Transmigration program

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The transmigration program (Indonesian: Transmigrasi) was an initiative of the Dutch colonial government, and later continued by Indonesian government to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the country. This involved moving people permanently from the island of Java, but also to a lesser extent from Bali and Madura, to less densely populated areas including Papua, Kalimantan, Sumatra, and Sulawesi. The stated purpose of this program was to reduce the considerable poverty and overpopulation on Java, to provide opportunities for hard-working poor people, and to provide a workforce to better utilize the natural resources of the outer islands. The program, however, has been controversial as fears from native populations of "Javanization" and "Islamization" have strengthened separatist movements and communal violence.[1]

History[edit]

Under the Dutch[edit]

Javanese contract workers in plantation in Sumatra during colonial period, cirica 1925.

The policy was first initiated by the Dutch colonial government in the early nineteenth century to reduce crowding and to provide a workforce for plantations on Sumatra. The program diminished during the last years of the Dutch era (1940s) but was revived following Indonesian independence, in an attempt to alleviate the food shortages and weak economic performance during Sukarno's presidency in the two decades following World War II.

In the peak year, 1929, during in the 'Cultivation System', in the Sumatra's east coast, more than 260,000 contract workers are brought, 235,000 of them from Java. Workers entered into a contract as coolie; if a worker asked for the termination of the contract in the company ('desertion'), he could be punished with hard labor. The mortality was very high among the coolies and abuse was common.

Post-independence[edit]

1995 ABC news report on the impact of transmigration on the Dani people in Papua

After independence in 1949, under President Sukarno, the program continued and was expanded to send migrants to more areas of the archipelago such as Papua. At its peak between 1979 and 1984, 535,000 families (almost 2.5 million people) moved under the transmigration program. It had a major impact on the demographics of some regions; for example, in 1981 sixty percent of the 3 million people in the southern Sumatra province of Lampung were transmigrants. During the 1980s, the program was funded by the World Bank and Asian Development Bank as well as by many Western governments who appreciated Suharto's anti-communist politics.[2] However, as a result of the 1979 energy crisis and increased transportation costs, the budget and plans for transmigration were severely reduced.[1]

In August 2000, after the Asian financial crisis and the fall of the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government again reduced the scale of the transmigration program, due to a lack of funds.

Under the restructured Department of Manpower and Transmigration (Indonesian: Departemen Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi) the Indonesian government maintains the transmigration program, although on a far smaller scale than in previous decades. The department assists in annually relocating approximately 15,000 families, or nearly 60,000 people. The rate has shown gradual increases in recent years with funding for transmigration activities at $270 million (2.3 trillion IDR) and a target of relocating 20,500 families in 2006.[3]

Aims[edit]

The stated purpose of the program, according to proponents in the Indonesian government and the development community, was to move millions of Indonesians from the densely populated inner islands of Java, Bali and Madura to the outer, less densely populated islands to achieve a more balanced population density. This would alleviate poverty by providing land and new opportunities to generate income for poor landless settlers. It would also benefit the nation as a whole by increasing the utilization of the natural resources of the less-populous islands. The program may have been intended[according to whom?] to encourage the unification of the country through the creation of a single Indonesian national identity to augment or replace regional identities. The official position of the Indonesian government is that there is no separation of "indigenous people" and settlers in Indonesia, because Indonesia is a country "of indigenous people, run and governed by and for indigenous people". It argues instead for the use of "vulnerable population groups" which can include both tribal groups and the urban poor.[4]

Effects[edit]

Economic[edit]

In many examples, the program failed in its objective to improve the situation of the migrants. The soil and climate of their new locations were generally not nearly as productive as the volcanic soil of Java and Bali. The settlers were often landless people lacking in farming skills, let alone skills appropriate to the new land, thus compromising their own chances of success.[5]

Environmental[edit]

Transmigration has also been blamed for accelerating the deforestation of sensitive rainforest areas, as formerly sparsely-populated areas experienced great increases in population. Migrants were often moved to entirely new "transmigration villages," constructed in regions that had been relatively unimpacted by human activity. By settling on this land, natural resources were used up and the lands became overgrazed, resulting in deforestation.

Political[edit]

The program has resulted in communal clashes between ethnic groups that have come into contact through transmigration. For example, in 1999 the local Dayaks and Malays clashed against the transmigrant Madurese during the Sambas riots and the Dayaks and Madurese clashed again in 2001 during the Sampit conflict, resulting in thousands of deaths and thousands of Madurese being displaced. Transmigration is controversial in the provinces of Papua and West Papua, where the majority of the population is Christian. Some Papuans accuse the government of Islamisasi, or Islamization through transmigration. [6]

Figures[edit]

Transmigration from Java and Madura have resulted in large numbers of the population elsewhere, particularly in Sumatra, Borneo, and Papua. Based on 2010 census figures and ethnic prevalence, roughly 4.3 million transmigrants and their descendants live in North Sumatra, 200 thousand in West Sumatra, 1.4 million in Riau, almost a million in Jambi, 2.2 million in South Sumatra, 0.4 million in Bengkulu, 5.7 million in Lampung, 100 thousand in Bangka-Belitung, almost 400 thousand in Riau Islands, totaling some 15.5 million in Sumatra alone. In Kalimantan there are some 700 thousand transmigrants and their descendants in West Kalimantan, 400 thousand in Central Kalimantan, almost 500 thousand in South Kalimantan, and over a million in East Kalimantan, totaling 2.6 million for the whole area.[citation needed] Though numbers are a state secret, well over a million transmigrants are thought to reside in Papua and West Papua. Total Javanese and other transmigrants in Indonesia number roughly 20 million throughout the country.[citation needed]

Transmigrant are not exclusively ethnic Javanese and/or Muslims. For example, in 1994 when East Timor was still part of Indonesia, the largest transmigrant group was Hindu Balinese (1,634 people) followed by Catholic Javanese (1,212 people).[7]

Criticism[edit]

Indigenous peoples saw the program as a part of an effort by the Java-based Indonesian Government to extend greater economic and political control over other regions, by moving in people with closer ties to Java and loyalty to the Indonesian state.[citation needed] The government agencies responsible for administering transmigration were often accused of being insensitive to local customary or adat land rights.[citation needed]

In the provinces of Papua and West Papua the program has resulted in the indigenous melanesian population becoming a minority in their own land. The program has been criticised as part of an attempt to wipe them out in a slow-motion genocide. [8]

Detractors of the program also argue that considerable resources have been wasted in settling people who have not been able to move beyond subsistence level, with extensive damage to the environment and deracination of tribal people.

The environmental damage associated with these projects was caused less by ignorance than by inattention, poor follow-up, and lack of accountability during project implementation. Many environmental issues were identified at project appraisal: the potential for soil erosion, possibility of declining soil fertility, need for protection against pests and disease, possible adverse effects on wildlife and deforestation, impact on indigenous people, and the need to strengthen the borrower's capacity for managing natural resources. But often, the audits found, the proposed mitigatory measures were unrealistic or were insufficiently monitored by the government. [9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General[edit]

  • Hardjono, J. 1989. The Indonesian transmigration program in historical perspective. International migration 26:427-439.
  • Hollie, Pamela. 1981. Jakarta fights overcrowding Bali and Java. The New York Times January 11.
  • Rigg, Jonathan. 1991. Land settlement in Southeast Asia: the Indonesian transmigration program. In: Southeast Asia: a region in transition. London: Unwin Hyman. 80-108.
  • MacAndrews, Colin. 1978. Transmigration in Indonesia: prospects and problems. Asian Survey 18(5):458-472.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Anata, Aris (2003). The Indonesian Crisis: A Human Development Perspective. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 229–230. 
  2. ^ Goldman, Michael (2006). Imperial Nature: The World Bank and Struggles for Social Justice in the Age of Globalization. Yale University Press. p. 299. 
  3. ^ Almubarok I, Zaky (16 May 2006). "Ditargetkan Transmigrasi 20.500 Keluarga (Target of 25,000 Families set for Transmigration". Berita Ketransmigration (Transmigration News). Departeman Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi (Department of Manpower and Transmigration). (Indonesian)
  4. ^ Ellen, Roy; Parkes, Peter; Bicker, Alan (2000). Indigenous Environmental Knowledge and its Transformations: Critical Anthropoligical Perspectives. Psychology Press. pp. 121–122. 
  5. ^ Max Sijabat, Ridwan (23 March 2007). "Unemployment still blighting the Indonesian landscape". The Jakarta Post. 
  6. ^ Farhadian, Charles E. (2005). Christianity, Islam, and Nationalism in Indonesia. Taylor & Francis. p. 63. 
  7. ^ Tirtosudarmo, Riwanto (2007), Mencari Indonesia: demografi-politik pasca-Soeharto, Yayasan Obor Indonesia, ISBN 9789797990831 
  8. ^ http://sydney.edu.au/arts/peace_conflict/docs/working_papers/West_Papuan_Demographics_in_2010_Census.pdf
  9. ^ "Transmigration in Indonesia". 

External links[edit]