Roman civil wars
There were several civil wars in ancient Rome, especially during the late Republic. The most famous of these are the war in the 40s BC between Julius Caesar and the optimate faction of the senatorial elite initially led by Pompey and the subsequent war between Caesar's successors, Octavian and Mark Antony in the 30s BC. Following is a list of civil wars in ancient Rome.
- The Crisis of the Roman Republic - an extended period of political instability and social unrest, from about 133 BC to 44 BC.
- Social War (91–88 BC), between Rome and many of its Italian allies - Roman victory.
- Sulla's first civil war (88–87 BC), between Lucius Cornelius Sulla's supporters and Gaius Marius' forces - Sullan victory.
- Sertorian War (83–72 BC ), between Rome and the provinces of Hispania under the leadership of Quintus Sertorius, a supporter of Gaius Marius - Sullan victory.
- Sulla's second civil war (82–81 BC), between Sulla and Marius' supporters - Sullan victory.
- Lepidus' rebellion (77 BC), when Lepidus rebelled against the Sullan regime.
- Catiline Conspiracy (63–62 BC), between the Senate and the dissatisfied followers of Catiline - Senatorial victory.
- Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC), between Julius Caesar and the Optimates initially led by Pompey - Caesarean victory.
- Post-Caesarian civil war (44 BC), between the Senate's army (led first by Cicero and then by Octavian) and the army of Antony, Lepidus, and their colleagues - Truce results in union of forces.
- Liberators' civil war (44–43 BC), between the Second Triumvirate and the Liberators (Brutus and Cassius, Caesar's assassins) - Triumvirate victory.
- Sicilian revolt (44–36 BC), between the Second Triumvirate (particularly Octavian and Agrippa) and Sextus Pompey, the son of Pompey - Triumvirate victory.
- Perusine War (41–40 BC), between the forces of Octavian against Lucius Antonius and Fulvia (the younger brother and wife of Mark Antony) - Octavian victory.
- Final War of the Roman Republic (32–30 BC), between Octavian and his friend and general Agrippa against Mark Antony and Cleopatra - Octavian victory.
- Kohn, George Childs, 'Dictionary of Wars, Revised Edition' (Checkmark Books, New York, 1999)