Zimbabwean cholera outbreak

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The spread of cholera in Zimbabwe as of 19 February 2009, using data from several sources.[1][2][3][4][5]

The Zimbabwean cholera outbreak is an ongoing cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe that began in August 2008, swept across the country[6] and spread to Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zambia.[7][8] By 10 January 2010 there had been 98,741 reported cases and 4,293 deaths making it the deadliest African cholera outbreak since 1993.[9][10] The Zimbabwean government declared the outbreak a national emergency and requested international aid.[11]

Cause[edit]

An open drain in Kuwadzana township, Harare in 2004. By 2008 drains such as this were carrying sewage from burst sewage pipes and feces washed out of the neighbouring areas as the urban sanitation system collapsed. This contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera outbreak.

The principal cause of the 2008 outbreak was lack of access to safe water in urban areas and communities. Zimbabwe's two main cities are located on watershed divides, so that water draining out of the city flows into the drinking water sources, all of which are physically located downstream of these return flows.[12] This was exacerbated by the collapse of the urban water supply,[13] sanitation[14] and garbage collection systems,[15] along with the onset of the rainy season leading to faeces with cholera bacteria being washed into water sources, in particular public drains,[16] as well as providing readily available but contaminated water.[17] Due to a shortage of purification chemicals, such as chlorine, the capital city of Harare stopped receiving piped water on 1 December 2008.[18] By that date, many suburbs had not had any water supply for much longer.[19] On 4 December 2008, the Zimbabwe deputy minister for water and infrastructural development stated that there were only sufficient treatment chemicals in stock nationally for 12 weeks supply.[20] The collapse of these systems was blamed on the then-current economic crisis;[21][22] many households cannot afford fuel to boil water.[23] According to Médecins Sans Frontières, the spread of cholera from urban to rural areas from December 2008 onwards was due to infected city-dwellers visiting their families' rural homes for Christmas and the burial of infected city-dwellers in rural areas.[24] In an investigation in mid-December 2008, Physicians For Human Rights assessed the complicated circumstances surrounding the collapse of Zimbabwe's public health system,[vague] which had once been a model for southern Africa.[25]

The 2008 cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe had an unusually high fatality rate; Oxfam attributed the high mortality to a population "seriously weakened by hunger, HIV and AIDS".[23] A major contributing factor to the severity of the outbreak was the collapse of Zimbabwe's public health system, declared a national emergency on 4 December 2008.[26] By the end of November 2008, three of Zimbabwe's four major hospitals had shut down, along with the Zimbabwe Medical School, and the fourth major hospital had two wards and no operating theatres working.[27][28] Zimbabwean hospitals still open by December 2008 lacked medicines and staff. Due to hyperinflation, hospitals were not able to buy basic drugs and medicines, and the resources of even internationally funded emergency clinics were stretched.[17] The ongoing political and economic crisis contributed to the emigration of doctors and people with medical knowledge.[29] Some victims were travelling to Botswana and other neighbouring countries for treatment.[21]

Impact[edit]

The spread of cholera in Zimbabwe: (top) The number of cases recorded in the most infected centres and districts, and in the remainder of each province of Zimbabwe as of 4 March 2009. (bottom) Total number of reported cases. Since totals for many districts are not updated daily, the first occurrence of a case may represent the date of the reporting of that case, not the date of infection. Data sources: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs,[1] the World Health Organisation,[5] the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.[2][30] and news media,[14][31][32][33][34][35]

The 2008 outbreak began in Chitungwiza on 27 August, with the first case in Harare reported four days later. The next district to report cholera was Kariba on 21 September 2008, with Makonde following on 3 October 2008.[1] The disease spread to reach all of Zimbabwe's ten provinces.[1][15] The attack rate was highest in Beitbridge, Chegutu, Mudzi and Zvimba Districts (above 1,000 cases per 100,000 people or 1.0%).[5]

The number of cases reported by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs escalated from 30 on 1 September 2008[36] to 15,572 by 10 December.[33] It was argued by some agencies[vague] that the reported number of cases probably underestimated the extent of the outbreak, since many people were unlikely to have reached the clinics or treatment where the numbers were recorded.[citation needed] According to the Red Cross, around 46% of reported deaths occur en route to clinics and hospitals.[37] The head of the British Department for International Development in Harare said that "there are probably twice as many people with cholera as turn up for treatment".[38]

The case fatality rate for the outbreak was higher than expected for such outbreaks, although it began declining by January 2009.[5] Official estimates of fatalities have run from 484 to 800, since the outbreak in August 2008,[39] with an upper estimate of 3,000 from an anonymous senior official in the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare.[19] Fatality rates varied from 2.5% in Harare to 18% in Chitungwiza.[40] In Harare, the crisis reached the extent that the city council offered free graves to cholera victims.[16] By 7 December, Oxfam estimated 60,000 cases by the end of January 2009 and a 10% fatality rate,[23] with UNICEF giving a similar estimate.[41] On 4 December 2008, the Zimbabwe government declared the outbreak to be a national emergency.[26]

Response[edit]

Assistance after the 2008 outbreak was made available by numerous international agencies,[17] and funding for water, sanitation and hygiene programmes, epidemic response and the provision of essential drugs came from several governments and trans-governmental organisations:

Government or Agency Amount Date
Government of Australia A$8,000,000 for food and emergency aid 2 December 2008[42]
Government of Botswana US$300,000 3 December 2008[43]
Government of France €200,000 for water purification tablets and distribution points
Water treatment equipment
4 December 2008[44]
11 December 2008[45]
Government of Germany €1,000,000 to the Red Cross 8 December 2008[46]
Government of Namibia US$165,000 of medical supplies 7 December 2008.[47]
Government of the Netherlands €5,000,000 for medication, drinking water and water purification tablets December 2008.[48]
Government of South Africa Emergency food and medicine 4 December 2008[49][50]
Government of Switzerland US$820,000 to an emergency aid programme and logistical support for UN agencies 9 December 2008[51]
Government of the United Kingdom £3,000,000 November 2008[13]
USAID US$6,200,000 for health, water and sanitation programmes 11 December 2008[52]
Government of Venezuela Over 74 tons of medical supplies and drinking water 3 January 2009[53]
African Union US$100,000 11 December 2008[54]
European Commission €9,000,000 3 December 2008[55]
Flag of WHO.svg World Health Organisation US$340,000 of medication and supplies 4 December 2008[56]
Giving Children Hope and
World Vision
US$500,000 of medication 2 December 2008[57]
Emblem of the ICRC.svg International Committee of the Red Cross over 13 tons of medical supplies 4 December 2008[56]
World Vision and
Health Partners International of Canada
US$4,000,000 of medication 13 January 2009[58]

By 7 December 2008, UNICEF had secured international donor funding to provide sufficient water treatment chemicals for three weeks water supply for Harare and had arranged a shipment of chemical sufficient for four months supply.[23] UNICEF distributed 360,000 litres of water per day in Harare, as well as handing out soap and buckets.[38] Notwithstanding the contributions received, UNICEF indicated on 9 December 2008 that US$17,500,000 was needed to respond properly to the outbreak.[59] As of 15 December, following agreement with the Zimbabwe government, the World Health Organization was procuring medical supplies to roll out a response plan to run health centres.[60]

Spread[edit]

Spread of cholera within southern Africa, as of 10 February 2009. Not all cases are part of the 2008–2009 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak.
Key:
Deaths recorded
Infections recorded

The 2008 cholera outbreak spread to districts in Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zambia bordering Zimbabwe.[8][14]

South Africa[edit]

Cholera spread to the Zimbabwean migrant worker community in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa[61] and cholera bacteria were detected in the Limpopo River on 3 December 2008.[59] By 12 December 2008, 11 deaths and 859 infections had been recorded in South Africa,[40] rising to 2,100 cases and 15 deaths by 14 January 2009,[62] and to 12,000 cases and 59 deaths by 10 March.[63]

The South African government set up medical facilities and drinking water supplies at the Beitbridge border post[64] and deployed the National Outbreak Response Team and additional medical personnel to Musina.[65] Anthony Turton, a political scientist and Unit Fellow with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa, who had earlier warned of the risk of cholera in South Africa and wrote a report that recommended that the South African government increase its spending on water treatments lest a cholera outbreak occur in the country,[12] was suspended for having made "inappropriate statements to the media".[66] On 10 December 2008, the Limpopo Provincial Government declared Vhembe District Municipality, which borders Zimbabwe at Beitbridge, Matabeleland South province, a disaster area.[67] On a 28 January 2009 visit to Musina with high-ranking government and ruling party officials, Health Minister Barbara Hogan said

Cholera is spreading... We are beginning to see a shift from Zimbabwe to South Africa. The situation is scary... I am concerned about the impact this is having on our provinces.[68]

Other countries[edit]

The spread of cholera to Zimbabwe's other neighbouring countries was initially slower than in South Africa, with one death recorded in Kafue District in Zambia and none in Botswana or Namibia by 9 December 2008.[35] In 2009, cases increased, with 4,354 cases and 55 deaths reported by 10 February 2009 in Zambia and 1,596 cases and 14 deaths in Katanga, the southernmost province of the DR Congo.[69] In Mozambique, cholera spread to 10 out of 11 provinces,[69] with a total of 9,533 cases by 1 Jan to 1 Mar 2009 and 119 deaths by 17 March.[70] Four health workers also died in a mob attack, blamed on "misinformation and misunderstanding in efforts to combat cholera",[71] and 12 of the prisoners from the incident died in jail.[70] In Malawi 104 deaths were recorded since January, making it the worst outbreak since 2001–02 where 960 people died.[72] Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania, DRC, and Ghana have had unrelated cholera outbreaks with between 10–100 deaths in 2009 as of February.[69]

Prevention[edit]

After the 2008 epidemic was declared a national emergency, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (MOHCW) collaborated with several other departments, governments, and non-governmental organizations to create a Cholera Command and Control Centre. This Centre works to prevent cholera outbreaks in Zimbabwe by addressing broader societal factors that could contribute to cholera outbreaks, such as water sanitation and poor hygiene habits.[73]

Politicisation[edit]

Because of its well-organised health care system and effective water sanitation facilities, Rita R. Colwell of the James Baker Institute says Zimbabwe was historically one of the African countries least affected by cholera.[74] A news commentary in The Lancet said that, under President Robert Mugabe, the country's health programs were negatively impacted, resulting in diminished health care for those infected with cholera.[75] According to a draft paper from the WHO's World Conference on Social Determinants in Health, there were fewer health workers in the villages than in urban areas, which hindered early detection and isolation of cholera cases.[73]

A news commentator writing for The Lancet, Andrew Meldrum, said that President Mugabe’s Youth Militia threatened health professionals that provided medical treatment to political opponents.[75] He said that, combined with decreasing education standards, low pay, and a shortage of medical supplies like latex gloves, this led doctors to leave Zimbabwe at an alarming rate.[75] According to Douglas Gwatidzo, the chairman of the Zimbabwe Doctors for Human Rights group, Zimbabwe had only one doctor assigned to a group of 12,000 citizens.[75] Doctors in Zimbabwe fill only 25% of the medical posts available, and even fewer specialist positions are taken.[75] According to Meldrum, this poses serious challenges to health care for diseases like HIV/AIDS and cholera. Similarly, the effects of cholera are exacerbated without proper nutrition, and Zimbabwe has faced food shortages for the last several years.[75]

Cholera and malnutrition keep children out of school – a serious social consequence of the outbreak. Rachel Pound, the director of Save the Children in Zimbabwe, said that attending school may be dangerous in Zimbabwe, instead of providing a ladder for self-improvement. She noted that "Sanitation is now so bad in schools that they may become a breeding ground for infection", rather than a place of valuable education.[76]

According to Meldrum, Zimbabwe's high inflation left the country with a lack of financial resources, resulting in a shortage of ambulances and pharmaceutical drugs.[75] According to Eric Pruyt of the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands, this was exacerbated by a shortage of international aid, as Zimbabwe's government didn't acknowledge the epidemic and accept aid until the disease was widespread.[77] It was not contained or prevented from spreading. Until 2008, the government insisted that there was no cholera in Zimbabwe,[77] and Pruyt says the U.N. did not provide the country with safe drinking water until after the crisis started.[77] Meldrum says that, during Zimbabwe's continuing HIV/AIDS dilemma, some major international donors did not give much money because they believed it would help President Mugabe stay in power, which they did not want.[75]

As the outbreak and health crisis grew worse, American and British leaders cited the crisis as further proof that it was, in their view, "well past time for (President) Robert Mugabe to leave"[49] and that Zimbabwe had become a failed state.[52] Marian Tupy of the Cato Institute said that the crisis began in 2005 when the government took over water treatment facilities but without sufficient funding to maintain purification processes.[78] The transfer of water treatment from local government to the Zimbabwe National Water Authority was criticized by Innocent Nhapi of the National University of Rwanda on the basis of capacity and funding of the authority.[79] The lack of funding for water treatment chemicals, maintenance and staff salaries was cited by Colwell of the Baker Institute as a major cause of the epidemic.[74] According to Colwell, before funds were diverted from the plants to other uses, there were only sixty-five cases and four deaths from cholera in Zimbabwe.[74]

According to an editorial by Daniel J Ncayiyana in the South African Medical Journal, President Mugabe blamed the U.S. and the U.K. for the cholera outbreak, saying that they sent the disease so that they have a reason to credibly remove him from the presidency.[80] One Zimbabwean citizen was shown with a sign that blamed UK Prime Minister Gordan Brown for the disease; the sign expressed the horrors of "Brown’s cholera".[80]

According to a news report in Al Jazeera, the Zimbabwe government and state media blamed the outbreak on European and American sanctions[81] and a Reuters report said it accused Britain of plotting an invasion under the cover of the outbreak.[82] Information minister Sikhanyiso Ndlovu blamed the cholera deaths on Western sanctions, saying "the cholera issue has been used to drive a wedge among us".[83] On 12 December, Ndlovu repeated his accusation, and claimed that the cholera outbreak was actually a "serious biological-chemical weapon" attack by the United Kingdom, which Ndlovu asserted was trying to commit genocide.[84] Said Ndlovu:

Cholera is a calculated, racist, terrorist attack on Zimbabwe by the unrepentant former colonial power, which has enlisted support from its American and Western allies so that they can invade the country.[85][86]

In the meantime, a senior ZANU-PF official argued that the government and party leadership was more focussed on the forthcoming ZANU-PF conference than on the current crisis.[87] On 11 December 2008, President Robert Mugabe made a speech screened on national television in which he said:

I am happy to say our doctors have been assisted by others and WHO (the World Health Organization)... so now that there is no cholera... Because of cholera, Mr Brown wants a military intervention... Bush wants military intervention because of cholera... There is no cause for war any more. The cholera cause doesn't exist any more.[67][88]

Reports from the WHO contradicted Mugabe's view and indicated a growing death toll. According to the WHO, as of 8 December nearly 800 people had died of cholera and more than 16,000 cases were being treated.[88] Later that same day, Zimbabwean visas were denied to six French aid workers, including three crisis management specialists, two epidemiologists and a water treatment expert.[89] Britain's Africa minister, Mark Malloch-Brown, dismissed Mugabe's claim that the Zimbabwe cholera crisis is over, commenting as follows:

I don't know what world he [Mugabe] is living in. There is a raging humanitarian crisis in Zimbabwe as well as an economic crisis and still there is no representative government able to lead the country out of this disaster.[90]

The French foreign ministry and USAID also contradicted Mugabe's statements and called on him to allow aid to reach the people in need.[52][90]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (daily since 24 November 2008'). "Daily Cholera Update". Retrieved 27 January 2009. 
  2. ^ a b International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (3 December 2008). "Zimbabwe: Cholera, 3 December 2008". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  3. ^ World Health Organisation (1 December 2008). "Zimbabwe: Areas affected by cholera and anthrax outbreaks (September–November 2008)". World Health Organisation. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  4. ^ World Health Organisation (3 December 2008). "Zimbabwe: Areas affected by cholera outbreaks (September–November 2008), showing showing locations of cholera treatment units, 3 December 2008". Reuters. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  5. ^ a b c d World Health Organisation (3 January 2009). "WHO Zimbabwe Cholera Epidemiological Bulletin No. 4, 3 January 2009". Retrieved 15 January 2009. 
  6. ^ "Failing Zimbabwe: Reporter round-up". BBC. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  7. ^ "PM urges Zimbabwe cholera action". BBC. 6 December 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  8. ^ a b Hines, Nico (5 December 2008). "Miliband backs African calls for end of Mugabe". London: The Times (UK). Retrieved 5 December 2008. 
  9. ^ [1], Retrieved on 19 April 2008.
  10. ^ "Zimbabwe cholera 'to top 100,000'". BBC. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2009. 
  11. ^ "Zimbabwe declares national emergency over cholera". Reuters. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  12. ^ a b http://www.environment.co.za/documents/water/KeynoteAddressCSIR2008.pdf
  13. ^ a b Thornycroft, Peta (1 December 2008). "Zimbabwe's cholera epidemic hits 10,000". London: Reuters. Retrieved 2 December 2008. 
  14. ^ a b c "Zimbabwe in collapse". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 3 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  15. ^ a b "ZIMBABWE: Cholera feeds off a perfect storm". IRIN. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  16. ^ a b "Zimbabwe says cholera epidemic may spread with rain". Reuters. 30 November 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  17. ^ a b c "Zimbabwe: coping with the cholera outbreak". 26 November 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  18. ^ "United Nations, Red Cross mobilize cholera relief for Zimbabwe". VOA news. 3 Dec 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-03. [dead link]
  19. ^ a b Peta, Basildon (26 November 2008). "3,000 dead from cholera in Zimbabwe". London: The Independent (UK). Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  20. ^ "Zimbabwe appeals for donor help on cholera". Reuters. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  21. ^ a b "Capital lacks clean water, cholera kills hundreds in Zimbabwe". CNN. 1 December 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2008. 
  22. ^ "Cholera death rate multiplies in Zimbabwe's economic crisis". Financial Times (UK). 3 December 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  23. ^ a b c d Berger, Sebastien; Thornycroft, Peta (7 December 2008). "Zimbabwe's cholera victims 'ten times more likely to die'". London: Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 8 December 2008. 
  24. ^ "Cholera moves to rural Zimbabwe". BBC. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009. 
  25. ^ Physicians for Human Rights. "Health in Ruins: A Man-Made Disaster in Zimbabwe". https://s3.amazonaws.com/PHR_Reports/health-in-ruins-zim-full-2009.pdf. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
  26. ^ a b "Zimbabwe declares cholera outbreak a national emergency". AFP. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  27. ^ "The death throes of Harare's hospitals". BBC. 7 November 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  28. ^ "Zimbabwe's Medical School Closes". Radio VOP. 19 November 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  29. ^ "Zimbabwe cholera deaths near 500". BBC. 2 December 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2008. 
  30. ^ Zimbabwe: Cholera Outbreak. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 11 November 2008
  31. ^ "United Nations, Red Cross mobilize cholera relief for Zimbabwe". VOA news. 3 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008. [dead link]
  32. ^ "Doctors Say Cholera Toll Now 800". The Standard (Zimbabwe). 29 November 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2008. [dead link]
  33. ^ a b "Cholera death toll tops 746". New Zimbabwe.com. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  34. ^ Zimbabwe Humanitarian Situation Report On Cholera Outbreak, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, 12 September 2008.
  35. ^ a b "Red alert as cholera crisis spreads to Zimbabwe's neighbours". Evening Standard (UK). 9 December 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2008. 
  36. ^ "Zimbabwe, Harare: Residents Slam ZINWA After Fatal Cholera Outbreak". Sanitation Updates. 8 September 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  37. ^ "Zimbabwe rainy season increasing cholera risk says British Red Cross". Zimbabwe Journalists. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009. 
  38. ^ a b Fletcher, Martin (10 December 2008). "Health clinics overwhelmed by cholera cases in Zimbabwe". London: The Times (UK). Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  39. ^ "Cholera outbreak kills 484 in Zimbabwe". Financial Times (UL). 2 December 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2008. 
  40. ^ a b "Zimbabwe health cluster weekly bulletin No. 2 – 12 Dec 2008". World Health Organisation. 12 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2008. 
  41. ^ "Zimbabwe 'set for cholera jump'". BBC. 6 December 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  42. ^ "Cholera Outbreak Hits Zimbabwe as Australia Increases Aid". Christian Today. 2 December 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2008. 
  43. ^ "Botswana aid to Zimbabwe not intended for Mugabe". AFP. 3 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  44. ^ "Humanitarian assistance to Zimbabwe". France-Diplomatie. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2008. 
  45. ^ "Zimbabwe : la France envoie du matériel à Harare". Government of France via ReliefWeb. 12 December 2008. Retrieved 13 December 2008. 
  46. ^ "Germany Increases Aid to Zimbabwe as Cholera Death Toll Rises". Deutsche Welle. 9 December 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2008. 
  47. ^ "Namibia sends drugs worth 165,000 USD to Zimbabwe: media". IC Publications / AFP. 7 December 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2008. 
  48. ^ "More aid for Zimbabwe epidemic : media". The Zimbabwean. 14 December 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2008. 
  49. ^ a b "Zimbabwe crashes". Independent Online (South Africa). 7 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2008. 
  50. ^ "Cabinet approves Zimbabwe food aid". The Times (SA). 4 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2008. 
  51. ^ "Zimbabwe cholera crisis blamed on government". Swissinfo. 9 December 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2008. 
  52. ^ a b c "Zimbabwe neighbors should seal borders-US official". Reuters. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
  53. ^ "Venezuela sends Zimbabwe aid". The Scotsman. 3 January 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2009. 
  54. ^ "African Union contributes USD $100,000 to help fight cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe". ReliefWeb. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
  55. ^ "EU gives Zim E9m for cholera". News24 (SA). 3 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008. [dead link]
  56. ^ a b "UN, aid groups step up fight against cholera in Zimbabwe". AFP via Africasia. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  57. ^ "Cholera Outbreak in Zimbabwe". Giving Children Hope. 2 December 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
  58. ^ "World Vision, HIPC airlifts $4 million cholera medications to Zimbabwe". Newswire (Canada). 13 January 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009. 
  59. ^ a b "Zimbabwe: Tracking the Descent". ReliefWeb. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
  60. ^ "Zimbabwe cholera death toll nears 1,000, UN reports". United Nations News Service. 15 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2008. 
  61. ^ "SOUTH AFRICA-ZIMBABWE: Cholera crosses the border too". IRIN via Reuters. 19 November 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2008. 
  62. ^ "Zimbabwe cholera surges as neighbours report rising cases". AFP. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009. 
  63. ^ AFP S.Africa cholera outbreak 'declining'
  64. ^ "SA–Zim border under close watch". Independent Online (South Africa). 4 December 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  65. ^ "Statement by Minister of Health Barbara Hogan on the outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe and South Africa". SA Government Information Service. 26 November 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2009. 
  66. ^ "South Africa at risk of cholera". BBC. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008. 
  67. ^ a b Fletcher, Martin (11 Dec 2008). "Mugabe: 'There is no cholera in Zimbabwe'". London: The Times (UK). Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
  68. ^ "Cholera situation is 'scary', says Hogan". The Times (South Africa). 28 Jan 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2009. 
  69. ^ a b c World Health Organization. "Africa weekly emergency situation update Vol. 2, No. 8". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 28 February 2009. 
  70. ^ a b AFP:12 Mozambican prisoners die after cholera riot
  71. ^ "Mob kills health workers in Mozambique over cholera deaths". APAnews. 3 March 2009. Retrieved 3 March 2009. 
  72. ^ "Malawi: Malawi says cholera outbreak kills 104". Reuters. 20 March 2009. Retrieved 22 March 2009. 
  73. ^ a b "Intersectoral Actions in response to cholera in Zimbabwe: From emergency response to institution building" (PDF). World Conference on Social Determinants of Health. World Health Organization. 19–21 October 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  74. ^ a b c Rita Colwell. Oceans, Climate, and Health: Cholera as a Model of Infectious Diseases in a Changing Environment. Rice University: James A Baker III Institute for Public Policy. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  75. ^ a b c d e f g h Meldrum A (March 2008). "Zimbabwe's health-care system struggles on". Lancet 371 (9618): 1059–60. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(08)60468-7. PMID 18380032. 
  76. ^ Kapp C (February 2009). "Zimbabwe's humanitarian crisis worsens". Lancet 373 (9662): 447. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(09)60151-3. PMID 19205080. 
  77. ^ a b c Pruyt, Eric (26 July 2009). Cholera in Zimbabwe (PDF). Delft University of Technology. 
  78. ^ Tupy, Marian (22 February 2010). "Mugabe's U.N. Helpers". Cato Institute. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  79. ^ Nhapi, Innocent (2009). "The water situation in Harare, Zimbabwe: A policy and management problem". Water Policy 11 (2): 221. doi:10.2166/wp.2009.018. 
  80. ^ a b Ncayiyana DJ (January 2009). "The Zimbabwe mayhem--how many people must die for the neighbours to act?". S. Afr. Med. J. 99 (1): 7. PMID 19374075. 
  81. ^ "Calls mount for Mugabe to resign". Al Jazeera. 7 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2008. 
  82. ^ "Britain plots Zimbabwe invasion – Mugabe spokesman". Reuters. 7 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2008. 
  83. ^ "Zim Cholera 'Is Beyond Control'". Sky News (UK). 9 December 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  84. ^ "Zimbabwe blames cholera on Britain". Al Jazeera. 12 December 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
  85. ^ "Zimbabwe: Cholera is genocide by UK". CNN. 12 Dec 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
  86. ^ "UK caused cholera, says Zimbabwe". BBC. 12 December 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
  87. ^ "Mugabe Allies Squash Succession Rumours". institute for war & peace reporting. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2008. 
  88. ^ a b "Zimbabwe cholera is over – Mugabe". BBC. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
  89. ^ "France says Zimbabwe denies visas to aid workers". Reuters via ReliefWeb. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
  90. ^ a b Tran, Mark (11 Dec 2008). "UK dismisses Mugabe's claim that Zimbabwe cholera crisis is over". London: The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 12 December 2008. 

External links[edit]