Zakhchin

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Zakhchin
Total population
32,845
Regions with significant populations
 Mongolia 32,845[1]
Languages
Zakhchin dialect of Oirat in Mongolia
Religion
Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism , Atheism
Related ethnic groups
Oirads in Mongolia

The Zakhchin (Mongolian: Захчин) is a subgroup of the Oirats residing in Khovd Province, Mongolia. Zakhchin means 'Border people'. They are so called because they are originated form the border garrison (mainly from Torghud, Dörbet, Ööld) of Dzungar Empire. They originally speak the Zakhchin dialect of the Oirat language, but actually pure Oirat language is used by elder generations, younger generations use a dialect being under a strong Khalkh influence.

History[edit]

The Zakhchins were border guards of the eastern border and Manchu king said that "if we defeat the Zakhchins then we can conquer the Zunghar"[citation needed].The Zakhchins conquered by the Manchus in 1754 and controlled by Zasagt Khan aimag's Tsevdenjav gün, then moved to Zereg and Shar Khulsan. One khoshuu with 4(+1) sums were designated for them and noble Maamad (Mamuud) zaisan became the chieftain but Mamuud killed by Zungharian king Amarsanaa later and the Zakhchins revolted together Amarsanaa against the Manchu-Qing Empire.

The sums were:

  • Bichgiin meeren's sum (in modern Mankhan, Khovd province)
  • Güüj zan's sum (in modern Altai and part of Must, Khovd province)
  • Baljinnyam zahiragch sum (in modern Zereg and parts of Mankhan in Khovd province)
  • Jantsandorj's sum or Hoit (North) sum (in modern Mankhan, Khovd province)
  • Guniikhen (in modern Uyench, Khovd province)

Administrative center was in Hoit sum's Tögrög Hüree.

During Bogd Khaanate Mongolia, Zakhchin was subject to Dörbet Ünen Zorigt Khan aimag. The south khoshuu is called goviinkhon (people of Gobi), while the north is called shiliinkhen (people of mountain range).

Clans[edit]

Zakhchin has 16 tamga (seal) and 30 clans[citation needed]. Some of them are:

  • Donjooniikhon
  • Damjaaniikhan
  • Shurdaankhan
  • Baykhiinkhan
  • Emchiinkhen
  • Khereid
  • Tsagaan Yas
  • Aatiinkhan
  • Dumiyenkhen
  • Burd Tariachin
  • Adsagiinkhan
  • Tavagzaaniikhan
  • Nokhoikhon
  • Khotonguud
  • Khurmshtiinkhan
  • Mukhlainkhan

Number[edit]

The Zakhchin numbered 29,800 in 2000.[2]

Famous Zakhchins in modern Mongolia[edit]

References[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • [hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/khoyt_2008_r.htm Хойт С.К. Антропологические характеристики калмыков по данным исследователей XVIII-XIX вв. // Вестник Прикаспия: археология, история, этнография. № 1. Элиста: Изд-во КГУ, 2008. с. 220-243.]
  • [hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/khoyt_2012_r.htm Хойт С.К. Калмыки в работах антропологов первой половины XX вв. // Вестник Прикаспия: археология, история, этнография. № 3, 2012. с. 215-245.]

Zakhchiny tüükh soël, öv ulamzhlal. Iadamzhav, ed. Ulaanbaatar : Soëmbo Printing KhKhK, 2014. ISBN 9789996228612