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Siberian Cossacks were Cossacks who settled in the Siberian region of Russia from the end of the 16th century, following the Yermak Timofeyevich's conquest of Siberia. In early Siberia practically the whole Russian population, especially the serving-men were called Cossacks, but only in the loose sense of being neither land-owners nor peasants. Most of these people came from northwest Russia and had little connection to the Don Cossacks or Zaporozhian Cossacks.
Siberian cossacks participated in many military conflicts of the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1918 Siberian Cossack Host was officially disbanded. Many Siberian Cossacks formed military units and joined admiral Aleksandr Kolchak in his struggle against the Bolsheviks .
During World War II, most Siberian Cossacks fought for the Soviets. But some Siberian Cossacks joined the German 1st Cossack Division. They made up the 2nd Regiment of the 1st Brigade. In 1945 most of them were transferred by the Allies to the Soviets.