Washington and Old Dominion Railway
|Washington and Old Dominion Railway|
|Dates of operation||1853–1968|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
|Length||72 miles (116 kilometres)|
The Washington and Old Dominion Railway (reporting mark WOD), a predecessor of the Washington and Old Dominion Railroad, was an interurban and freight shortline railroad located in northern Virginia and Washington, D.C. The route largely paralleled the Potomac River and Virginia State Route 7. The line was abandoned in 1968, and was replaced by the Washington & Old Dominion Railroad Regional Park.
The city of Alexandria, Virginia, in 1836 saw the Winchester & Potomac Railroad and Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) suddenly funnel to Baltimore the trade that had been coming down to Alexandria from the Shenandoah Valley. After an initial flurry of excitement and the chartering of a stillborn railroad, Alexandrians in 1853 chartered the Alexandria, Loudoun & Hampshire Railroad (AL&H) to build west across the Blue Ridge Mountains to Winchester, Virginia. By 1858 the roadbed reached Leesburg, a distance of 37.2 miles (59.9 km) from Alexandria, and train service that far began in 1860. During the Civil War the railroad was not of any strategic value, but it suffered as much damage as if it had been.
In 1870, the AL&H set its sights on the Ohio River at Parkersburg, West Virginia, renamed itself the Washington & Ohio (W&O), and built 13.32 miles (21.44 km) further to Round Hill, Virginia in 1874, approximately 50 miles (80 kilometres) from Alexandria. In 1877 the railroad slipped into receivership. It went through several more changes of name and goal before being swept into the Richmond & Danville (R&D) system in 1886. With the rest of the R&D it became part of the Southern Railway family in 1894. In 1900 another four miles of track brought the railroad to Snickersville, which was renamed Bluemont when it achieved the lofty status of a town served by a railroad.
In the early years of the twentieth century John R. McLean (owner of The Washington Post) and Senator Stephen B. Elkins (developer of a coal, lumber and railroad empire in West Virginia) bought a plot of land at the Great Falls of the Potomac River, west of Washington, to develop as a park. They built the Great Falls & Old Dominion Railroad (GF&OD), an interurban trolley line traveling over the Aqueduct Bridge to connect Georgetown in Washington, D.C., with northern Virginia. Both park and trolley line opened in 1906.
The enterprise prospered, and McLean and Elkins looked to expand. In 1911 McLean with Elkins's heirs (the senator had died earlier that year) organized the Washington and Old Dominion Railway (W&OD) to encompass the GF&OD, the Alexandria-Bluemont branch (leased from the Southern Railway), and a newly built connecting link. The W&OD strung trolley wires over most of the Alexandria-Bluemont line and began operating in 1912 as partly an electric railroad, as well as partly steam road, partly rural, and partly suburban. It quickly acquired a reputation for random and casual operation.
In the 1920s freight began to replace passengers as the principal revenue item, but the onset of the Great Depression put the railroad into receivership. In the mid-1930s the W&OD cleaned house — scrapping old equipment, abandoning the park at Great Falls and the line to it, and reorganizing as the Washington and Old Dominion Railroad. The Purcellville-Bluemont segment was dismantled in 1938, and the trolley wires came down in 1941 with the end of passenger service.
Replacing the electrics were three 44-ton diesels. Passenger service resumed after World War II, first as a two-car streamlined gas-electric train from the Pennsylvania Railroad (originally one of the Budd Company's early rubber-tire experimentals), then with assorted second-hand gas-electrics. Passenger service ended again in 1951 when the mail contract expired.
W&OD bought its Alexandria-Purcellville line from the Southern Railway in 1945, and in the early 1950s became solvent, almost prosperous. On November 6, 1956, the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway (C&O) bought the W&OD because of the prospect of a power plant being constructed near its line (it did not happen). Between 1959 and 1961 business flourished, largely in construction materials for the Washington Dulles International Airport, although far more materials came by truck than by train — the same was true for the construction of the community of Reston, built in the early 1960s. W&OD sold the Rosslyn branch in 1962 for highway use. In 1965 the W&OD petitioned to abandon the remainder of the line, largely to sell its right of way for highway and power line use. The W&OD ceased operation on August 27, 1968.
At least four locomotives that the W&OD had owned or leased still survived in 2013.
- W&OD 47, a General Electric (GE) 44-ton diesel centercab switcher, is in service on the Burlington Junction Railway in Burlington, Iowa, as No. 44. The locomotive was built in December 1941 with builder number 15041 and sold to the W&OD; it was the first diesel to enter service after electric operations ended. It was joined by No. 48 and No. 49, both built in August 1942. Sold to the Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad in 1950, it went to Cargill, in Houston, Texas in 1967.
- W&OD 50 is a 50-ton steeplecab Baldwin-Westinghouse electric locomotive built in 1920. It was acquired by the Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Railway in 1947 and renumbered as No. 58. In 1955 it was sold to the Kansas City, Kaw Valley & Western Railway as No. 507. In 1962 it was sold to the Iowa Terminal Railroad and renumbered 53, later becoming No. 50 of the Iowa Traction Railroad. Upon purchase in 2012, the line was renamed to Iowa Traction Railway.
- C&O 5105, an American Locomotive Company (ALCO) S-2 diesel locomotive leased from the C&O, is in operation as Columbia & Reading Railway No. 226. Built in 1948 with a 1000-horsepower engine, the locomotive was used during the W&OD's final decade of operations.
- B&O 8413, a General Motors (GM) Electro-Motive Division EMD SW1 diesel locomotive leased from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) in 1968, was one of the last locomotives to operate over the W&OD. Built in 1940 and originally numbered B&O 213, it was acquired by Cargill in 1993. On May 21, 2011 the Union Pacific Railroad delivered it to the Utah State Railroad Museum in Ogden, Utah, for display.
- Great Falls and Old Dominion Railroad
- Washington & Old Dominion Railroad Regional Park
- Northern Virginia trolleys
- Interstate Commerce Commission. Southern Ry. Co., Volume 37, Interstate Commerce Commission Valuation Reports, November 6, 1931, p. 219. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1932. OCLC 297351688.
- Drury, George H. (1994). The Historical Guide to North American Railroads: Histories, Figures, and Features of more than 160 Railroads Abandoned or Merged since 1930. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. pp. 344–346. ISBN 0-89024-072-8.
- Washington & Old Dominion Trail official website
- Harwood, p. 88.
- Harwood, p. 137.
- Zygmunt, Chris (2012-06-08). "BJRY 44". RailPictures.Net. Burlington, Iowa. Archived from the original on 2013-12-20. Retrieved 2013-12-20.
- Harwood, p. 135.
- Rice, Leonard. "Photograph of electric freight locomotive 50 in the Rosslyn shop yard". in McCray, Paul. "Washington & Old Dominion Railroad, 1847 to 1968: A Photographic History". Retrieved 2013-12-20.
- (1) the_trainman407 (2012-07-14). "IATR 50". RailPictures.Net. Mason City, Iowa. Archived from the original on 2013-12-20. Retrieved 2013-12-20.
(2) R., Ryan; R., Jim (2010-03-15). "IATR 50". RailPictures.Net. Mason City, Iowa. Archived from the original on 2-13-12-20. Retrieved 2013-12-20. Check date values in:
- (1) "Progressive Rail acquires Iowa Traction Railroad". ProgressiveRailroading.com. October 16, 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-12-20. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
(2) "Freight Tariff IATR 9001". Iowa Traction Railway Company. Issued: 2012-10-04; Effective 2012-10-01. Archived from the original on 2013-12-20. Retrieved 2013-12-20. Check date values in:
- (1) "Green Initiatives". Columbia, Pennsylvania: Sahd Metal Recycling. Archived from the original on 21-3-12-20. Retrieved 2013-12-20. Check date values in:
(2) "Columbia and Reading 226 Alco original FUJICHROME slide". eBay. Archived from the original on 2013-12-20. Retrieved 2013-12-20.
(3) "C&O 5105 ALCO S4 in 1965 Paint Scheme! Original Slide - TRAINUTZ". WorthPoint. Archived from the original on 2013-12-20. Retrieved 2013-12-20.
- Woodruff, Brian (1966-07-04). "CARGILL 6751". RR Picture Archives.net. Ogden, Utah. Archived from the original on 2013-12-20. Retrieved 2013-12-20.
- Guillaudeu, David A.; Forward by McCray, Paul E. (2013). Washington & Old Dominion Railroad. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9780738597928. at Google Books
- Harwood, Herbert Hawley, Jr. (2000). Rails to the Blue Ridge: The Washington and Old Dominion Railroad, 1847–1968 (3rd ed.). Fairfax Station, Virginia: Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority. ISBN 0615114539. at Google Books
- Williams, Ames W. (1989). The Washington and Old Dominion Railroad. Arlington, Virginia: Arlington Historical Society. ISBN 0926984004. at Google Books
- W&OD history
- "Circa 1920 system map of Washington and Old Dominion Railway". Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority historical marker: "Bluemont Junction". HMdb.org: The Historical Marker Database. Photograph by Craig Swain, Leesburg, VA, dated 2009-11-22. Retrieved 2010-08-18. Check date values in:
- Detailed history of W&OD
- Interview with W&OD engineer Douglas Lee and Brakeman Randolph Shutts, Pt. 1
- Interview with W&OD engineer Douglas Lee and Brakeman Randolph Shutts, Pt. 2