List of Mongol rulers

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8 of 15 Khagans of the Mongol Empire.
Mongol Empire and its fragmentation
Imperial Seal of Güyük Khan
Imperial Seal of Bogd Khan

This is a list of Mongol rulers. The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties.

Xiongnu[edit]

Main articles: Xiongnu and Chanyu

Xianbei[edit]

Main article: Xianbei

Tuoba Xianbei[edit]

Nirun Khaganate — 300–555[edit]

Main article: Nirun Khaganate

Khitans[edit]

Khamag Mongol (1120s–1206)[edit]

Mongol Empire (1206–1368)[edit]

Great Khans and Yuan Dynasty[edit]

With the establishment of the Great Yuan in 1271, the Kublaids became emperors of the Great Yuan, who were considered as Khagan for the Mongols and Huangdi (Chinese emperor) for native Chinese.

  • Genghis Khan (1206–1227)
  • Tolui Khan (as Regent) (1227–1229)
  • Ögedei Khan (1229–1241)
  • Töregene Khatun (as Regent) (1243–1246)
  • Güyük Khan (1246–1248)
  • Oghul Qaimish (as Regent) (1248–1251)
  • Möngke Khan (1251–1259)
  • Ariq Böke (1259–1264)
  • Kublai Khan (1260–1294) - Khagan title: Setsen; Temple name: Shizu (1271–1294) Era name: Zhiyuan (至元) (1264–1294)
  • Temür Khan - Khagan title: Öljeitu; Temple name: Chengzong - (1294–1307); Era names: Yuanzhen (元貞) (1295–1297); Dade (大德) (1297–1307)
  • Khayisan - Khagan title: Khülük; Temple name: Wuzong - (1308–1311); Era name: Zhida (至大) (1308–1311)
  • Ayurbarwada - Temple name: Renzong - (1311–1320); Era names: Huangqing (皇慶) (1312–1313); Yanyou (延祐) (1314–1320)
  • Shidebala - Khagan title: Gegeen; Temple name: Yingzong - (1321–1323); Era name: Zhizhi (至治) (1321–1323)
  • Yesün-Temür - Temple name: Taiding Di - (1323–1328); Era names: Taiding (泰定) (1321–1328); Zhihe (致和) 1328
  • Ragibagh - Temple name: Tianshun Di; Era name: Tianshun (天順) (1328)
  • Tugh Temür - Khagan title: Jayaaatu; Temple name: Wenzong - (1328–1329 / 1329–1332); Era names: Tianli (天歷) (1328–1330); Zhishun (至順) (1330–1332)
  • Kuśala - Khagan title: Khutughtu; Temple name: Mingzong; Era name: Tianli (天歷) (1329)
  • Rinchinbal - Temple name: Ningzong; Era name: Zhishun (至順) (1332)
  • Toghun Temür - Khagan title: Ukhaantu; Temple name: Huizong ; Shundi - (1333–1370); Era names: Zhishun (至順) (1333); Yuantong (元統) (1333–1335); Zhiyuan (至元) (1335–1340); Zhizheng (至正) (1341–1368); Zhiyuan (至元) 1368-1370

Golden Horde[edit]

Left wing (White Horde)[edit]

This Horde was annexed by Abu'l-Khayr Khan of the Shaybanids in 1446.

Right wing (Blue Horde)[edit]

Actual rulers of the Golden Horde (Jochid Ulus, Kipchak Khanate) were members of the House of Batu until 1361.

Great Horde (1466–1502)[edit]

Main article: Great Horde

Il khans of Il Khanate[edit]

After the murder of Arpa, the regional states established during the disintegration of the Ilkhanate raised their own candidates as claimants.

Claimants from eastern Persia (Khurasan):

  • Togha Temür (c. 1338-1353) (recognized by the Kartids 1338-1349; by the Jalayirids 1338-1339, 1340–1344; by the Sarbadars 1338-1341, 1344, 1353)
  • Luqman (1353–1388) (son of Togha Temür)

Chobanids (1335–1357)[edit]

Main article: Chobanids

Jalayirid Sultanate (1335–1432)[edit]

Main article: Jalayirid Sultanate

Injuids (1335–1357)[edit]

Main article: Injuids

Arghun Dynasty (1479?–1599?)[edit]

Main article: Arghun Dynasty

Chagatai Khanate[edit]

The Chagatai Khanate is split into two parts, western and eastern.

Moghulistan (Eastern Chagatai Khanate)[edit]

From 1370 on, the Chagatai Khans were puppets of Timur.

Kara Del (1383–1513)[edit]

Main article: Kara Del

Al-Adil Kitbugha-Sultan of Mamluk Sultanate (1294–1296)[edit]

Main article: Al-Adil Kitbugha

Mongolian Khaganate (1368–1635)[edit]

Main article: Mongolian Khaganate

Khagans of the Mongolian Khaganate:

Genghisid Setsen Khans of Eastern Mongolia (1627–1922)[edit]

Ancestry of Navaanneren (previous Setsen Khans):

  • - Batmunkh Dayan Khaan /1464–1543/, 29th Great Khan and descendant of Genghis Khan (1162–1227) through Kubilai Khan.
  • - Gersenz Jalair Khuntaij /1513–1549/, youngest son of Dayan Khan through Queen Samar Ghailu (also called Jimsgene Khatan).
  • - Amindural /1550/, fourth son of Gersenz, ruled northern Kerulen river area.
  • - Morbuim Taij, son of Amindural.
  • - Khar Zagal /until 1627/, son of Morbuim, ruled until 1627.
  • 1. Sholoi /1627–1652/, son of Morbuim, succeeded his brother Khar Zagal in 1627. First with the title of Setsen Khan.
  • 2. Babu /1652–1683/, fifth son of Sholoi.
  • 3. Norov /1683–1701/, third son of Babu.
  • 4. Ravdan /1688/
  • 5. Omokhei /Sonomdorj/ /1701–1709/, was only 10 years old in 1701, so was brought up under the tutelage of Namjil Erdene Taij, a grandson of Sholoi.
  • 6. Gunchin /1709–1728/, eldest son of Omokhei.
  • 7. Tsevdenbainjuur /1728–1733/, eldest son of Gunchin.
  • 8. Choijav /1733–1735/, grandson of Norov.
  • 9. Damiran/1735–1751/, second son of Gunchin.
  • 10. Manibadar /1751–1767/, eldest son of Damiran.
  • 11. Tsevdenjav /1767–1788/, second son of Damiran.
  • 12. Tseveendorj /1788–1795/, eldest son of Tsevdenjav.
  • 13. Puntsagdorj /1795/, only son of Tseveendorj.
  • 14. Sanzaidorj /1796–1800/, second generation grandson of Choijav.
  • 15. Mahashiri /1800–1807/, paternal uncle of Puntsagdorj.
  • 16. Enkhtor /1807–1816/, son of Mahashiri.
  • 17. Artased/1817–1874/, son of Enkhtor.
  • 18. Tserendorj /1874–1893/, son of Artased.
  • 19. Demchigdorj /1893–1909/, eldest son of Tserendorj.
  • 20. Navaanneren /1910–1922/, eldest son of Tserendondov, who was the son of Orjinjav the son of Artased.

Oirats[edit]

Four Oirat (1399–1634)[edit]

Main article: Four Oirat
  • Ugetchi Khashikha (c. 1399)
  • Batula (Bahamu, Mahamud) (1399–1408)
  • Togoon (Toghan) (1408–1438)
  • Esen (1438–1454)
  • Amasanj (1454–1455)
  • Ush-Temür (Ish-Temür) (1455–1469)
  • Khishig
  • Arkhan

Zunghar Khanate[edit]

Khans of Khoshut Khanate[edit]

  • Güshi Khan Toro-Baikhu (1642–1655)
  • Dayan Ochir Khan (1655–1669)
  • Gonchug Dalai Khan (1669–1698)
  • Lhazang Chingis Khan (1698–1717)

Khotgoid Khanate (late XVI-late XVII)[edit]

Main articles: Altan Khan of Khalkha and Khotogoid

Torghud khans of Kalmyk Khanate[edit]

  • Kho Orluk (d.1644)
  • Shukhur Daiching (1644–1661)
  • Puntsuk (1661–1669)
  • Ayuka Khan (1669–1724)
  • Tseren Donduk Khan (1724–1735)
  • Donduk Ombo Khan (1735–1741)
  • Donduk Dashi Khan (1741–1761)
  • Ubashi Khan (1762–1771)

State of Mongolia (1911–1924)[edit]

Main article: Mongolia (1911–21)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Weiers 1986: 505
  2. ^ Alan J.K Sanders, Historical Dictionary of Mongolia: Second Edition, (2003), Scarecrow Press, Inc. p.413. ISBN 0810866013
  • Dughlát Muhammad Haidar, Norbert Elias, Edward Denison Ross - The Tarikh-i-rashidi
  • Henry Hoyle Howorth-History of the Mongols
  • Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank -The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907-1368
  • William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, J. A. Boyle -The Cambridge history of Iran, 5
  • Konstantin Nikolaevich Maksimov - Kalmykia in Russia's past and present national policies and administrative system

See also[edit]