Central Kalimantan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Central Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Tengah)
Province
Official seal of Central Kalimantan
Seal
Motto: Isen Mulang (Sangen)
(Never Retreat)
Location of Central Kalimantan in Indonesia.
Location of Central Kalimantan in Indonesia.
Coordinates: 2°13′S 113°55′E / 2.217°S 113.917°E / -2.217; 113.917Coordinates: 2°13′S 113°55′E / 2.217°S 113.917°E / -2.217; 113.917
Country Indonesia
Capital Palangkaraya
Government
 • Governor Agustin Teras Narang SH
Area
 • Total 153,564.5 km2 (59,291.6 sq mi)
Population (2014)[1]
 • Total 2,368,654
 • Density 15/km2 (40/sq mi)
Demographics[2]
 • Ethnic groups 24% Banjarese
18% Javanese
18% Ngaju
10% Dayak Sampit
8% Bakumpai
1% Sundanese
 • Religion[citation needed] 74.3% Islam
16.4% Protestant
10.7% Hindu
3.1% Catholic
0.1% Buddhism
0.1% other
 • Languages Indonesian (official)
Malay
Bugis
Dayak
Hakka / Teochew (dialects)
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Website www.kalteng.go.id

Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of five provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. Its provincial capital is Palangkaraya and in 2010 its population was over 2.2 million,[1] while the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 2,368,654.

The population growth rate was almost 3.0% per annum between 1990 and 2000, one of the highest provincial growth rates in Indonesia during that time; in the subsequent decade to 2010 the average annual growth rate slowed markedly to around 1.8%. More than is the case in other province in the region, Central Kalimantan is populated by the Dayaks, the indigenous inhabitants of Borneo.

History[edit]

Since the eighteenth century the central region of Kalimantan and its Dayak inhabitants were ruled by the Muslim Sultanate of Banjar. Following Indonesian independence after World War II, Dayak tribes demanded a province separate from South Kalimantan province.[3]

In 1957 South Kalimantan was divided to provide the Dayak population with greater autonomy from the Muslim population in the province. The change was approved by the Indonesian Government on 23 May 1957 under Presidential Law No. 10 Year 1957, which declared Central Kalimantan the seventeenth province of Indonesia. President Sukarno appointed the Dayak-born national hero Tjilik Riwut as the first Governor and Palangka Raya the provincial capital.[4]

The three major Dayak tribes in Central Kalimantan are the Ngaju, Ot Danum and Dusun Ma'anyan Ot Siang. The three major tribes extended into several branches of prominent Dayak tribes in Central Kalimantan such as Lawangan, Taboyan, Dusun Siang, Boyan, Bantian, Dohoi and Kadori.

In addition to the indigenous Dayak tribes, the province also groups from other areas of Indonesia, including Javanese, Maduranese, Batak, Toraja, Ambonese, Bugis, Palembang, Minang, Banjarese, Makassar, Papuan, Balinese, Acehnese and also Chinese.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1971 701,936 —    
1980 954,353 +36.0%
1990 1,396,486 +46.3%
1995 1,627,453 +16.5%
2000 1,801,965 +10.7%
2010 2,212,089 +22.8%
2014 2,368,654 +7.1%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2014


Geography[edit]

Central Kalimantan is the third largest Indonesian province by area with a size of 153,564.5 km2, about 1.5 times the size of the island of Java. It is bordered by West Kalimantan and East Kalimantan provinces to the north, by the Java Sea to the south, by South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan provinces to the east, and by West Kalimantan province to west.

The Schwaner Mountains stretch from the north-east of the province to the south-west, 80% of which is covered in dense forest, peatland swamps, mangroves, rivers, and traditional agriculture land. Highland areas in the north-east are remote and not easily accessible. Non-volcanic mounts are scattered in this area including Kengkabang, Samiajang, Liang Pahang and Ulu Gedang.

The centre of the province is covered with tropical forest, which produces rattan, resin and valuable timber such as Ulin and Meranti. The southern lowlands are dominated by peatland swamps that intersect with many rivers. Sabangau National Park is a protected peatland area internationally acknowledged as sanctuary for the endangered Orangutan. Recently the peat swamp forests have been damaged by the Mega Rice Project, which unsuccessfully sought to turn large areas into rice paddies.

The province's climate is wet weather equatorial zone with an eight-month rainy season, and 4 months of dry season. Rainfall or precipitation is 2,776 - 3,393 mm per year with an average of 145 rainy days annually.[citation needed]

Rivers[edit]

Central Kalimantan has numerous rivers from the catchment areas to the north in the Schwaner Mountains, flowing to the Java Sea. The major rivers include:

Rivers are an important mode of transportation and a primary location for settlement. With relatively undeveloped infrastructure, the province's economy relies heavily on the rivers.[citation needed]

Administrative Divisions[edit]

Central Kalimantan is administratively divided into thirteen regencies (kabupaten) - each headed by a regent - and one city, the latter being Palangka Raya (the provincial capital). These are as follows:

Name Area in
Sq.kms
Population
2000 Census
Population
2010 Census
Population
Estimate
2014
Capital
Sukamara Regency 3,827.00 29,561 44,952 48,134 Sukamara
Lamandau Regency 6,414.00 47,969 63,199 67,672 Nanga Bulik
West Kotawaringin Regency
(Kotawaringin Barat)
10,759.00 168,472 235,803 252,492 Pankalan Bun
Seruyan Regency 16,404.00 92,037 139,931 149,835 Kuala Pembuang
East Kotawaringin Regency
(Kotawaringin Timur)
16,796.00 308,765 374,175 400,658 Sampit
Katingan Regency 17,500.00 121,047 146,439 156,804 Kasongan
Palangkaraya City 2,399.50 158,770 220,962 236,601 Palangkaraya
Pulang Pisau Regency 8,997.00 111,488 120,062 128,560 Pulang Pisau
Gunung Mas Regency 10,805.00 74,823 96,900 103,855 Kuala Kurun
Kapuas Regency 14,999.00 325,243 329,646 352,977 Kuala Kapuas
Murung Raya Regency 23,700.00 74,050 96,857 103,712 Purukcahu
North Barito Regency
(Barito Utara)
8,300.00 109,273 121,573 130,178 Muara Teweh
East Barito Regency
(Barito Timur)
3,834.00 71,907 97,372 104,712 Tamiang Layang
South Barito Regency
(Barito Selatan)
8,830.00 108,560 124,128 132,913 Buntok
Totals 153,564.50 1,801,965 2,212,089 2,368,654

In addition to the civil service, Central Kalimantan also recognises a traditional governing system led by traditional leaders known as Demang. The province is divided into 67 traditional law areas known as Kademangan, headed by Demang. The system is intended to culturally recognise and preserve the customs and heritage of the Dayak tribes.[citation needed]

Railroads[edit]

Russia will build railroads from Central Kalimantan to East Kalimantan for coal transportation and also for passengers with estimated cost $2.5 billion.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b (Indonesian) Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010, retrieved 17 January 2011.
  2. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. 
  3. ^ Profile Central Kalimantan Province]. Central Kalimantan Province Tourism and Culture Board. September 2001. 
  4. ^ Riwut, Nila; et al. (October 2003). Maneser Panatau Tatu Huang. Pusaka Lima. ISBN 979-97999-1-0. 
  5. ^ [1][dead link]

External links[edit]