Central Kalimantan

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Central Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Tengah)
Province
Official seal of Central Kalimantan
Seal
Motto: Isen Mulang (Sangen)
(Never Retreat)
Location of Central Kalimantan in Indonesia.
Location of Central Kalimantan in Indonesia.
Coordinates: 2°13′S 113°55′E / 2.217°S 113.917°E / -2.217; 113.917Coordinates: 2°13′S 113°55′E / 2.217°S 113.917°E / -2.217; 113.917
Country Indonesia
Capital Palangkaraya
Government
 • Governor Agustin Teras Narang SH
Area
 • Total 153,564.5 km2 (59,291.6 sq mi)
Population (2010 Census)[1]
 • Total 2,202,599
 • Density 14/km2 (37/sq mi)
Demographics[2]
 • Ethnic groups 24% Banjarese
18% Javanese
18% Ngaju
10% Dayak Sampit
8% Bakumpai
1% Sundanese
 • Religion[citation needed] 74.3% Islam
16.4% Protestant
10.7% Hindu
3.1% Catholic
0.1% Buddhism
0.1% other
 • Languages Indonesian (official)
Malay
Bugis
Dayak
Hakka / Teochew (dialects)
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Website www.kalteng.go.id

Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of five provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. Its provincial capital is Palangkaraya and in 2010 its population was over 2.2 million.[1]

The population growth rate was almost 3.0% per annum between 1990 and 2000, one of the highest provincial growth rates in Indonesia during that time; in the subsequent decade to 2010 the average annual growth rate slowed markedly to around 1.8%. More than is the case in other province in the region, Central Kalimantan is populated by the Dayaks, the indigenous inhabitants of Borneo.

History[edit]

Since the eighteenth century the central region of Kalimantan and its Dayak inhabitants were ruled by the Muslim Sultanate of Banjar. Following Indonesian independence after World War II, Dayak tribes demanded a province separate from South Kalimantan province.[3]

In 1957 South Kalimantan was divided to provide the Dayak population with greater autonomy from the Muslim population in the province. The change was approved by the Indonesian Government on 23 May 1957 under Presidential Law No. 10 Year 1957, which declared Central Kalimantan the seventeenth province of Indonesia. President Sukarno appointed the Dayak-born national hero Tjilik Riwut as the first Governor and Palangka Raya the provincial capital.[4]

The three major Dayak tribes in Central Kalimantan are the Ngaju, Ot Danum and Dusun Ma'anyan Ot Siang. The three major tribes extended into several branches of prominent Dayak tribes in Central Kalimantan such as Lawangan, Taboyan, Dusun Siang, Boyan, Bantian, Dohoi and Kadori.

In addition to the indigenous Dayak tribes, the province also groups from other areas of Indonesia, including Javanese, Maduranese, Batak, Toraja, Ambonese, Bugis, Palembang, Minang, Banjarese, Makassar, Papuan, Balinese, Acehnese and also Chinese.

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1971 701,936 —    
1980 954,353 +36.0%
1990 1,396,486 +46.3%
1995 1,627,453 +16.5%
2000 1,857,000 +14.1%
2010 2,212,089 +19.1%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010


Geography[edit]

Central Kalimantan is the third largest Indonesian province by area with a size of 153,800 km2, about 1.5 times the size of the island of Java. It is bordered by West Kalimantan and East Kalimantan provinces to the north, by the Java Sea to the south, by South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan provinces to the east, and by West Kalimantan province to west.

The Schwaner Mountains stretch from the north-east of the province to the south-west, 80% of which is covered in dense forest, peatland swamps, mangroves, rivers, and traditional agriculture land. Highland areas in the north-east are remote and not easily accessible. Non-volcanic mounts are scattered in this area including Kengkabang, Samiajang, Liang Pahang and Ulu Gedang.

The centre of the province is covered with tropical forest, which produces rattan, resin and valuable timber such as Ulin and Meranti. The southern lowlands are dominated by peatland swamps that intersect with many rivers. Sabangau National Park is a protected peatland area internationally acknowledged as sanctuary for the endangered Orangutan. Recently the peat swamp forests have been damaged by the Mega Rice Project, which unsuccessfully sought to turn large areas into rice paddies.

The province's climate is wet weather equatorial zone with an eight-month rainy season, and 4 months of dry season. Rainfall or precipitation is 2,776 - 3,393 mm per year with an average of 145 rainy days annually.[citation needed]

Rivers[edit]

Central Kalimantan has numerous rivers from the catchment areas to the north in the Schwaner Mountains, flowing to the Java Sea. The major rivers include:

Rivers are an important mode of transportation and a primary location for settlement. With relatively undeveloped infrastructure, the province's economy relies heavily on the rivers.[citation needed]

Administrative Divisions[edit]

Central Kalimantan is administratively divided into thirteen regencies (each headed by a regent) and one city - the latter being Palangka Raya (the provincial capital). These are as follows:

Name Capital Population
2000 Census
Population
2005 estimate
Population
2010 Census
Sukamara Regency Sukamara 29,561 33,455 44,838
Lamandau Regency Nanga Bulik 47,969 48,606 62,776
West Kotawaringin Regency
(Kotawaringin Barat)
Pankalan Bun 168,472 198,838 235,274
Seruyan Regency Kuala Pembuang 92,037 94,524 139,443
East Kotawaringin Regency
(Kotawaringin Timur)
Sampit 308,765 299,343 373,842
Katingan Regency Kasongan 121,047 130,271 141,350
Palangka Raya City Palangka Raya 158,770 170,761 220,223
Pulang Pisau Regency Pulang Pisau 111,488 115,200 119,630
Gunung Mas Regency Kuala Kurun 74,823 80,750 96,838
Kapuas Regency Kuala Kapuas 325,243 351,597 329,406
Murung Raya Regency Purukcahu 74,050 80,318 97,029
North Barito Regency
(Barito Utara)
Muara Teweh 109,273 115,261 120,879
East Barito Regency
(Barito Timur)
Tamiang Layang 71,907 77,124 97,080
South Barito Regency
(Barito Selatan)
Buntok 108,560 116,978 123,991
Totals 1,801,965 1,913,026 2,202,599

In addition to the civil service, Central Kalimantan also recognises a traditional governing system led by traditional leaders known as Demang. The province is divided into 67 traditional law areas known as Kademangan, headed by Demang. The system is intended to culturally recognise and preserve the customs and heritage of the Dayak tribes.[citation needed]

Railroads[edit]

Russia will build railroads from Central Kalimantan to East Kalimantan for coal transportation and also for passengers with estimated cost $2.5 billion.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b (Indonesian) Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010, retrieved 17 January 2011.
  2. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. 
  3. ^ Profile Central Kalimantan Province]. Central Kalimantan Province Tourism and Culture Board. September 2001. 
  4. ^ Riwut, Nila; et al. (October 2003). Maneser Panatau Tatu Huang. Pusaka Lima. ISBN 979-97999-1-0. 
  5. ^ [1][dead link]

External links[edit]