Timeline of Jane Austen

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Austen family tree, showing Jane Austen's parents and her brothers and sister
Austen family tree, showing Jane Austen's brothers' marriages and children

Jane Austen lived her entire life as part of a family located socially and economically on the lower fringes of the English gentry.[1] The Rev. George Austen and Cassandra Leigh, Jane Austen's parents, lived in Steventon, Hampshire, where Rev. Austen was the rector of the Anglican parish from 1765 until 1801.[2] Jane Austen's immediate family was large and close-knit. She had six brothers—James, George, Charles, Francis, Henry, and Edward—and a beloved older sister, Cassandra.[3] Austen's brother Edward was adopted by Thomas and Elizabeth Knight and eventually inherited their estates at Godmersham, Kent, and Chawton, Hampshire.[4] In 1801, Rev. Austen retired from the ministry and moved his family to Bath, Somerset.[5] He died in 1805 and for the next four years, Jane, Cassandra, and their mother lived first in rented quarters and then in Southampton where they shared a house with Frank Austen's family. During these unsettled years, they spent much time visiting various branches of the family.[6] In 1809, Jane, Cassandra, and their mother moved permanently into a large "cottage" in Chawton village that was part of Edward's nearby estate.[7] Austen lived at Chawton until she moved to Winchester for medical treatment shortly before her death in 1817.[8]

Throughout their adult lives, Jane and Cassandra were close to their cousin, Eliza de Feuillide,[9] and to neighbors Mary and Martha Lloyd. Mary became the second wife of Austen's brother James, and Martha lived with the Austen family (beginning shortly after Rev. Austen's death in 1805) and married Austen's brother Frank late in life.[10] Jane and Cassandra were also friends for many years with three sisters, Alethea, Elizabeth and Catherine Bigg, who lived at Manydown Park.[11] Anne Brydges Lefroy, wife of Rev. George Lefroy, "became Jane Austen's best-loved and admired mentor, the person she would always run to for advice and encouragement" after the Lefroys moved to nearby Ashe in 1783.[12] Her death in a riding accident in 1804 left Jane grief-stricken.[13]

Austen met, danced with, and perhaps fell in love with Thomas Lefroy during the Christmas holidays in 1795. However, Lefroy departed to begin his law studies in January 1796 and he and Jane never saw each other again.[14] Samuel Blackall, a Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and a friend of Mrs. Anne Lefroy, was seriously interested in marrying Austen in 1797.[15] Austen family tradition holds that Jane and an unnamed young clergyman fell in love while the Austen family visited the seaside at Sidmouth in the summer of 1801. Cassandra is said to have approved of this young man, but he died unexpectedly several months later, before he and Jane could be together again.[16] Austen received her only proposal of marriage from Harris Bigg-Wither, brother of her friends Alethea, Elizabeth and Catherine Bigg, while visiting them at their home in December 1802. Austen at first accepted the proposal, then realized she had made a mistake and withdrew her acceptance the next day.[17] Austen biographer Park Honan suggests that Jane may have received a proposal of marriage from Edward Bridges, a brother of Edward Austen's wife Elizabeth, in 1805, but biographer Claire Tomalin dismisses this claim.[18]

Jane Austen was primarily educated at home by her father and older brothers and through her own reading.[19] Her apprenticeship as a writer lasted from her teenage years until she was about thirty-five years old. During this period, she wrote three major novels and began a fourth.[20] From 1811 until 1815, with the release of Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), and Emma (1815), she achieved success as a published writer. She wrote two additional novels, Northanger Abbey (originally written in 1798–1799 and revised later) and Persuasion, both published after her death in 1817, and began a third (eventually titled Sanditon), but died before it could be completed. A product of 18th-century literary traditions, Austen's works were influenced most by those of renowned writer and critic Samuel Johnson and novelists Frances Burney and Maria Edgeworth. She considered poet and novelist Sir Walter Scott a rival. Family theatricals, which included plays by Richard Brinsley Sheridan and other 18th-century dramatists, shaped Austen's writing from an early age.[21] William Cowper's poetry was a favourite as were the novels of Samuel Richardson. Austen's engagement with sensibility illustrates her debt to sentimental writers such as Laurence Sterne.[22]

Map of places Jane Austen lived (Green pog.svg) or visited (Red pog.svg)

(Each dot is wikilinked to the article for that place)

Austen published all of her novels in the Regency period, during which King George III was declared permanently insane and his son was appointed as Prince Regent, and the novels are firmly rooted in the social context of the time. Throughout most of Austen's adult life, Britain was at war with revolutionary France. Fearing the spread of revolution and violence to Britain, the government tried to repress political radicals by suspending habeas corpus and passing the Seditious Meetings Act and the Treasonable Practices Act, known as the "Gagging Acts". Many reformers still held out hope for change in Britain during the 1790s, but by the first two decades of the 19th century, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars had exhausted the country and a deep conservative reaction had set in. While Austen's novels rarely explicitly touch on these events, she herself was personally affected by them, as two of her brothers served in the Royal Navy.[23] When Napoleon was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, Britain rejoiced. However, economic hardships in the 1810s increased the income disparity in the country and class conflict rose as the Industrial Revolution began.[24]

1760s[edit]

Year Austen Literary history Political history
1764
  • 26 April – Marriage of Rev. George Austen, rector of Steventon parish, and Cassandra Leigh[25]
1765
1766
  • 26 August – George Austen (Jane's brother) born at Deane[25]
1767
  • 7 October – Edward Austen (Jane's brother) born at Deane[25]
A charitable couple giving money to a poor monk.
1768
A small stone church with a spire in front
1769

1770s[edit]

Year Austen Literary history Political history
1770
1771
  • 8 June – Henry-Thomas Austen (Jane's brother) born at Steventon[25]
1772
  • Publication of final volumes of plates of L'Encyclopedie (begun 1751)[28]
Medallion which shows a slave kneeling and holding his clasped and manacled hands up. Underneath him, a banner says "Am I Not a Man and a Brother?"
1773
  • 9 January – Cassandra Elizabeth Austen (Austen's sister) born at Steventon[25]
  • 23 March – Rev. Austen becomes rector of Deane parish in addition to Steventon[25]
  • Pupils live at Steventon from 1773 to 1796
1774
Half-length portrait of man with a short gray wig and curls over both ears. His cream-colored jacket is decorated with medals and a light blue sash.
1775
1776
1778
1779
Half-length portrait of man wearing white wig and brown 18th-century suit. He is rotund and holding his left arm in front of him.

1780s[edit]

Year Austen Literary history Political history
1780
1781
  • 19 October – Franco-American force defeats the British at the Battle of Yorktown, effectively ending the fighting in America during War of Independence[29]
1782
  • December – First amateur theatrical production at Steventon – Matilda
Half-length portrait of a woman looking left and away from the viewer. The painting is done in a palette of browns. Her hat, with its elaborate bow, dominates the top third of the painting. She is wearing a cream-colored dress with a rose-colored bow on the front of the bosom.
1783
  • Edward Austen adopted by Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Knight of Godmersham, Kent[25]
  • Spring – Jane Austen, Cassandra Austen, and Jane Cooper sent to live with Mrs. Cawley in Oxford to be educated
  • Summer – Mrs. Cawley moves to Southampton and the girls fall ill
1784
  • Amateur theatricals at Steventon continue – The Rivals
1785
1786
1787
Ink drawing of a child dressed in 18th-century fashion drawn by a childish hand.
  • Austen begins writing juvenilia (pictured)[25]
  • Autumn – James Austen returns from the Continent
  • December – Amateur theatricals at Steventon continue – The Wonder
1788
  • January – Amateur theatricals continue at Steventon – The Chances
  • March – Amateur theatrical continue at Steventon – Tom Thumb
  • 1 July – Henry Austen matriculates at St. John's College, Oxford
  • Summer – Mr. and Mrs. Austen take Jane and Cassandra to Kent and London
  • 23 December – Francis Austen leaves the Royal Naval Academy and sails to the East Indies
  • Winter – Amateur theatricals continue at Steventon – The Sultan and High Life Below Stairs
1789
  • Publication of the first issue of James Austen's periodical The Loiterer; issued weekly until March 1790
On the left-hand side of the piece, a building with towers is being attacked and is bathed in flames. On the right-hand side of the work, black smoke billows around. At the base of the piece, small people are fighting and destroying the building brick by brick.

1790s[edit]

Year Austen Literary history Political history
1790
  • James Austen takes up residence as curate of Overton, Hampshire
  • Autumn – Edward Austen returns to England from Grand Tour
Near-profile, three-quarter length portrait of a man wearing a brown suit who has reddish-brown hair and a ruddy complexion.
1791
  • Charles Austen enters the Royal Naval Academy
  • 15 September – James Austen becomes vicar of Sherborne St John, Hampshire
  • 27 December – Edward Austen marries Elizabeth Bridges; they move to Rowling House, Edward's residence in Kent
1792
  • 27 March – James Austen marries Anne Mathew; they move to the parsonage in Deane
  • October – Jane and Cassandra Austen visit the Lloyds at Ibthorpe House, near Hurstbourne Tarrant, Hampshire
  • Winter? – Cassandra Austen engaged to Rev. Tom Fowle
1793
  • ? – Austen begins to write, then sets aside, Sir Charles Grandison or the happy Man, a comedy in 6 acts[33]
  • 23 January – Edward Austen's first child, Fanny, born
  • Spring – Henry Austen becomes a lieutenant in the Oxfordshire Militia
  • 15 April – James Austen's first child, Anna, is born
  • 3 June – Jane Austen writes last item of juvenilia[25]
  • Winter – Francis Austen returns home from the Far East
  • December – Jane and Cassandra Austen visit Butler-Harrison cousins in Southampton
Three-quarter length portrait of woman holding a book on a green velvet pillow. She is wearing a red and gold velvet dress adorned with a thin, white organza around the bosom. She is wearing a gray wig, also adorned by thin, white material.
1794
  • 22 February – Eliza de Feuillide's husband is guillotined in Paris
  • Midsummer – Jane and Cassandra Austen visit the Leighs at Adlestrop, Gloucestershire
  • August? – Jane and Cassandra Austen visit Edward and Elizabeth Austen at Rowling
  • September – Charles Austen leaves the Royal Naval Academy and goes to sea
  • Autumn? – Austen possibly writes Lady Susan
1795
  • Austen probably writes Elinor and Marianne[25]
  • 3 May – Death of Anne Mathew (James' wife) at Deane; infant Anna sent to live at Steventon rectory
  • Autumn – Rev. Tom Fowle joins William Craven, 1st Earl of Craven, as his private chaplain for the West Indian campaign
  • December–January 1796 – Austen's flirtation with Tom Lefroy on his visit to Ashe rectory
Woman sitting in a striped chair. She is wearing a dark-colored dress, with a shawl, contrasted with her tight, white cap and collar. Next to her is a table with writing instruments.
1796
Half-length portrait of man sitting in a chair with a long, curly wig and wearing judicial robes. He is writing in a book on his lap with a quill pen.
  • January – Tom Lefroy (pictured) leaves Ashe for London
  • January – Tom Fowle sails for the West Indies
  • April – Jane and Cassandra Austen visit the Coopers at Harpsden, Oxfordshire
  • Summer? – James Austen courts Eliza de Feuillide
  • August – Edward and Francis Austen take Jane to Rowling via London; she returns to Steventon in late September or early October
  • October – Austen begins writing First Impressions (Pride and Prejudice)[25]
  • November – James Austen engaged to Mary Lloyd
1797
  • 17 January – James Austen marries Mary Lloyd
  • January – Anna returns to live at Deane
  • February – Tom Fowle dies of fever in San Domingo and is buried at sea
  • August – Austen finishes First Impressions
  • 1 November – Revd. Austen unsuccessfully offers First Impressions to Thomas Cadell, London publisher[25]
  • November – Austen begins to revise Elinor and Marianne, which eventually becomes Sense and Sensibility[25]
  • November – Mrs. Austen, Jane, and Cassandra visit the Leigh-Perrots in Bath
  • November – Edward Austen and family move from Rowling to Godmersham Park, near Godmersham, Kent
  • Winter – Rev. Samuel Blackall visits Ashe; mild courtship of Jane Austen
  • 31 December – Henry Austen marries Eliza de Feuillide
1798
  • August – Mr. and Mrs. Austen, Jane, and Cassandra visit Godmersham
  • August – Austen possibly begins writing Susan (which eventually becomes Northanger Abbey)[25]
  • 9 August – Lady Williams (Jane Cooper) killed in a road accident
  • 24 October – Austen and her parents leave Godmersham and return to Steventon
  • October–November – Mrs. Austen ill
  • 17 November – James Austen's son, James-Edward, born
1799
  • February – Jane Austen possibly visits the Lloyds at Ibthorpe
  • March – Cassandra returns to Steventon from Godmersham
  • 17 May–June – Mrs. Austen and Jane arrive in Bath, with Edward and Elizabeth
  • End of June – Austen probably finishes Susan (Northanger Abbey)
  • Late summer – The Austens pay a round of visits to the Leighs at Adlestrop, the Coopers at Harpsden, and the Cookes at Great Bookham[37]
  • 14 August – Austen's aunt, Mrs. Leigh Perrot, charged with theft and committed to Ilchester Gaol[25]
  • Publication of More's Strictures on the Modern System of Education[30]
  • Publication of Jane West's novel A Tale of the Times[31]

1800s[edit]

Year Austen Literary history Political history
1800
  • 29 March – Mrs. Leigh Perrot tried at Taunton and acquitted[25]
  • October – Edward Austen visits Steventon and takes Cassandra back to Godmersham with him via Chawton and London
  • End of November–mid-December – Jane Austen visits the Lloyds at Ibthorpe
  • December – Revd. Austen decides to retire and move to Bath[25]
  • ? – Austen revises and completes Sir Charles Grandison[33]
A woman seated in nature with her dog wearing a lacy 18th-century dress.
1801
  • January – Henry Austen resigns commission in Oxfordshire militia and sets up as a banker and army agent in London
  • End of January – Jane Austen visits the Bigg-Wither family at Manydown
  • February – Cassandra returns to Steventon from Godmersham via London
  • May – Austen family leaves Steventon and settles in Bath[25]
  • May – Mrs. Austen and Jane travel to Bath via Ibthorpe, and stay with the Leigh-Perrots
  • May – James Austen and his family move to Steventon rectory
  • End of May – Austen family takes a West Country holiday, probably visiting Sidmouth and Colyton
  • End of May – Jane Austen's West Country romance with a young clergyman may have occurred
  • September – Austen family visits Steventon and Ashe
  • 5 October – Austen family returns to Bath
1802
  • April – James, Mary, and Anna visit the Austen family at Bath
  • Summer – Charles Austen joins the Austens for the holidays
  • 1 September – Jane and Cassandra Austen arrive at Steventon
  • 3 September – Charles takes Jane and Cassandra to Godmersham
  • 28 October – Charles brings his sisters back to Steventon
  • 25 November – Jane and Cassandra visit the Biggs family at Manydown
  • 2 December – Harris Bigg-Wither unexpectedly proposes marriage to Jane Austen; she accepts[25]
  • 3 December – Austen rejects Bigg-Wither's proposal; she and Cassandra return to Steventon and leave at once for Bath
  • Winter – Austen revises Susan (Northanger Abbey)[25]
Half-length portrait of a man in a black suit with a mustard vest and wispy blonde hair.
1803
  • Spring – Austen sells copyright for Susan to Benjamin Crosby, a London publisher, for £10[25]
  • 18 May – Henry and Eliza nearly trapped in France when Napoleon breaks the Peace of Amiens
  • Summer – Austen possibly visits Charmouth, Up Lyme, and Pinny
  • July – Francis Austen stationed at Ramsgate
  • September–October – Rev. and Mrs. Austen, probably accompanied by Jane and Cassandra, stay at Godmersham
  • October – Jane and Cassandra visit Ashe
  • 24 October – Jane and Cassandra return to Bath
  • November – Austen family visits Lyme Regis
1804
  • Jane Austen probably writes The Watsons
  • Spring – Mrs. Austen seriously ill
  • Summer – Austens, with Henry and Eliza, visit Lyme Regis
  • 25 October – Austens return to Bath and move to 3 Green Park Buildings East
  • 16 December – Jane Austen's long-time friend, Mrs. Anne Lefroy of Ashe, killed in a riding accident[25]
Man on throne wearing elaborate red, white, and gold gowns made of velvet and fur.
1805
  • 21 January – Rev. George Austen (Jane's father) dies suddenly in Bath[25]
  • 25 March – Mrs. Austen and her daughters move to 25 Gay Street, Bath
  • June – Mrs. Austen, Jane, and Cassandra travel to Godmersham via Steventon, taking Anna with them
  • 18 June – James Austen's daughter, Caroline, born
  • Summer – Possible courtship of Jane Austen by Edward Bridges
  • Summer – Martha Lloyd joins the Austen household
  • 17 September–November – Jane and Cassandra travel to Worthing
1806
  • January – Mrs. Austen and her daughters visit Steventon
  • 29 January – Mrs. Austen returns to Bath and takes lodgings in Trim Street
  • February–mid-March – Jane and Cassandra visit the Biggs sisters at Manydown, returning to Bath via Steventon
  • 2 July – Mrs. Austen and her daughters finally leave Bath, and go via Clifton to Adlestrop
  • 24 July – Francis Austen marries Mary Gibson
  • 14 August–mid-October – Mrs. Austen and her daughters visit the Coopers at Hamstall Ridware
  • October – Austen family takes lodgings in Southampton with Francis Austen and Mary[25]
  • Winter – Cassandra Austen visits Godmersham
1807
  • March – Austen family moves into a house in Castle Square, Southampton[25]
  • April – Henry brings Cassandra back to Southampton from Godmersham via London
  • 19 May – Charles Austen marries Fanny Palmer in Bermuda
  • September – Edward Austen arranges family gathering at Chawton Great House, followed by further family gathering in Southampton
1808
  • January–March – Jane and Cassandra stay at Steventon, Manydown, and with the Fowles at Kintbury
  • 15 May – Henry and Jane Austen at Steventon en route to London
  • 14 June – Jane Austen travels to Godmersham with James and Mary
  • 8 July – Austen returns to Southampton
  • 28 September – Cassandra travels to Godmersham
  • 10 October – Elizabeth Austen (Edward's wife) dies after eleventh childbirth
1809
Photograph of a two-story brick house with dormer windows emerging from the roof to suggest a small third story.
  • February – Cassandra returns to Southampton
  • 5 April – Austen attempts unsuccessfully to pressure Crosby to publish Susan[25]
  • 15 May – Mrs. Austen and her daughters begin visit to Godmersham
  • 7 July – Austen family and Martha Lloyd move to Chawton Cottage (pictured)[25]
  • August – Jane Austen's interest in writing revives
  • October – Edward Austen and Fanny visit Chawton

1810s[edit]

Year Austen Literary history Political history
1810
Pencil sketch of a woman wearing early 19th-century clothing and a cap with a few curls emerging seated in a chair.
  • July–August – Jane Austen (pictured) and Cassandra visit Manydown and Steventon
  • November – Edward Austen and Fanny visit Chawton
  • Winter – Sense and Sensibility accepted for publication by Thomas Egerton, London publisher[25]
1811
  • February – Jane Austen starts planning Mansfield Park[25]
  • March – Austen stays with Henry in London[25]
  • March – Austen corrects proofs of Sense and Sensibility[25]
  • March – Cassandra visits Godmersham
  • August – Charles Austen and family return to England
  • 30 October – Sense and Sensibility published anonymously[25][30]
  • November – Jane Austen visits James at Steventon
  • Winter? – Jane Austen begins revising First Impressions, later published as Pride and Prejudice[25]
1812
  • April – Edward Austen and Fanny visit Chawton
  • 9–25 June – Mrs. Austen and Jane visit Steventon; Cassandra goes to Godmersham
  • 14 October – Edward Austen officially adopts "Knight" as surname
  • Autumn – Jane Austen sells copyright of Pride and Prejudice to Egerton for £110[25]
Man on a white horse surrounded by hunched over troops marching through the snow. Dead bodies and broken wagons litter the ground.
1813
  • 28 January – Pride and Prejudice published anonymously[25][30]
  • 21 April – Edward Austen and family come to Chawton Great House and stay for four months
  • 22 April – Jane Austen goes to London to attend the dying Eliza de Feuillide
  • 25 April – Eliza dies
  • 1 May – Austen returns to Chawton
  • 19 May – Henry Austen takes Jane to London for a fortnight
  • July? – Austen finishes Mansfield Park[25]
  • September – Edward Austen and Jane travel via London to Godmersham (her last visit there)
  • 13 November – Edward Austen takes Jane back to Chawton via London
  • November – Second editions of Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility released[25]
  • November – Mansfield Park probably accepted for publication
Half-length portrait of man wearing a black jacket and a white shirt, which is askew and open to his chest.
1814
Title page reads "Mansfield Park: A Novel. In three Volumes. By the author of 'Pride and Prejudice'. Vol. I. Second Edition. London: Printed for J. Murray, Albemarle-Street, 1816."
  • 21 January – Austen begins Emma[25]
  • 1 March – Henry Austen takes Jane to London
  • April – Jane Austen returns to Chawton via Streatham
  • April – Edward Austen and family stay at Chawton Great House for two months
  • 9 May – Mansfield Park (pictured) published anonymously by Egerton[25][30]
  • Midsummer – Austen visits the Cookes at Great Bookham, Surrey
  • August – Austen visits Henry in London
  • August – Francis Austen and family move into Chawton Great House and stay there for about two years
  • 3 September – Henry Austen takes Jane home to Chawton
  • 6 September – Charles's wife Fanny dies after childbirth
  • 25 November – Austen visits Henry in London
  • 5 December – Henry takes Jane back to Chawton
  • 25 December – Jane and Cassandra stay with Mrs. Heathcote and Miss Bigg in Winchester
1815
  • 2–16 January – Jane and Cassandra stay at Steventon; they also visit Ashe and Laverstoke
  • 29 March – Emma finished[25]
  • March or April? – Jane and Cassandra probably visit Henry in London
  • 8 August – Austen begins Persuasion[25]
  • August – Austen possibly goes to London to negotiate publication of Emma, returning early in September
  • 4 October – Austen moves to London to nurse Henry[25]
  • 13 November – Austen visits the Prince Regent's Library at Carlton House; receives invitation to dedicate a future work to him[25]
  • 16 December – Austen returns to Chawton
  • End of December – Emma published by John Murray, dedicated to the Prince Regent[25]
Half-length portrait of man with short, dark hair wearing a red coat decorated with a large number of medals and sashes.
1816
  • Spring – Jane Austen begins to feel ill[25]
  • Spring – Henry buys back manuscript of Susan[25]
  • Spring – Austen revises Susan as Catharine, intending to publish it[25]
  • 15 March – Henry's bank fails and he leaves London[25]
  • 22 May – Jane and Cassandra go to Cheltenham via Steventon
  • 15 June – Jane and Cassandra return to Chawton via Kintbury
  • 18 July – First draft of Persuasion finished[25]
  • 6 August – Persuasion revised and finished[25]
  • Second edition of Mansfield Park published by Murray[25]
  • December – Henry is ordained and becomes curate of Chawton[25]
Drawing of a man's head, turned to the right, with curly dark hair.
1817
Winchester Cathedral
  • 27 January–18 March – Austen works on novel later published as Sanditon[25]
  • 18 March – Austen ceases work on Sanditon
  • 27 April – Austen makes her will[25]
  • 24 May – Cassandra takes Jane to Winchester for medical treatment[25]
  • 18 July – Austen dies early in the morning[25]
  • 24 July – Austen is buried in Winchester Cathedral (pictured)[25]
  • End of December – Northanger Abbey and Persuasion are published together by Murray along with Henry's "Biographical Notice of the Author"[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mary Lascelles. Jane Austen and Her Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press (1939), 2.
  2. ^ Park Honan. Jane Austen: A Life. New York: St. Martin's Press (1987), ISBN 0-312-01451-1, 14, 17–18.
  3. ^ Jan Fergus, "Biography", Jane Austen In Context, Ed. Janet Todd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2005), ISBN 0-521-82644-6, 3; Clare Tomalin. Jane Austen: A Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf (1997), ISBN 0-679-44628-1, 142; Honan, 23, 119.
  4. ^ Honan, 24–25, 84–85, 127–128; Tomalin, 26, 38, 75–79, 191–192, 235.
  5. ^ Fergus, "Biography", 8; Tomalin, 168-75; Honan, 215.
  6. ^ Tomalin, 194–206.
  7. ^ Tomalin, 194–206; Honan, 237-45.
  8. ^ Tomalin, 254–271, Honan, 385–405.
  9. ^ Deirdre Le Faye. Jane Austen: A Family Record. 2nd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2004), ISBN 0-521-53417-8, 57, 199–201; Honan, pp.42–55, 66–68.
  10. ^ Le Faye. Family Record, 68–69, 74, 111, 149, 178; Honan, 41, 77–79.
  11. ^ Le Faye. Family Record, 117; Honan, 85–86, 91–92.
  12. ^ Tomalin, 39.
  13. ^ Honan, 210-11.
  14. ^ Tomalin, 12–120; Honan, 105–111.
  15. ^ Honan, 113–114; Tomalin, 129–130.
  16. ^ Honan, 185–186; Tomalin, 178. The travel to Sidmouth, but not the relationship, is described in Le Faye. Family Record, 135–136.
  17. ^ Tomalin, 178–181; Honan, 189–198.
  18. ^ Honan, 121; Tomalin, 309, note 4.
  19. ^ Isobel Grundy, "Jane Austen and Literary Traditions", The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, Eds. Edward Copeland and Juliet McMaster. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1997), ISBN 0-521-49867-8, 190–91; Tomalin, 28–29, 33–43, 66–67; Honan, 31–34; Lascelles, 7–8.
  20. ^ These included the original versions of and revisions to the novels later published as Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice and Northanger Abbey, and a novel fragment, The Watsons. Kathryn Sutherland, "Chronology of Composition and Publication", Jane Austen in Context, Ed. Janet Todd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2005), ISBN 0-521-82644-6, 13.
  21. ^ George Holbert Tucker, "Amateur Theatricals at Steventon", The Jane Austen Companion, Ed. J. David Grey, New York: MacMillan (1986) ISBN 0-02-545540-0, 1–2; Tomalin, 31–32, 40–42, 55–57, 62–63; Honan, 35, 47–52, 372, 423–24, n. 20.
  22. ^ Jane Stabler, "Literary influences", Jane Austen in Context. Ed. Janet Todd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2005), ISBN 0-521-68853-1, 41–50.
  23. ^ Janet Todd, The Cambridge Introduction to Jane Austen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2006), ISBN 978-0-521-67469-0, 13–14.
  24. ^ Todd, 14–15.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm "Chronology". A Memoir of Jane Austen and Other Family Recollections. Ed. Kathryn Sutherland. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2002), ISBN 0-19-284074-6, lviii–lxii.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Timeline". The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. 7th ed. New York: W. W. Norton and Co. (2000), ISBN 0-393-97567-3, 2069–70.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Jack Lynch. Eighteenth–century Chronology. Retrieved on 5 August 2007.
  28. ^ a b Robert Darnton. The Business of Enlightenment: A Publishing History of the Encyclopédie 1775–1800. Cambridge: Harvard University Press (1979), ISBN 0-674-08785-2, 13.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y BBC British History Timeline. Retrieved on 5 August 2007.
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  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Gary Kelly, "Chronology". English Fiction of the Romantic Period, 1789–1830. London: Longman (1989). ISBN 0-582-49261-0. 274–82.
  32. ^ Declaration of the Rights of Man. Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Retrieved on 6 August 2007.
  33. ^ a b Brian Southam, "Grandison", The Jane Austen Companion, 187-89.
  34. ^ Doyle, The Old European Order, 69–70.
  35. ^ William Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press (1989), ISBN 0-19-822781-7, 341–43.
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  37. ^ Le Faye, Family Record, xxiii.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Le Faye, Deirdre. A Chronology of Jane Austen and her Family: 1700–2000. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-521-81064-7.