Rock Hudson

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Rock Hudson
Rock Hudson - portrait.jpg
Hudson in the 1950s
Born Roy Harold Scherer, Jr.
(1925-11-17)November 17, 1925
Winnetka, Illinois, U.S.
Died October 2, 1985(1985-10-02) (aged 59)
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
Cause of death
AIDS-related complications
Other names Roy Harold Fitzgerald
Roc Hudson
Occupation Actor
Years active 1944-1985
Spouse(s) Phyllis Gates (m. 1955–58)

Rock Hudson (born Roy Harold Scherer, Jr.; November 17, 1925 – October 2, 1985)[1] was an American actor. Although he was widely known as a leading man in the 1950s and 1960s, notably in romantic comedies opposite Doris Day, Hudson is also recognized for dramatic roles in films such as Giant and Magnificent Obsession. In later years, he found success in television, starring in the popular mystery series McMillan & Wife and the soap opera Dynasty.

Hudson was voted Star of the Year, Favorite Leading Man, and similar titles by numerous film magazines. The 6 ft 5 in (1.96 m.) tall actor was one of the most popular movie stars of his time. He completed nearly 70 films and starred in several television productions during a career that spanned over four decades. Hudson died in 1985, becoming the first major celebrity to die from an AIDS-related illness.[2]

Early life[edit]

Hudson was born in Winnetka, Illinois, the only child of telephone operator Katherine Wood (of English and Irish descent) and auto mechanic Roy Harold Scherer, Sr. (of German and Swiss descent), who abandoned the family during the depths of the Great Depression. His mother remarried and his stepfather, Wallace "Wally" Fitzgerald, adopted him and changed his surname to Fitzgerald. Hudson's years at New Trier High School were unremarkable, although he sang in the school's glee club and was remembered as a shy boy who delivered newspapers, ran errands, and worked as a golf caddy.

After graduating from high school, he served in the Philippines as an aircraft mechanic for the United States Navy during World War II.[3] In 1946, Hudson moved to Los Angeles to pursue an acting career and applied to the University of Southern California's dramatics program, but he was rejected due to poor grades. He worked as a truck driver for some time, longing to be an actor but with no success in breaking into the movies. After he sent talent scout Henry Willson a picture of himself in 1947, Willson took Hudson on as a client and changed his name to Rock Hudson, although Hudson later admitted he hated the name.[3]

Career[edit]

Hudson made his acting debut with a small part in the 1948 Warner Bros. film Fighter Squadron, and took 38 takes to successfully deliver his only line in the film.[4] Hudson was further coached in acting, singing, dancing, fencing, and horseback riding at Universal International, and he began to be featured in film magazines where he was promoted (possibly on the basis of his good looks).[3]

In 1953 he appeared in a Camel commercial which showed him on the set of Seminole.[5]

Hudson, pictured with Elizabeth Taylor in Giant (1956), the film that led to his first Academy Award nomination

Director Douglas Sirk gave Hudson his first leading role, in the 1954 film Magnificent Obsession, co-starring Jane Wyman.[6][3] The film received positive reviews, with Modern Screen Magazine citing Hudson as the most popular actor of the year. His popularity soared with George Stevens' film Giant (1956). Hudson and his co-star James Dean were both nominated for Oscars in the Best Actor category. In the 1950s, Hudson made nine films with acclaimed director and father-figure Douglas Sirk, with Sirk's own favorite being The Tarnished Angels (1958).

Following Richard Brooks' acclaimed film Something of Value (1957) was a moving performance in Charles Vidor's box office failure A Farewell to Arms (1957). In order to make A Farewell to Arms, Hudson reportedly turned down Marlon Brando's role in Sayonara, William Holden's role in The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Charlton Heston's role in Ben-Hur.[7] A Farewell to Arms received negative reviews, failed at the box office and became the last production by David O. Selznick.[8]

Hudson and Julie Andrews in Darling Lili, one of the many romantic comedies he filmed in the 1960s

Hudson sailed through the 1960s on a wave of romantic comedies. He portrayed humorous characters in Pillow Talk, the first of three profitable co-starring performances with Doris Day. This was followed by Lover Come Back, Come September, Send Me No Flowers, Man's Favorite Sport?, The Spiral Road, and Strange Bedfellows. Along with Cary Grant, Hudson was regarded as one of the best-dressed male stars in Hollywood, and received Top 10 Stars of the Year a record-setting eight times from 1957 to 1964. He worked outside his usual range on the science-fiction thriller Seconds (1966). The film flopped but it later gained cult status, and Hudson's performance is often regarded as one of his best.[9] He also tried his hand in the action genre with Tobruk (1967) and spy thriller Ice Station Zebra (1968), a role which he had actively sought and remained his personal favorite. He also dabbled in westerns with The Undefeated (1969).

Hudson's popularity on the big screen diminished after the 1960s. During the 1970s and 1980s, he starred in a number of TV movies and series. His most successful television series was McMillan & Wife opposite Susan Saint James, which ran from 1971 to 1977. Hudson played police commissioner Stewart "Mac" McMillan, with Saint James as his wife Sally, and their on-screen chemistry helped make the show a hit. Hudson took a risk and surprised many by making a successful foray into live theater late in his career, the most acclaimed of his efforts being I Do! I Do! in 1974.

Hudson in the lead role of Embryo (1976), a horror/sci-fi film

In the early 1980s, following years of heavy drinking and smoking, Hudson began having health problems which resulted in a heart attack in November 1981. Emergency quintuple heart bypass surgery sidelined Hudson and his new TV show The Devlin Connection for a year, and the show was canceled in December 1982 soon after it had first aired. Hudson recovered from the heart surgery but continued to smoke. He nevertheless continued to work with appearances in several TV movies. He was in ill health while filming the action-drama film The Ambassador in Israel during the winter months of 1983 to 1984. He reportedly did not get along with his co-star Robert Mitchum, in which Mitchum had a serious drinking problem and often clashed off-camera with Hudson and other cast and crew members.[10] During 1984, while filming the TV drama The Vegas Strip Wars, Hudson's health grew worse and prompted rumors that he was suffering from liver cancer (among other ailments) because of his increasingly gaunt face and build.

From December 1984 to April 1985, Hudson appeared in a recurring role on the ABC prime time soap opera Dynasty as Daniel Reece, the love interest for Krystle Carrington (played by Linda Evans) and biological father of the character Sammy Jo Carrington (Heather Locklear). While he had long been known to have difficulty memorizing lines, which resulted in his use of cue cards, it was Hudson's speech itself that began to visibly deteriorate on Dynasty. He was originally slated to appear for the duration of the show's fifth season; however, because of his progressing ill health, his character was abruptly written out of the show and died off-screen.

Personal life[edit]

While his career developed, Hudson and his agent Henry Willson kept the actor's personal life out of the headlines. In 1955, Confidential magazine threatened to publish an exposé about Hudson's secret homosexual life. Willson stalled this by disclosing information about two of his other clients.[11] According to some colleagues, Hudson's homosexuality was well known in Hollywood throughout his career,[12] and former co-stars Elizabeth Taylor and Susan Saint James claimed that they knew of his homosexual activity, as did Carol Burnett. Soon after the Confidential incident, Hudson married Willson's secretary Phyllis Gates. Gates later wrote that she dated Hudson for several months, lived with him for two months before his surprise marriage proposal, and married Hudson out of love and not (as it was later reported) to prevent an exposé of Hudson's sexual past.[13] Press coverage of the wedding quoted Hudson as saying: "When I count my blessings, my marriage tops the list." Gates filed for divorce after three years in April 1958, citing mental cruelty. Hudson did not contest the divorce and Gates received alimony of $250 a week for 10 years.[14] After her death, the gay news magazine The Advocate published an article by Willson's biographer, which claimed that Gates was actually a lesbian who knew from the beginning of their relationship that Hudson identified as gay.[15] She never remarried.[16]

According to the 1986 biography Rock Hudson: His Story by Hudson and Sara Davidson, Hudson was good friends with American novelist Armistead Maupin and his lovers included Jack Coates (born 1944); Tom Clark (1933–1995), who also later published a memoir about Hudson, Rock Hudson: Friend of Mine; and Marc Christian, who later won a suit against the Hudson estate. An urban legend states that Hudson "married" Jim Nabors in the early 1970s. Not only was same-sex marriage not recognized under the laws of any American state at the time, but, at least publicly, both Hudson and Nabors were nothing more than friends. According to Hudson, the legend originated with a group of "middle-aged homosexuals who live in Huntington Beach" who sent out joke invitations for their annual get-together. One year, the group invited its members to witness "the marriage of Rock Hudson and Jim Nabors", at which Hudson would take the surname of Nabors' most famous character, Gomer Pyle, becoming Rock Pyle. The "joke" was evidently already in the mainstream by the very early 1970s. In the October 1972 edition of MAD magazine (issue no. 154), an article entitled "When Watching Television, You Can be Sure of Seeing...", gossip columnist 'Rona Boring' states: "And there isn't a grain of truth to the vicious rumor that movie and TV star Rock Heman and singer Jim Nelly were secretly married! Rock and Jim are just good buddies! I repeat, they are not married! They are not even going steady!" Those who failed to get the joke spread the rumor. As a result, Hudson and Nabors never spoke to each other again. Three years later, Nabors would begin a long-term (and, until 2013, secret) relationship with Stan Cadwallader, the man he would eventually marry once same-sex marriage was legalized.[17]

Illness and death[edit]

Hudson (left) with President Ronald Reagan and first lady Nancy Reagan at a White House state dinner, May 1984, less than three weeks before he was diagnosed with HIV.

Unknown to the public, Hudson had been diagnosed with HIV on June 5, 1984. During most of 1984 and 1985, Hudson kept his illness a secret while continuing to work and at the same time travel to France and other countries seeking a cure, or at least treatment to slow the progress of the disease. On July 16, 1985, Hudson joined his old friend Doris Day for a press conference announcing the launch of her new TV cable show Doris Day's Best Friends in which Hudson was videotaped visiting Day's ranch in Carmel, California a few days earlier. His gaunt appearance and almost incoherent speech pattern was so shocking that the reunion was broadcast repeatedly over national news shows that night and for days to come. Media outlets speculated on Hudson's health.[18] Two days later, Hudson traveled to Paris, France for another round of treatment. After Hudson collapsed in his room at the Ritz Hotel in Paris on July 21, his publicist, Dale Olson, released a statement claiming that Hudson had inoperable liver cancer. Olson denied reports that Hudson had AIDS and would say only that he was undergoing tests for "everything" at the American Hospital of Paris.[19]

On July 25, 1985, Hudson's publicist confirmed that Hudson did in fact have AIDS and had been diagnosed over a year earlier.[20] In another press release a month later, Hudson speculated he might have contracted HIV through transfused blood from an infected donor during the multiple blood transfusions he received during his heart bypass procedure in November 1981. He flew back to Los Angeles on July 30. Hudson was so weak that he was removed by stretcher from the Air France Boeing 747 he had chartered and upon which he and his medical attendants were the only passengers.[21] He was flown by helicopter to UCLA Medical Center,[22] where he spent nearly a month undergoing further treatment.[23] He was released from the hospital in late August 1985 and returned to his home, "The Castle", in Beverly Hills.

On October 2, 1985, Hudson died in his sleep from AIDS-related complications at his home in Beverly Hills.[24] Hudson requested that no funeral be held. His body was cremated hours after his death.[25] The disclosure of Hudson's HIV status provoked widespread public discussion of his homosexuality. In its August 15, 1985, issue, People published a story that discussed his disease in the context of his sexuality. The largely sympathetic article featured comments from famous show business colleagues such as Angie Dickinson, Robert Stack, and Mamie Van Doren, who claimed they knew about Hudson's homosexuality and expressed their support for him.[12] At that time, People had a circulation of more than 2.8 million,[26] and, as a result of this and other stories, theories about Hudson's homosexuality became fully public.

Hudson's revelation had an immediate impact on the visibility of AIDS, and on the funding of medical research related to the disease. Among activists who were seeking to de-stigmatize AIDS and its victims, Hudson's revelation of his own infection with the disease was viewed as an event that could transform the public's perception of AIDS. Shortly after Hudson's press release disclosing his infection, William M. Hoffman, the author of As Is, a play about AIDS that appeared on Broadway in 1985, stated: "If Rock Hudson can have it, nice people can have it. It's just a disease, not a moral affliction."[12] At the same time, Joan Rivers was quoted as saying: "Two years ago, when I hosted a benefit for AIDS, I couldn't get one major star to turn out. ... Rock's admission is a horrendous way to bring AIDS to the attention of the American public, but by doing so, Rock, in his life, has helped millions in the process. What Rock has done takes true courage."[12] Morgan Fairchild said that "Rock Hudson's death gave AIDS a face."[27] In a telegram Hudson sent to a September 1985 Hollywood AIDS benefit, Commitment to Life, which he was too ill to attend in person, Hudson said: "I am not happy that I am sick. I am not happy that I have AIDS. But if that is helping others, I can at least know that my own misfortune has had some positive worth."[3]

Shortly after his death, People reported: "Since Hudson made his announcement, more than $1.8 million in private contributions (more than double the amount collected in 1984) has been raised to support AIDS research and to care for AIDS victims (5,523 reported in 1985 alone). A few days after Hudson died, Congress set aside $221 million to develop a cure for AIDS."[28] Organizers of the Hollywood AIDS benefit, Commitment to Life, reported after Hudson's announcement that he was suffering from the disease, it was necessary to move the event to a larger venue to accommodate the increased attendance.[29]

However, Hudson's revelation did not immediately dispel the stigma of AIDS. Although then-president Ronald Reagan and his wife Nancy were friends of Hudson, Reagan, who was viewed by some as indifferent to the disease and its sufferers, made no public statement concerning Hudson's condition.[30] At the same time, privately, Reagan called Hudson in his Paris hospital room where he was being treated in July 1985, and Nancy Reagan telephoned French President François Mitterrand to ensure that Hudson would receive the best possible care.[12] Reagan's first public mention of the disease came in response to questions at a September 15, 1985, press conference, nearly two months after Hudson's announcement. In those remarks, Reagan called medical research on AIDS a "top priority". However, when asked, "If you had younger children, would you send them to a school with a child who had AIDS?," Reagan responded equivocally: "[G]lad I'm not faced with that problem today. ... I can understand both sides of it."[30] Several days later, Reagan sent a telegram to the Commitment to Life AIDS benefit, in which he reiterated his position that his administration would make stopping the spread of AIDS a top priority.[29] Nevertheless, Reagan did not publicly address AIDS at length for another two years.[31]

After Hudson revealed his diagnosis, a controversy arose concerning his participation in a scene in the television drama Dynasty in which he shared a long and repeated kiss with actress Linda Evans in one episode (aired in February 1985 for the first time). When filming the scene, Hudson was aware that he had AIDS, but did not inform her. Some felt that he should have disclosed his condition to her beforehand.[32] At the time, it was known that the virus was present in low quantities in saliva and tears, but there had been no reported cases of transmission by kissing.[33] Nevertheless, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had warned against exchanging saliva with members of groups perceived to be at high risk for AIDS.[28] According to comments given in August 1985 by Ed Asner, then president of the Screen Actors Guild, Hudson's revelation caused incipient "panic" within the film and television industry. Asner said that he was aware of scripts being rewritten to eliminate kissing scenes.[34] Later in the same year, the Guild issued rules requiring that actors be notified in advance of any "open-mouth" kissing scenes, and providing that they could refuse to participate in such scenes without penalty.[35] Linda Evans herself appears not to have been angry at Hudson, and asked to introduce the segment of the 1985 Commitment to Life benefit that was dedicated to Hudson.[29]

Legacy[edit]

For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Hudson has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 6116 Hollywood Blvd.[36] Following his death, Elizabeth Taylor, his co-star in the film Giant, purchased a bronze plaque for Hudson on the West Hollywood Memorial Walk.[37] In 2002, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars was dedicated to him.[38]

Lawsuit[edit]

Following Hudson's death, Marc Christian, Hudson's former lover, sued his estate on grounds of "intentional infliction of emotional distress".[39] Christian claimed Hudson continued having sex with him until February 1985, more than eight months after Hudson knew he had HIV. Although he repeatedly tested negative for HIV, Christian claimed that he suffered from "severe emotional distress" after learning from a newscast that Hudson had died of AIDS. Christian also sued Hudson's personal secretary, Mark Miller, for $10 million because Miller allegedly lied to him about Hudson's illness. In 1989, a jury awarded Christian $21.75 million in damages, later reduced to $5.5 million. Christian died of "pulmonary problems" caused by years of heavy smoking in June 2009.[40]

In the book Rock Hudson, Friend of Mine by his live-in Hollywood publicist Tom Clark, Clark said he would go to his grave believing Hudson acquired HIV from blood transfusions during his emergency quintuple bypass open-heart surgery in 1981. Clark's book characterized Christian as "a criminal, a thief, an unclean person, a blackmailer, a psychotic, an extortionist, a forger, a perjurer, a liar, a whore, an arsonist and a squatter". Christian then sued Clark. Christian was living in the guest house after Clark, who had left in 1983, had returned to Hudson's home in 1985 to take care of him at assistant Mark Miller's request.[41] In 2010, Robert Park Mills, the attorney who represented the Hudson estate against Christian in court, released a book entitled Between Rock and a Hard Place: In Defense of Rock Hudson. In the book, Mills discusses details of the trial and also questions Christian's allegations against Hudson.[42]

Filmography[edit]

Film[edit]

# Year Title Role Notes
2 1948 Fighter Squadron Second Lieutenant Uncredited
3 1949 Undertow Detective Credited as Roc Hudson
4 1950 One Way Street Truck driver Uncredited
5 1950 I Was a Shoplifter Store detective
6 1950 Peggy Johnny "Scat" Mitchell
7 1950 Winchester '73 Young Bull
8 1950 The Desert Hawk Captain Ras
9 1950 Shakedown Ted
10 1951 Tomahawk Burt Hanna
11 1951 Air Cadet Upper classman
12 1951 The Fat Man Roy Clark
13 1951 Bright Victory Dudek
14 1951 Iron Man Tommy "Speed" O'Keefe (Kosco)
15 1952 Bend of the River Trey Wilson
16 1952 Here Come the Nelsons Charles E. "Charlie" Jones
17 1952 Scarlet Angel Frank Truscott (Panama)
18 1952 Has Anybody Seen My Gal? Dan Stebbins
19 1952 Horizons West Neil Hammond
20 1953 The Lawless Breed John Wesley Hardin
21 1953 Seminole Lance Caldwell
22 1953 Sea Devils Gilliatt
23 1953 The Golden Blade Harun
24 1953 Gun Fury Ben Warren
25 1953 Back to God's Country Peter Keith
26 1953 Beneath the 12-Mile Reef Narrator Uncredited
27 1954 Taza, Son of Cochise Taza
28 1954 Magnificent Obsession Bob Merrick
29 1954 Bengal Brigade Capt. Jeffrey Claybourne
30 1955 Captain Lightfoot Michael Martin
31 1955 One Desire Clint Saunders
32 1955 All That Heaven Allows Ron Kirby
33 1956 Never Say Goodbye Dr. Michael Parker
34 1956 Giant Jordan "Bick" Benedict, Jr. Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor
35 1956 Written on the Wind Mitch Wayne
36 1957 Battle Hymn Col. Dean Hess
37 1957 Something of Value Peter
38 1957 The Tarnished Angels Burke Devlin
39 1957 A Farewell to Arms Lt. Frederick Henry
40 1958 Twilight for the Gods Captain David Bell
41 1959 This Earth Is Mine John Rambeau
42 1959 Pillow Talk Brad Allen
43 1961 The Last Sunset Dana Stribling
44 1961 Come September Robert L. Talbot
45 1961 Lover Come Back Jerry Webster
46 1962 The Spiral Road Dr. Anton Drager
47 1963 Marilyn Narrator Documentary
48 1963 A Gathering of Eagles Col. Jim Caldwell
49 1964 Man's Favorite Sport? Roger Willoughby
50 1964 Send Me No Flowers George
51 1965 Strange Bedfellows Carter Harrison
52 1965 A Very Special Favor Paul Chadwick
53 1965 Blindfold Dr. Bartholomew Snow
54 1966 Seconds Antiochus "Tony" Wilson
55 1967 Tobruk Maj. Donald Craig
56 1968 A Fine Pair Capt. Mike Harmon
57 1968 Ice Station Zebra Cdr. James Ferraday
58 1969 The Undefeated Col. James Langdon
59 1970 Darling Lili Major William Larrabee
60 1970 Hornets' Nest Turner
61 1971 Pretty Maids All in a Row Michael "Tiger" McDrew
62 1973 Showdown Chuck Jarvis
63 1976 Embryo Dr. Paul Holliston
64 1978 Avalanche David Shelby
65 1980 The Mirror Crack'd Jason Rudd
66 1980 Superstunt II made-for-television
67 1981 The Star Maker Danny Youngblood
68 1982 World War III President Thomas McKenna made-for-television
69 1984 The Ambassador Frank Stevenson
70 1984 The Vegas Strip War Neil Chaine made-for-television

Television[edit]

# Year Title Role Notes
1 1954–1955 The Colgate Comedy Hour Himself 2 episodes
2 1955 I Love Lucy Himself Episode: "In Palm Springs"
3 1962 The Jack Benny Program Himself Episode: "Rock Hudson Show"
4 1968–1969 Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In Himself 3 episodes
5 1970 The Jim Nabors Hour Himself 1 episode
6 1971–1977 McMillan & Wife Police Commissioner Stewart "Mac" McMillan 40 episodes
7 1975–1977 The Carol Burnett Show Himself 3 episodes
8 1978 Wheels Adam Trenton Miniseries
9 1980 The Martian Chronicles Col. John Wilder Miniseries
10 1980 The Beatrice Arthur Special Himself
11 1982 The Devlin Connection Brian Devlin 13 episodes
12 1984–1985 Dynasty Daniel Reece 9 episodes; final role

Awards[edit]

# Year Award Category Work
1 1956 Photoplay Awards Most Popular Male Star Himself
2 1957 Photoplay Awards Most Popular Male Star Himself
3 1958 Laurel Awards Top Male Star Himself
4 1959 Bambi Awards Best Actor – International This Earth is Mine
5 1959 Golden Globe Award World Film Favorite – Male Himself
6 1959 Laurel Awards Top Male Star Himself
7 1959 Photoplay Awards Most Popular Male Star Himself
8 1960 Bambi Awards Best Actor – International Pillow Talk
9 1960 Golden Globe Award World Film Favorite – Male Himself
10 1960 Laurel Awards Top Male Star Himself
11 1961 Bambi Awards Best Actor – International Come September
12 1961 Golden Globe Award World Film Favorite – Male Himself
13 1962 Bambi Awards Best Actor – International The Spiral Road
14 1963 Golden Globe Award World Film Favorite – Male Himself
15 1963 Laurel Awards Top Male Star Himself
16 1964 Bambi Awards Best Actor – International Man's Favorite Sport?
17 1967 Bambi Awards Best Actor – International Seconds
18 1977 TP de Oro Best Foreign Actor (Mejor Actor Extranjero) McMillan & Wife

In popular culture[edit]

Hudson has been the subject of three plays: Rock (2008), starring Michael Xavier as Hudson, For Roy (2010), starring Richard Henzel as Hudson, and Hollywood Valhalla (2011), starring Patrick Byrnes as Hudson.

Hudson is also the subject of the upcoming film "The Making of Rock Hudson" scripted by Tyler Ruggeri, currently in development with Maven Pictures and Gadabout: A Moving Picture Company.[43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Michael Binyon (October 3, 1985). "Aids victim Rock Hudson dies in his sleep aged 59". The Times. p. 1. 
  2. ^ "Overview for Rock Hudson". Tcmdb.com. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Berger, Joseph, "Rock Hudson, Screen Idol, Dies at 59", The New York Times, October 3, 1985. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
  4. ^ The Man Who Invented Rock Hudson: The Pretty Boys and Dirty Deals of Henry Willson by Robert Hofler, Carroll & Graf, 2005, pp. 163-164 ISBN 0-7867-1607-X
  5. ^ Rock Hudson (Actor) (1953). Camel Cigarette Commercials, 16mm Transfers Reel # 8. [Part 1] (MPEG1 and MPEG4) (commercial). U.S.: Camel. Event occurs at 19:18. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
  6. ^ Kashner, Sam; MacNair, Jennifer (2003). The bad & the beautiful : Hollywood in the fifties ([1st Norton paperback]. ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. p. 144-154. ISBN 0-393-32436-2. 
  7. ^ "Rock Hudson Biography". imdb.com. Retrieved December 8, 2013. 
  8. ^ David Thomson, Showman: The Life of David O. Selznick, Abacus, 1993 p 656
  9. ^ Apollo Movie Guide's Review of Seconds
  10. ^ Server, Lee Baby, I Don't Care (2001)
  11. ^ Willson provided information about Rory Calhoun's years in prison and the arrest of Tab Hunter at a party in 1950. See: Hofler, Robert. The Man Who Invented Rock Hudson: The Pretty Boys and Dirty Deals of Henry Willson. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2005, p. 248–250; Oppenheimer, Jerry and Vitek, Jack. Idol Rock Hudson: The True Story of an American Film Hero. New York: Villard Books, 1986, p. 55.
  12. ^ a b c d e Yarbrough, Jeff. "Rock Hudson: On Camera and Off, The Tragic News That He Is the Most Famous Victim of An Infamous Disease, AIDS, Unveils the Hidden Life of a Longtime Hollywood Hero", People Magazine, Vol. 24, No. 7, August 12, 1985. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
  13. ^ Phyllis Gates, My Husband, Rock Hudson (1987), written with Bob Thomas
  14. ^ Dennis Mclellan (January 16, 2006). "Phyllis Gates: Her marriage to Hudson had fan magazines raving". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 5, 2007. 
  15. ^ Robert Hofler (Feb 28, 2006). "Outing Mrs. Rock Hudson: the obits after Phyllis Gates died in January omitted some important facts: Those who knew her say she was a lesbian who tried to blackmail her movie star husband". The Advocate. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  16. ^ McLellan, Dennis (January 12, 2006). "Phyllis Gates, 80; Former Talent Agency Secretary Was Briefly Married to Rock Hudson in '50s". latimes.com. p. 2. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  17. ^ Barbara Mikkelson (August 10, 2007). "Good Nabors Policy". Snopes. Retrieved September 5, 2007. 
  18. ^ Martin, James A. (July 11, 1997). "Hudson's Day of Revelation". ew.com. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  19. ^ Dunphy, Harry (July 24, 1985). "Hospital: Hudson liver cancer report is false". The Evening Independent. pp. 3–A. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  20. ^ "AIDS diagnosis is confirmed". The Modesto Bee. July 26, 1985. pp. A–3. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  21. ^ Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin's Press. 1987. p. 580. ISBN 0-312-00994-1
  22. ^ "Hudson flown to California for treatment at UCLA". The Milwaukee Journal. July 30, 1985. p. 1. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  23. ^ "Rock Hudson Continues Rest At Calif. Home". The News and Courier. September 9, 1985. pp. 11–A. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  24. ^ "Rock Hudson's death mourned". Eugene Register-Guard. October 3, 1985. p. 1. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  25. ^ "Final bravery of Rock Hudson moves actors". The Sydney Morning Herald. October 4, 1985. p. 10. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  26. ^ Diamond, Edwin. Celebrating Celebrity: The New Gossips. New York Magazine, Vol. 18, No. 19. May 13, 1985.
  27. ^ "BBC NEWS – Entertainment – The show goes on in Aids battle". news.bbc.co.uk. November 24, 2003. Retrieved July 27, 2008. 
  28. ^ a b "Rock Hudson: His Name Stood for Hollywood's Golden Age of Wholesome Heroics and Lighthearted Romance—Until He Became the Most Famous Person to Die of Aids", People Magazine, Vol. 24 No. 26, December 23, 1985. Retrieved February 11, 2011
  29. ^ a b c Harmetz, Aljean. "Hollywood Turns Out for AIDS Benefit", The New York Times, September 20, 1985. Retrieved February 11, 2011
  30. ^ a b Boffey, Philip M. "Reagan Defends Financing for AIDS", The New York Times, September 17, 1985. Retrieved February 11, 2001.
  31. ^ Boffey, Philip M. "Reagan Urges Wide AIDS Testing But Does Not Call for Compulsion", The New York Times, June 1, 1987. Retrieved February 11, 2011
  32. ^ Haller, Scot. “Rock Hudson's Startling Admission That He Has AIDS Prompts An Urgent Call for Action — And Some Extreme Reactions”, People Magazine, Vol. 23, No. 13, September 23, 1985. Retrieved February 11, 2011.; Should Actors Take AIDS Test Before Filming a Kiss?Jet magazine, Vol. 68, No. 26, Sep 9, 1985.
  33. ^ Should Actors Take AIDS Test Before Filming a Kiss?Jet magazine, Vol. 68, No. 26, September 9, 1985.
  34. ^ Harmetz, Aljean. "Old and New Hollywood Seen in Attitude to AIDS", The New York Times, August 8, 1985. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
  35. ^ Harmetz, Aljean. "A Rule on Kissing Scenes and AIDS", The New York Times, October 31, 1985. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
  36. ^ "Hollywood Star Walk: Rock Hudson". latimes.com. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  37. ^ "http://lisaburks.typepad.com/gravehunting/2009/06/rock-walk.html". Lisaburks.typepad.com. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  38. ^ "Palm Springs Walk of Stars by date dedicated" (PDF). Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  39. ^ Willard Manus (December 18, 2000). "The Cleaning Man Airs Rock Hudson's Dirty Laundry in L.A.". Playbill. Retrieved September 5, 2007. 
  40. ^ Woo, Elaine (December 5, 2009). "Marc Christian MacGinnis dies at 56; Rock Hudson's ex-lover". latimes.com. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  41. ^ McGraw, Carol (April 5, 1990). "Rock Hudson Ex-Lover Files Libel Suit". Los Angeles Times. 
  42. ^ Parker Mills, Robert (2010). Between Rock and a Hard Place: In Defense of Rock Hudson: From the Ashes of Trial to the Light of Truth. AuthorHouse. pp. X–XI. ISBN 1-456-70039-1. 
  43. ^ http://www.deadline.com/2013/03/maven-pictures-plots-pic-about-the-making-of-rock-hudson/

Bibliography[edit]

  • Clark, Tom; Kleiner, Richard (1990). Rock Hudson, Friend of Mine. New York, NY: Pharos Books. ISBN 0-88687-562-5. 
  • Gates, Phyllis; Thomas, Bob (1987). My Husband, Rock Hudson. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-24071-6. 
  • Hudson, Rock; Davidson, Sara (1986). Rock Hudson: His Story. New York: Morrow. ISBN 0-688-06472-8. 
  • Ragland, Shannon P. (2007). The Thin Thirty. Louisville, KY: Set Shot Press. ISBN 0-9791222-1-X. 
  • Wise, James. Stars in Blue: Movie Actors in America's Sea Services. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997. ISBN 1557509379 OCLC 36824724

External links[edit]