1718 – Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the wife of the British ambassador to Constantinople, observed the positive effects of variolation on the native population and had the technique performed on her own children.
1878 – Confirmation and popularization of the germ theory of disease (Louis Pasteur)
1880 – 1881 -Theory that bacterial virulence could be attenuated by culture in vitro and used as vaccines. Proposed that live attenuated microbes produced immunity by depleting host of vital trace nutrients. Used to make chicken cholera and anthrax "vaccines" (Louis Pasteur)
1883 – 1905 – Cellular theory of immunity via phagocytosis by macrophages and microphages (polymorhonuclear leukocytes) (Elie Metchnikoff)
1885 – Introduction of concept of a "therapeutic vaccination". First report of a live "attenuated" vaccine for rabies (Louis Pasteur).
1949 – growth of polio virus in tissue culture, neutralization with immune sera, and demonstration of attenuation of neurovirulence with repetitive passage (John Enders) and (Thomas Weller) and (Frederick Robbins)
^Köhler, G; Milstein, C (1975 Aug 7). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity.". Nature256 (5517): 495–7. doi:10.1038/256495a0. PMID1172191.Check date values in: |date= (help)
^Haskins, K; Kubo, R; White, J; Pigeon, M; Kappler, J; Marrack, P (1983 Apr 1). "The major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen receptor on T cells. I. Isolation with a monoclonal antibody.". The Journal of experimental medicine157 (4): 1149–69. PMC2186983. PMID6601175.Check date values in: |date= (help)
^Allman, DM; Ferguson, SE; Cancro, MP (1992 Oct 15). "Peripheral B cell maturation. I. Immature peripheral B cells in adults are heat-stable antigenhi and exhibit unique signaling characteristics.". Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)149 (8): 2533–40. PMID1383316.Check date values in: |date= (help)
^Allman, DM; Ferguson, SE; Lentz, VM; Cancro, MP (1993 Nov 1). "Peripheral B cell maturation. II. Heat-stable antigen(hi) splenic B cells are an immature developmental intermediate in the production of long-lived marrow-derived B cells.". Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)151 (9): 4431–44. PMID8409411.Check date values in: |date= (help)