. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- Poole, Michael (September 2008). "Creationism, intelligent design and science education" (PDF). School Science Review (London: John Murray) 90 (330): 123–129. ISSN 0036-6811. Archived from the original on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "Europäisches Gremium verurteilt Kreationismus". Die Welt (in German) (Berlin: Axel Springer SE). October 5, 2007. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- Henriksen, Martin (April 25, 2007). "§ 20-spørgsmål S 4310 Om bogen »Atlas of Creation«" [§ 20-question S 4310 About the book 'Atlas of Creation']. Folketinget (in Danish). Copenhagen, Kingdom of Denmark: The Danish Parliament. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- Hall, Ole (April 24, 2007). "Muslimsk offensiv mod Darwin" [Muslim offensive against Darwin]. Jyllands-Posten (in Danish) (Viby J: JP/Politikens Hus). Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- Haarders, Bertel (May 9, 2007). "Undervisningsminister Bertel Haarders skriftlige svar til medlem af Folketinget Martin Henriksen (DF) på spørgsmål af 25. april 2007 nr. S 4310" [Education Minister Bertel Haarder written reply to a Member of Parliament Martin Henriksen (DF) questions of 25 April 2007 No. S 4310] (PDF). Folketinget (in Danish). Copenhagen, Kingdom of Denmark: The Danish Parliament. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- Miller, Jon D.; Scott, Eugenie C.; Okamoto, Shinji (August 11, 2006). "Public Acceptance of Evolution". Science (Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science) 313 (5788): 765–766. doi:10.1126/science.1126746. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 16902112. "Supporting Online Material for Public Acceptance of Evolution" (PDF).
- Burton, Elise K. (May–June 2010). "Teaching Evolution in Muslim States:Iran and Saudi Arabia Compared". Reports of the National Center for Science Education (Berkeley, CA: National Center for Science Education) 30 (3): 25–29. ISSN 2158-818X. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- Enserink, Martin (June 3, 2005). "Is Holland Becoming the Kansas of Europe?". Science (Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science) 308 (5727): 1394. doi:10.1126/science.308.5727.1394b. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 15933170.
- "Cabinet ministers announced (update 2)". DutchNews.nl (Amsterdam: Dutch News BV). February 13, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
- Meldalen, Sindre Granly (February 1, 2009). "Halvparten av britene tror ikke på dette". Dagbladet (in Norwegian) (Copenhagen, Kingdom of Denmark: Aller Media). Retrieved 2009-09-09.
- "And finally...". Warsaw Business Journal (Warsaw, Poland: Valkea Media). December 18, 2006. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- de Quetteville, Harry (September 9, 2004). "Darwin is off the curriculum for Serbian schools". The Daily Telegraph (London: Telegraph Media Group). Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- "Serbia reverses Darwin suspension". BBC News (London: BBC). September 9, 2004. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- "'Anti-Darwin' Serb minister quits". BBC News (London: BBC). September 16, 2004. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- Ali, Zulfiqar (2008). "Curriculum of Microbiology BS (4-Year)" (PDF). Higher Education Commission, Pakistan. Preface by Riaz-ul-Haq Tariq. Islamabad: Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- Ali, Zulfiqar (2011). "Curriculum of Bioinformatics BS MS" (PDF). Higher Education Commission, Pakistan. Preface by Muhammad Javed Khan. Islamabad: Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- "Curriculum of Zoology BS (4-Year)" (PDF). Higher Education Commission, Pakistan. Preface by Riaz-ul-Haq Tariq. Islamabad: Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. 2008. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- Ali, Zulfiqar (2013). "Curriculum of Botany BS (4-Year) & MS/MPhil" (PDF). Higher Education Commission, Pakistan (Draft). Preface by Fida Hussain. Islamabad: Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- IAP Member Academies (June 21, 2006). "IAP Statement on the Teaching of Evolution". IAP. Trieste, Italy: The World Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- Titles such as The Blind Watchmaker (1986) by Richard Dawkins are also available for general readership.
- Stan, Lavinia; Turcescu, Lucian (September 2005). "Religious education in Romania". Communist and Post-Communist Studies (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann) 38 (6): 381–401. doi:10.1016/j.postcomstud.2005.06.007. ISSN 0967-067X. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
- Niedowski, Erika (January 3, 2007). "In Russia, a test of God vs. Darwin". The Baltimore Sun (Chicago, IL: Tribune Company). Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- Leonov, Maksim (March 1, 2006). "St. Petersburg schoolgirl sues authorities over Darwinism". Moscow. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- Суд Санкт-Петербурга отклонил иск о преподавании теории Дарвина (in Russian). Moscow. RIA Novosti. July 4, 2007. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- Мэр Казани отвергает теорию Дарвина. Вечерняя Казань (in Russian). 2014-08-21. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
Выступая сегодня на городской конференции педагогов, казанский градоначальник Ильсур Метшин высказал удивление по поводу того, что в школах до сих пор преподают теорию Дарвина о происхождении человека.
- Мэр Казани предлагает запретить теорию Дарвина [The Mayor of Kazan' plans to forbid Darwin's theory]. Общественное телевидение России (in Russian) (Moscow: Общественное телевидение России). 2014-08-23. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
Он добавил, что планирует поднять вопрос о необходимости преподавания в школах теории Дарвина на федеральном уровне,
- Edis, Taner (January 2008). "Islamic Creationism: A Short History". Newsletter (Notre Dame, IN: History of Science Society) 37 (1). ISSN 0739-4934. Retrieved 2008-02-24.
...Islam has been the world religion that has proved most resistant to Darwinian evolution.
- Kaya, Veysel (April 2012). "Can the Quran Support Darwin? An Evolutionist Approach by Two Turkish Scholars after the Foundation of the Turkish Republic". The Muslim World 102 (2): 357–370. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.2011.01362.x. ISSN 1478-1913. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
- Koenig, Robert (May 18, 2001). "Creationism Takes Root Where Europe, Asia Meet". Science (Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science) 292 (5520): 1286–1287. doi:10.1126/science.292.5520.1286. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 11360976. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
Harassed but hard-headed, some gutsy Turkish scientists are stepping up their efforts to promote the teaching of the theory of evolution...
- "Turkey probes atheist's 'God' book". New York. Associated Press. November 28, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-08-13. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2002: United Kingdom". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of State. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
|chapter-url=missing title (help). Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. February 27, 2006. col. 518W–519W.
- William, Rowan (March 21, 2006). Interview: Rowan Williams. The Guardian. Interview with Alan Rusbridger (London: Guardian Media Group). Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- "Fears over teaching creationism". BBC News (London: BBC). March 21, 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
- Randerson, James (November 26, 2006). "Revealed: rise of creationism in UK schools". The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- Randerson, James (December 6, 2006). "Ministers to ban creationist teaching aids in science lessons". The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- Graebsch, Almut; Schiermeier, Quirin (November 23, 2006). "Anti-evolutionists raise their profile in Europe". Nature 444 (7118): 406–407. doi:10.1038/444406a. PMID 17122815.
- Slevin, Peter (March 14, 2005). "Battle on Teaching Evolution Sharpens". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post Company). p. A01. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- Simpson, George Gaylord (1961). "One Hundred Years without Darwin are Enough". Teachers College Record (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University) 60: 617–626. ISSN 0161-4681. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- Creation education materials and articles at Answers in Genesis
- National Academy of Sciences (1998). Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309063-64-7. LCCN 98016100. OCLC 245727856. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- Edis, Taner (Summer 1994). "Islamic Creationism in Turkey". Creation/Evolution (Berkeley, CA: National Center for Science Education) 34 (1). ISSN 0738-6001. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- Vassallo, Raphael (October 14, 2007). "Dinosaurs helped build the pyramids, school director says". Malta Today (San Gwann: MediaToday Co. Ltd). Retrieved 2014-06-16.