Market Place and Park Street
Shifnal shown within Shropshire
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|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
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|UK Parliament||The Wrekin|
Shifnal is a market town and civil parish in Shropshire, England, about 3 miles (4.8 km) east of Telford. It has a railway station on the Shrewsbury-Wolverhampton Line and is near to the M54 motorway. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 6,391.
- 1 History
- 2 Twin cities
- 3 Education
- 4 Notable people
- 5 Culture
- 6 Places of interest
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Early medieval time
The town, also once known as "Idsall" (relating to potential Roman links), most probably began as an Anglian settlement, established by the end of the 7th century.
Shifnal is thought to be the place named "Scuffanhalch", in a 9th-century charter, as a possession of the monastery at Medeshamstede (later Peterborough Abbey). Though this seems a dubious claim, and the ancient charter is in fact a 12th-century forgery, the full picture is more complex. Sir Frank Stenton considered that "Scuffanhalch", along with "Costesford" (Cosford) and "Stretford", formed part of a list of places which had once been connected with Medeshamstede; and the charter purports to have been issued by King Æthelred of Mercia, during much of whose reign the bishop of Mercia was Sexwulf (or "Saxwulf"), founder and first abbot of Medeshamstede.
The first part of the name "Shifnal" is reckoned to be a personal name, "Scuffa", while the second part, from "halh", means a valley, thus describing the topography of the town's location.
Unusually the name of the town has alternated through the centuries between Idsall and Shifnal. Idsall is mentioned in a 9th-century charter as "Iddeshale", meaning "Idi's nook" or corner. A nook is said to be an area of land of approximately 20 acres (81,000 m2). It is often conjectured that the two names of Idsall and Shifnal were names of settlements on the east and west sides respectively of Wesley Brook, a stream which runs through the town, and is a tributary of the River Worfe. In the 19th century, J. C. Anderson, in his "Shropshire its Early History and Antiquities", wrote that Idsall means "Hall of Ide", and that Shifnal is "Hall of Sceafa".
A Key to English Place-names has an entry for Shifnal that reads '*Scuffa's nook of land'. It was also known as Iddeshale, '*Idi's nook of land'.
The oldest part of the town is said to be the area around St Andrews Church, Church Street and Innage Road where excavations have turned up evidence of ancient buildings.
The village, as it would have been in 1086, is recorded in the Domesday Book. The initial part of the entry states:
Robert, son of Theobald, holds of Earl Roger Iteshale. Earl Morcar held it."
The church of St Andrews has a Norman chancel and was almost certainly built on the site of an earlier church. It was a collegiate church or minster with a chapter of priests administering to the needs of congregations in outlying settlements. St Andrews lost its collegiate status when it was given to Shrewsbury Abbey c. 1087.
Walter de Dunstanville the lord of the manor, applied in 1245, to King Henry III and was granted a market charter for the town. Walter then laid out a broad market street that is Broadway, Bradford Street, Market Place and Park Street for the purpose of holding markets. This area to the east of the stream was known as Shifnal and gradually it was this name that superseded Idsall as the town's name.
Shifnal had something of an early industrial revolution during the later half of the 16th century with the construction of a charcoal fired blast furnace near to the Manor House.
A fire swept through the town on 7 July 1591, setting alight the roof of the church. The fire devastated many, if not all, of the buildings east of the stream now known as Wesley Brook. The church and the timber framed Old Idsall House (a listed building), at its foot to the east are said to be the only two buildings to have survived the fire that destroyed the rest of the settlement. This information is now commemorated by a blue plaque fixed to the wall of the house. The fire is thought to have been started by a maid servant's candle that accidentally set fire to some hanging flax. After the fire, Elizabeth I sent money to help rebuild the town.
18th and 19th centuries
Thomas Beddoes a well-known physician of his day was born in 1760 at Balcony House, named owing to a room projecting above the roof line, on the east side of Market Place. This building later became the Star Hotel.
A Baptist church was established in Aston Street at the end of the 18th century but it closed down before the 20th century.
Thomas Telford upgraded Watling Street the turnpike road that passed through the town in the late 18th century. This road carried traffic from London to Shrewsbury, Chester and Holyhead for Ireland. It is reported that as many as 18 coaches a day called at Shifnal. Passengers were provided with respite from their travels by three coaching inns the Jerningham Arms, The Star Hotel and The Unicorn.
It is during this period of prosperity that many new houses were built lending Shifnal a Georgian air. The name Idsall was still used to distinguish the area around the St Andrews Church and the Manor from the market and commercial area of Shifnal.
The railway line from London and Birmingham to Holyhead was constructed through Shifnal at high-level in the late 1840s. A station was provided but the opening of the line on 12 November 1849, brought an abrupt end to the already declining trade in coaching traffic. The viaducts constructed were cast by Horseley Ironworks.
The 20th century
The Star Hotel was demolished after a fire in 1911. Eight Bells or Ring of Bells in 1911 was occupied by the Pitchford family descendants of the nobility who took their name from the area Pitchford in Shropshire. Herbert James Pitchford ran the eight bells among other public houses and Herbert served in the king Shropshire light infantry, before dying on the fields of Flanders in the first world war. His name adorns the mein gate in Belgium and the war memorial in St Andrews Church, Shifnal, a stone's throw away from the eight bells public house. Today the building is occupied by The Odfellows Wine Bar.
The railway bridge over Market Place was rebuilt in 1953 that saw the open spandrels of the original arch replaced with a dourer flat panel construction.
The town continued to expand notably during the 1960s.
There are several pre-school nursery and day centres in the town, as well as two primary schools: Shifnal Primary School, on Curriers Lane; and St. Andrew's Church of England Primary School, on Park Lane. The town has two further schools, Idsall School, in Coppice Green, a comprehensive secondary school; and Young Options College, in Lamledge Lane, an independent specialist secondary school.
Thomas Beddoes was born in Shifnal, in 1760, in Balcony House. He became professor of chemistry at Oxford University, as recorded in "Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 22, No. 1/2 (Sep., 1967), pp. 131-143".
Charles Dickens, whose grandmother was reputedly employed at nearby Tong Castle, visited the town on several occasions and many believe that the buildings in his book, The Old Curiosity Shop, were based on those in the town. The Shifnal Historical Society report that he was very taken with the architecture of the town, and for that reason, he based The Old Curiosity Shop on The Unicorn Public House, now known as Naughty Nell's.
Mary Arnold, later known as the writer Mrs Humphry Ward, went to boarding school in the town at Rock Terrace. Her schooldays gave background for one of her later novels, Marcella (published 1894).
In 1968, the Shifnal Carnival was launched, a revival of the Shifnal Club Day - itself deriving from an annual parade by the 'Dove Club' friendly society. Taking place on the last Saturday of June, a funfair is set up on the main street, as well as the usual procession.
In the 1990s and 2000s Shifnal become well known throughout the region for its annual Christmas lights display, which attracted visitors from the outside the town.
Places of interest
- Church of England: St Andrews' Church on Church Street has a Norman chancel with an Elizabethan double-hammerbeam roof and was almost certainly built on the site of an older Saxon church. Its churchyard contains war graves of 13 soldiers of World War I and 4 of World War II, who are all commemorated by a Screen Wall memorial.
- Methodist: Trinity Church, Victoria Road
- Roman Catholic: St Mary’s Church, Shrewsbury Road
It also has, through Churches Together in Shifnal, its own Christian bookshop and drop-in centre, Oasis.
A community library run by the council is located on Broadway. The Millennium Sensory Garden lies between St Andrews' Church and Innage Road and contains the town's war memorial. The garden is voluntarily maintained by a dedicated group of committee members and friends and obtained The Queen's Golden Jubilee Award 2003 and Green Pennant Award 2007/2008. Shifnal Police Station is located behind the library on Broadway.
Pubs, restaurants and hotels
Naughty Nell's public house, a restored 16th century coaching inn, originally known as the Unicorn, claims to have been the home of Nell Gwyn and her renowned bedchamber. It had been known by her name itself for some time. The building was sold in auction recently (2011) and is now vacant and awaiting some works.
There are several sporting facilities in Shifnal, including the Idsall Sports Centre, which is attached to Idsall School; the school, in the past, receiving a number of prominent football celebrities from the nearby FA School of Excellence at Lilleshall.
The town is also home to sporting clubs which play sports including:
- Ice hockey
Shifnal was formerly home to a squash club and swimming pool for 35 years, but this has since closed, and following its demolition has been replaced with a housing development.
- "Parish Headcounts: Bridgnorth". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
- Birch, W. de Grey, Cartularium Saxonicum, 3 vols., London, 1885-93, no.48.
- Stenton, F.M., 'Medeshamstede and its Colonies', in Stenton, D.M. (ed.), Preparatory to Anglo-Saxon England Being the Collected Papers of Frank Merry Stenton, Oxford University Press, 1970, pp.180-1 (see also Pretty, K., 'Defining the Magonsæte', in Bassett, S. (ed.), The Origins of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, Leicester University Press, 1989); Bede's Ecclesiastical History, iv, 6.
- Ekwall, E., The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, 4th edn., Oxford University Press, 1960, p. 417.
- [dead link]
- "Shropshire | Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516". British-history.ac.uk. 2003-06-22. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- "Those were the days". Expressandstar.com. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
- "Shifnal Primary School, Shropshire". Shifnalprimaryschool.ik.org. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- "123-reg : Young Options : Homepage". Youngoptions.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- F. F. Cartwright (1967). "The Association of Thomas Beddoes, M.D. with James Watt, F.R.S.". Vol. 22, No. 1/2. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. pp. 131–143. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- "Dickens and Tong (Chapter 13)". Discoveringtong.org. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- "Behind the Plum line | Books | The Guardian". Books.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- "Shifnal - Shropshire Tourism". Shropshiretourism.info. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- "Naughty Nell's, an Inn in Shifnal, Shropshire. Search for Shropshire Inns". Information-britain.co.uk. 2006-10-13. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- Dickins, Gordon (1987). An Illustrated Literary Guide to Shropshire. Shropshire Libraries. p. 74. ISBN 0-903802-37-6.
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- [dead link]
- "Cemetery Details". CWGC. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- [dead link]
- "Home". Telford Wolves. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- Shifnal Conservation Areas Appraisal by Bridgnorth District Council
- Your Shifnal
- Shifnal entry at the official County Council Tourism site
- Literary Heritage entry
- Shifnal Town Plan Group
- Shifnal Carnival
- Shifnal Millennium Sensory Garden
- Shifnal Town Council