||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (May 2013)|
|Active||1572 - 1648|
|Role||infantry (primarily)/ cavalry|
|Size||up to 40,000 (1649)|
|Garrison/HQ||Trakhtemyriv, Kiev Voivodeship|
|Engagements||Livonian War, Moldavian Magnate Wars, Polish–Ottoman War, Polish–Muscovite War|
|Petro Sahaidachny, Mykhailo Doroshenko, others|
Registered Cossacks, (Ukrainian: Реєстрові козаки, Rye'estrovi kozaky, Polish: Kozacy rejestrowi) were warriors who were recorded in official registries as Cossacks. The registered Cossacks became one of the important social groups of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Those warriors could culturally have already been members of the Cossack community or could have become recognized as such after being admitted to the registry.
Registered Cossacks were a military formation of the Commonwealth army from 1572 soon after the Union of Lublin when most of territory of modern Ukraine was passed to the Crown of Poland. Registered Cossack formations were based on the Zaporozhian Cossacks that already existed at the lower reaches of the Dnieper River amidst the Pontic steppes as well as self-defense formations within settlements in the region of modern Central and Southern Ukraine.
Historically, the first official plan for the creation of Cossack formations as a border service was brought to the attention of the State Council of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1524 by Semen Polozovic and Kristof Kmitic. However due to the lack of funds, the idea was never realized. The starosta of Cherkasy, Ostap Dashkevych, revived the idea at the 1533 council in Piotrków Trybunalski. Dashkevych tried to show that in order to protect the borders beyond the Dnieper it would be necessary to maintain an army of 2,000 soldiers and several hundred cavalrymen. He also pointed out the importance of establishing forts on the river's islands to keep Tatar raids in check.
On July 21, 1541 the King of Poland, Sigismund I the Old, issued an edict to the starosta of Cherkasy, Andrei Glebovich Pronsky (?-1557, a descendant of the Pronsk princes), in which he strictly warned Pronsky to control the Cossack raids against Tatar uluses. With the start of the Livonian War in the 16th century, the voivode of Kiev, Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski, and the starosta of Cherkasy, Alexander Wisnowecki, recruited Cossacks to their armies, while in 1568 King Sigismund II Augustus sent a proposition to the Zaporizhian Sich to not only join his foreign campaign but also sign up for royal service.
The registered Cossacks were finally created for the first time on the edict of Sigismund II Augustus on June 5, 1572 when the King confirmed the orders of Great Crown Hetman Jerzy Jazłowiecki, the voivode of Podole and Ruthenia, for state service. The first Hetman of the Registered Cossacks and court marshal was Jan Badowski. The registered Cossacks were the only military Cossack formation recognized by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
|1622||Olifer Holub||elected by Cossacks|
|1623||Mykhailo Doroshenko||last hetman, replaced by a commissar|
Batory and Wars in Livonia, Moldavia and Muscovy
The most well known of the first recorded Cossack reforms came from King of Poland Stefan Batory. At first Batory tried to control those Cossack forces which were waging their own wars in Moldavia and Wallachia as well as other parts of the Ottoman Empire. On April 4, 1578 he issued four universals to all local government officials asking them to support Jan Tarlo in an investigation of the coup-d'etat by Zaporozhian leader Ivan Pidkova, which overthrew the Ottoman-installed Hospodar of Moldavia, Peter the Lame, in 1577 under a pretense of Ivan being the brother of the previous voivode of Moldavia, John III the Terrible. Batory also ordered the voivode of Kiev, Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski, to send a punitive expedition against Pidkova and asked the mayors of Khmilnyk, Bar, Bratslav, Vinnytsia, Bila Tserkva and others to support him. At the same time Batory sent his ambassador Marcin Broniowski to the Khan of Crimea proposing cooperative actions against the Zaporizhian Sich.
On July 27, 1578 Batory sent ambassador Jancsi Bereg to the Zaporozhian host proposing the Cossacks redirect their raids from Moldavia to Muscovy. To further discuss the proposition a delegation headed by Andriy Lykhansky arrived in Lviv on September 15, 1578. The next day it was agreed that 500 Cossacks would be enlisted for fiteen florins each per year. Starosta of Cherkasy and Kaniv, Prince Michał Wiśniowiecki, was appointed hetman while his deputy was Jan Oryszowski. The headquarters of the cossacks was established at Trakhtemyriv (today a village of Hryhorivka Rural Council in Kaniv Raion) with its monastery, which was used as the Cossacks' hospital. The Cossacks were also given a banner that denoted their relationship to the state army and were promised by Bereg to be paid in Cherkasky on Saint Nicolas Day. The Cossacks evidently did not get paid until after the Siege of Pskov in 1581. Even though the official register consisted of only 500 names, in reality the contingent of registered Cossacks was accounted at around 4,000.
Batory's military reform, however, was not effective. The Polish government promised to pay the Cossacks' salary, but often did not follow that promise. The Cossacks frequently and proudly pledged their allegiance to serve the King of Poland and hoped for the same financial compensation at least as the regular army. Due to the hold ups in pay some Cossacks returned their raids against the Tatars and Moldavians.
In 1590 the Sejm issued a new declaration recreating the Cossack units. A king's edict was issued on July 25, 1590 through which 1,000 cossacks were registered for policing duty in order to prevent unauthorized raids into neighboring countries. The registered cossacks were paid from 5 to 12 zloty each quarter and the Zaporizhian Sich was selected to be their headquarters. As the Polish interests were aimed in securing the Swedish crown, however, the cossack movement was allowed to grow out of control, leading to a series of local rebellions by polkovnyk Krzysztof Kosiński and Severyn Nalyvaiko, with was assistance from kosh otaman of the Zaporozhian Cossacks Hryhoriy Loboda.
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Registered Cossacks formed an elite among the Cossacks, serving in the military under officers (starshyna), colonels (polkovnyk) and generals (hetman), who were responsible before the Grand Crown Hetman (the highest Commonwealth military commander). A substantial minority of Cossacks formed skilled light cavalry units (choragiew), excellent skirmishers trained in mounted archery (and later using firearms), making lightning raids, harassing heavier, slower formations and disengaging. Those units were often used as support for heavy elite Commonwealth cavalry, the husaria, and were much cheaper to form than a hussar unit. The main Cossack units were the infantry, known for their tabor formation.
Registered Cossacks had many privileges, including personal freedom, exclusion from many taxes and duties, and the right to receive wages, although the Commonwealth military was plagued with fiscal problems, leading to extremely delayed wages, often paid in items like clothing or weapons instead of coin.
Many Cossacks were skilled warriors and their major income source came from raids on the southern neighbors of the Commonwealth: the (Ottoman Empire and its vassals). However, only a small number were actually 'registered Cossacks'; the exact number was from few hundred to few thousands and varied over time, usually being increased during wartime. This led to many social and political tensions, especially as szlachta (Polish and Ukrainian gentry) continually attempted to force the Cossacks into submission as peasants, while the Cossacks demanded significant expansions of the Cossack register. Furthermore, the Cossack-szlachta conflict was aggravated as Cossacks often supported Commonwealth monarchs like Wladyslaw IV Waza who were at odds with Polish szlachta who wished to further limit the monarch's powers. The tensions between the Cossacks and szlachta grew from the late 16th century and resulted in several uprisings with the registered Cossacks often forced to choose sides between supporting their own people or the szlachta-backed Commonwealth forces.
Eventually refusal of the king to expand the registry led to the Khmelnytsky uprising of 1648. A Russian-Polish alliance was formed against Bohdan Khmelnitsky, with his Cossacks being declared rebels against all order. Don Cossack raids on Crimea left Khmelnitsky without the aid of his usual Tatar allies. The rebellion ended with the 1654 Treaty of Pereyaslav in which Khmelnitsky's Cossacks, so as to destroy the Russian-Polish alliance against them, pledged their loyalty to the Russian Tsar, who guaranteed the Cossacks his protection, the recognition of their starshyna (officer-nobility) and their property and autonomy under his rule, freeing the Cossacks from the Polish sphere of influence but securing them as part of Russia's hegemony. Despite this, the Registered Cossacks remained an official unit of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth army until 1699, with individual Cossacks travelling to the Commonwealth to enroll in its ranks.
According to the Treaty of Zboriv, signed on August 17, 1649, the number of Registered Cossacks increased up to forty thousand.
The Regiments of Registered Cossacks in 1649. # Headquarters Number of Registered Cossacks 1 Bila Tserkva 2990 2 Bratslav 2662 3 Cherkasy 2990 4 Chernihiv 998 5 Chyhyryn 3220 6 Kalnyk 2050 7 Kaniv 3167 8 Kiev 2002 9 Korsun 3470 10 Kropyvna 1993 11 Myrhorod 3009 12 Nizhyn 991 13 Pereyaslav 2986 14 Poltava 2970 15 Pryluky 1996 16 Uman 2977
- (Ukrainian) Registered Cassacks at the Handbook of the History of Ukraine
- РЮРИКОВИЧІ. ПРОНСЬКА ДИНАСТІЯ (Rurikid. Pronsk branch). litopys.org.ua
- (Ukrainian) Реєстрові козаки на державній службі (with reference to Sherbak,V. History of Ukrainian Cossacks: outlines in two volumes. Publishing house "Kiev-Mohyla Academy". Vol.1. Kiev, 2006. p.800)
- Hrushevsky, p.191
- Hrushevsky, p.210
- Hrushevsky, p.211
- Hrushevsky, p.214
- Marek Gędek. Atlas historyczny wojen polskich, pp. 90-91. Bellona, Warszawa 2009. ISBN 978-83-11-11642-9