Yuwen

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Yuwen
宇文姓 - 楷体.svg
Pronunciation Yǔwén (Pinyin)
Language(s) Chinese
Origin
Language(s) Xianbei
Word/Name name of a clan
Derivation an ethnic Xianbei clan of Xiongnu origin during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms
Other names
Variant(s) Yuwen (Mandarin)

The Yuwen (Chinese: 宇文; pinyin: Yǔwén) is a Chinese compound surname first originated from a pre-state clan of Xianbei ethnicity of Xiongnu origin during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China, until its destruction by Former Yan's prince Murong Huang in 345. Among the eastern Xianbei clans that ranged from the central part of the present day Liaoning province and eastward, Yuwen clan was the largest, and was awarded the position of the leader of eastern Xianbei (东部大人) by Chinese rulers. A descendant of the Yuwen tribe, Yuwen Tai, established the Northern Zhou Dynasty in the 6th century.

Yuanhe Xingzuan "The register of the great families from the Yuanhe reign (806-820)" vol. 6, the Yuwen part 2 records:

(宇文)本遼東南單于之後, 有普回因獵得玉璽, 以為天授. 鮮卑俗呼天子為宇文, 因號宇文氏.

(The Yuwen) originally were the descendants of the southern Shanyu (of the Xiongnu). Someone within them called Puhui got a jade seal when he was hunting. This was regarded as a sign of imperial enthronement from heaven. According to Xianbei tradition, the son of the heaven was called the Yuwen. Thus (Puhui) called himself the Yuwen.

Yuwen were descendants of the nomadic Xiongnu who became assimilated with the Xianbei after 89 CE and ruled the Kumo Xi and Khitan (both Mongolic peoples) before being defeated by Murong Huang in 344 CE, upon which Yuwen separated from the Kumo Xi and Khitan. The language of the Yuwen is thought to be Turkic or a very distant branch of Mongolic.

The Wei Shu vol. 103, Biography of Yuwen Mohuai of Xiongnu records:

匈奴宇文莫槐, 出於遼東塞外, 其先, 南單于之遠屬也, 世為東部大人. 其語與鮮卑頗異.

人皆翦髮而留其頂上, 以為首飾, 長過數寸則截短之. 婦女披長襦及足, 而無裳焉. 秋收 烏頭為毒藥, 以射禽獸.

Yuwen Mohuai of the Xiongnu was from Liaodong, the region beyond the northern border. His ancestor was a remote relative of the southern Shanyu. (The Yuwen) had been the chief of the eastern section (of the Xianbei) for many generations. The (Yuwen)'s language differed widely from the Xianbei's. (The Yuwen) people all had shaved hair, but the hair on top of the head was left as a decoration. When the hair was over some cun long, it would be cut short. The women had long robes, which draped from their shoulders to their feet, but (they) did not wear skirts. When autumn came, they collected Wutou as poison, and used it to shoot birds and beasts.

Chieftains of the Yuwen[edit]

Family names and given name Durations of reigns
Chinese convention: use family name and given name
宇文莫槐 Yǔwén Mòhuái 260-293
宇文普回 Yǔwén Pǔhuí 293-late 3rd century
宇文丘不勤 Yǔwén Qiūbùqín late 3rd century
宇文莫圭 Yǔwén Mòguī late 3rd century (299?)- early 4th century (302?)
宇文悉獨官 Yǔwén Xīdúguān early 4th century
宇文乞得歸 Yǔwén Qǐdeguī early 4th century-333
宇文逸豆歸 Yǔwén Yìdòuguī 333-345

See also[edit]