Winn Parish, Louisiana

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Winn Parish, Louisiana
Winn Parish, LA, Courthouse MVI 2727.jpg
Winn Parish Courthouse in Winnfield
Map of Louisiana highlighting Winn Parish
Location in the state of Louisiana
Map of the United States highlighting Louisiana
Louisiana's location in the U.S.
Founded 1852
Named for Walter Winn or Winfield Scott
Seat Winnfield
Largest city Winnfield
Area
 • Total 956 sq mi (2,478 km2)
 • Land 950 sq mi (2,462 km2)
 • Water 6 sq mi (17 km2), 0.67%
Population
 • (2010) 15,313
 • Density 18/sq mi (7/km²)
Congressional district 5th
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Winn Parish Enterprise newspaper office in Winnfield
The Evergreen Missionary Baptist Church and Cemetery, with a green roof and large bell, is located off U.S. Highway 71 in northwestern Winn Parish south of Saline Bayou. Country churches of this kind are common in North Louisiana.
Saline Bayou

Winn Parish (French: Paroisse de Winn) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,313.[1] Its seat is Winnfield.[2]

Winn is separated from Natchitoches Parish along U.S. Highway 71 by Saline Bayou, the first blackwater protected waterway in the American South.

History[edit]

Winn Parish was established in 1852 from lands which had belonged to the parishes of Catahoula, Natchitoches, and Rapides.

During the Civil War, David Pierson, a young attorney, was elected to represent the parish at the Secession Convention called in January 1861 in Baton Rouge by Governor Thomas Overton Moore. Pierson voted against secession and refused, along with several others, to change his "no" vote at the end of the process when asked to do so to make the final tally unanimous.[citation needed]

There was little military action in Winn Parish during the Civil War, but there was a problem with conscripts fleeing into the wooded areas to avoid military duty[citation needed]. The Confederate States Army defeated a Union detachment sent to destroy a salt works in the parish. Winn Parish contributed to the $80,000 raised to build fortifications on the nearby Red River.[3]

After the war, bandits roamed the Natchez Trace or Harrisonburg Road that ran through the lower part of the parish. Among the worst were the West and Kimbrell clan. For seven years they preyed especially on travelers and migrants passing through the area.[citation needed]

In April 1873, white Democrats forming a militia from Winn Parish joined with ex-Confederate veterans from Rapides and Grant parishes against Republican blacks in the Colfax Massacre in neighboring Grant Parish.[4][5] They attacked freedmen defending the parish courthouse and two Republican officeholders in the aftermath to the disputed gubernatorial election of 1872. Among the 80-150 blacks killed were at least 50 who had surrendered; a total of three white men were killed in the confrontation.

Winn Parish is the home of the former Long family Democratic political dynasty, started by Huey Long. It is the birthplace of three governors of Louisiana. Governor Earl Long is buried in Winnfield in a public square known as the Earl K. Long State Park.

Since 1956, Winn Parish has had three sheriffs named "Jordan." R. Sanford Jordan, a Democrat, served from 1956 to 1976.[6] A second but unrelated Jordan, James Edward "Buddy" Jordan (1942-2012),[7] was the sheriff from 1992 to 2008, when he was defeated by a 10-vote margin by a fellow Democrat, Albert D. "Bodie" Little.[8] Subsequently, A. D. Little was forced from office in 2011 and convicted thereafter on federal drug charges.[9] Cranford Jordan, Jr. (born 1952), a nephew of Sanford Jordan, won the office on his third attempt in the November 2011 general election and took office in July 2012. Cranford Jordan is an Independent.[6]

Geography[edit]

The parish has a total area of 957 square miles (2,480 km2), of which, 950 square miles (2,500 km2) of it is land and 6 square miles (16 km2) of it (0.67%) is water.

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent parishes[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 6,876
1870 4,954 −28.0%
1880 5,846 18.0%
1890 7,082 21.1%
1900 9,648 36.2%
1910 18,357 90.3%
1920 16,119 −12.2%
1930 14,766 −8.4%
1940 16,923 14.6%
1950 16,119 −4.8%
1960 16,034 −0.5%
1970 16,369 2.1%
1980 17,253 5.4%
1990 16,269 −5.7%
2000 16,894 3.8%
2010 15,313 −9.4%
Est. 2012 15,000 −2.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[10]
2012 Estimate[11]

As of the census[12] of 2000, there were 16,894 people, 5,930 households, and 4,234 families residing in the parish. The population density was 18 people per square mile (7/km²). There were 7,502 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile (3/km²). The racial makeup of the parish was 66.27% White, 32.03% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, and 0.86% from two or more races. 0.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 35.9% were of American and 7.2% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 5,930 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.80% were married couples living together, 15.30% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.60% were non-families. 26.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the parish the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, and 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 110.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.20 males.

The median income for a household in the parish was $25,462, and the median income for a family was $31,513. Males had a median income of $29,094 versus $17,939 for females. The per capita income for the parish was $11,794. About 17.00% of families and 21.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.40% of those under age 18 and 24.20% of those age 65 or over.

Communities[edit]

Map of Winn Parish, Louisiana With Municipal Labels

Cities and towns[edit]

Unincorporated areas[edit]

Education[edit]

Winn Parish School Board operates local public schools.

There is also the Huey P. Long Campus of Louisiana Technical College in Winnfield. The facility is being relocated from downtown to north of Winnfield on U.S. Highway 167. Funding for the structure was obtained by former State Senator Mike Smith of Winnfield.

Corrections[edit]

Corrections Corporation of America, under contract with Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections, operates the Winn Correctional Center in an unincorporated section of Winn Parish.[13]

National Guard[edit]

A Company 199TH FSB (Forward Support Battalion) resides in Winnfield, Louisiana. This unit deployed twice to Iraq as part of the 256TH IBCT in 2004-5 and 2010.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963, ISBN 0-8071-0834-0, pp. 164, 310
  4. ^ Keith, Leeanna, The Colfax Massacre: The Untold Story of Black Power, White Terror, & The Death of Reconstruction, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007
  5. ^ Lane, Charles (2008). The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court, and the Betrayal of Reconstruction. New York: Henry Holt & Company. 
  6. ^ a b "Tom Kelly, "Third Sheriff Jordan elected in Winn Parish," 2011". thepineywoods.com. Retrieved March 4, 2012. 
  7. ^ Buddy Jordan obituary, Alexandria Daily Town Talk, February 23, 2012
  8. ^ Louisiana Secretary of State, General election returns, November 17, 2007
  9. ^ ""Former Sheriff of Winn Parish Found Guilty: Federal Jury Convicts A. D. "Bodie" Little of Drug Charges Tonight," February 24, 2012". justice.gov. Retrieved March 4, 2012. 
  10. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Census.gov. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  12. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  13. ^ "Winn Corr. Center." Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections. Accessed September 14, 2008.
  14. ^ "Abrams, Morris Newton". Louisiana Historical Association, A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography (lahistory.org). Retrieved December 24, 2010. 
  15. ^ Brock, Eric J. "William Edenborn". Find A Grave Memorial. www.findagrave.com. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 

Coordinates: 31°57′N 92°38′W / 31.95°N 92.64°W / 31.95; -92.64