Traditionally in the most prestigious high schools (Liceo Classico, Liceo Scientifico and Liceo Linguistico), grades vary within a limited range, between 2 and 8, often with each professor applying his/her own custom. When a professor wants to apply a more precise scale, instead of using the full 1–10 scale (which would have made their scale not comparable with that of other professors) they would often insert a plethora of symbols and decimals: the range between 5 and 6 would then be covered, in sequence, by 5+, 5½ and 6−. Sufficiency starts at 6. The "+" symbol stands for "+0.25" (5+=5.25) and the "-" symbol stands for "-0.25" (6-=5.75). Some professors, however, also use symbols such as 5++, 5/6 and 6--, which have no precise value. There has been a push in recent years to uniform the system to the 0–10 scale.
For ordinary exams, universities in Italy use a 30-point scale that can be divided into failing (0 to 17) and passing (18 to 30 cum laude) grades. For final assessment of the entire degree, a 110-point scale is used, which is divided into two as well, with 66 being the minimum for a degree to be awarded. The 110-point scale incorporates scores both on course exams and for the final thesis. For outstanding results, lode, "praise" or "cum laude," is added to the maximum grade.
Italian grades with corresponding ECTS and United States grading