Abkhaz phonology

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Abkhaz is a language of the Northwest Caucasian family[1] which, like the other Northwest Caucasian languages, is very rich in consonants. Abkhaz has a large consonantal inventory that contrasts 58 consonants in the literary Abzhywa dialect, coupled with just two phonemic vowels (Chirikba 2003:18–20).

Abkhaz has three major dialects, Abzhywa, Bzyp and Sadz, which differ mainly in phonology.


Below is the IPA phoneme chart of the consonant phonemes of Abkhaz:

Labial Alveolar Palato-
Velar Uvular Phary
plain lab. plain lab. plain lab. plain pal. lab. plain pal. lab. pha. lab.+
plain lab.
Nasal m n
Stop p b t d k ɡ ɡʲ ɡʷ
tʷʼ kʲʼ kʷʼ qʲʼ qʷʼ
Affricate ts dz ʈʂ ɖʐ tɕʷ dʑʷ
tsʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ tɕʼ tɕʷʼ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ʃʷ ʒʷ ʂ ʐ ɕʑ *ɕʷ *ʑʷ χ ʁ χʲ ʁʲ χʷ ʁʷ χˤ
Approximant l j ɥ w
Trill r

Phonemes preceded by an asterisk (*) are found in the Bzyp and Sadz dialects of Abkhaz, but not in Abzhywa; phonemes preceded by a dagger (†) are unique to the Bzyp dialect. The total number of consonant phonemes in Abkhaz is, therefore, 58 in the Abzhywa dialect, 60 in the Sadz dialect, and 67 in Bzyp. The Sadz dialect also has distinctive consonant gemination; for example, Sadz Abkhaz contrasts /a.χʷa/ ('ashes') vs. /a.χʷːa/ ('worm'), where Abzhywa and Bzyp Abkhaz have only the one form /a.χʷa/ for both; it seems that many Sadz singletons reflect positions where a consonant has been dropped from the beginning of a cluster in the Proto-Northwest Caucasian form (compare Ubykh /tχʷa/ 'ashes'). Some scholars (for instance, Chirikba 2003) prefer to count the Sadz consonant inventory at well over 100 (thus forming the largest consonant inventory in the Caucasus, outstripping Ubykh's 80–84) by treating the geminated consonants as a set in their own right. (Note, however, that this practice is not usual in counting the consonant inventory of a language.)

The Bzyp consonant inventory appears to have been the fundamental inventory of Proto-Abkhaz, with the inventories of Abzhywa and Sadz being reduced from this total, rather than the Bzyp series being innovative. Plain alveolopalatal affricates and fricatives have merged with their corresponding alveolars in Abzhywa and Sadz Abkhaz (compare Bzyp /a.t͡ɕʼa.ra/ 'to know' vs. Abzhywa /a.t͡sʼa.ra/), and in Abzhywa the labialised alveolopalatal fricatives have merged with the corresponding postalveolars (compare Bzyp /a.ɕʷa.ra/ 'to measure' vs. Abzhywa /a.ʃʷa.ra/).

The non-pharyngealised dorsal fricatives of Abkhaz may be realised as either velar or uvular depending upon the context in which they are found; here, they have been ranged with the uvulars. Also, while the labialised palatal approximant /ɥ/ is here placed with the approximants, it is actually the reflex of a labialised voiced pharyngeal fricative, preserved in Abaza, and a legacy of this phoneme's origin is a slight constriction of the pharynx for some speakers, resulting in the phonetic realisation [ɥˤ].


Abkhaz has only two distinctive vowels: an open vowel /a/ and a close vowel /ɨ ~ ə/. These basic vowels have a wide range of allophones in different consonantal environments, with allophones [e] and [i] respectively next to palatals, [o] and [u] next to labials, and [ø] and [y] next to labiopalatals. /a/ also has a long variant /aː/, which is the reflex of old sequences of */ʕa/ or */aʕ/, preserved in Abaza.


  1. ^ Catford, J. C. (1977). "Mountain of Tongues: The Languages of the Caucasus". Annual Review of Anthropology. 6: 283–314. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.06.100177.001435. JSTOR 2949334.


  • Chirikba, V. A. (1996). Common West Caucasian. The reconstruction of its phonological system and parts of its Lexicon and Morphology. Leiden: Research School CNWS.
  • Chirikba, V. A. (2003). "Abkhaz". Languages of the World/Materials 119. Lincom Europa.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Hewitt, B. G. (1979). Abkhaz. London: Routledge.
  • Vaux, B.; Pəsiypa., Z. (1997). "The Tshwyzhy dialect of Abkhaz". Harvard Working Papers in Linguistics 6.

Further reading[edit]