Ain Ebel

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ʿAin Ebel

عين إبل – ܥܝܢ ܐܒܠ
City
Map showing the location of Ain Ebel within Lebanon
Map showing the location of Ain Ebel within Lebanon
ʿAin Ebel
Location within Lebanon
Coordinates: 33°07′N 35°24′E / 33.117°N 35.400°E / 33.117; 35.400Coordinates: 33°07′N 35°24′E / 33.117°N 35.400°E / 33.117; 35.400
Grid position187/279 PAL
Country Lebanon
GovernorateNabatieh Governorate
DistrictBint Jbeil District
Government
 • Type15 Member Municipal Council
 • BodyMunicipal Council
 • MayorImad Lallous
Highest elevation
850 m (2,790 ft)
Lowest elevation
750 m (2,460 ft)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Dialing code+961

ʿAin Ebel (Arabic: عين إبل‎; Syriac: ܥܝܢ ܐܒܠ) is a village located in the Caza of Bint Jbeil in the Nabatiye Governorate in Lebanon.

Etymology[edit]

Historian Taissier Khalaf writes that the name of the town means "Spring of the Monk" because in Aramaic Ain means spring and Ebel means the hermit, who wears a monk's garb[1]. While Anis Freiha and Friar Youakim Moubarak believe that Ebel is a corruption of the word Baal, in reference to the Semitic god associated with storms and thus irrigation[2], and combined with Ain then the name may mean the "Spring of Irrigation".[3] Edward Henry Palmer, in 1881, wrote that it meant "The Spring of Camels" taking a literal translation for the name from classical Arabic.[4]

Variation of Spelling[edit]

The name of the village is also sometimes spelled Ainebel, Aïn Ebel, Ain Ebl, ‘Ayn Ibil, ‘Ain Ibil, Aïn Ibel, Ain Ibel.

History[edit]

Relief with Apollo and Artemis, Louvre, found at Kh ed Duweir, just north of Ain Ebel

Ain Ebel is a historic village with numerous archaeological sites that date to Biblical times and before. A Heavy Neolithic site of the Qaraoun culture was discovered by Henri Fleisch west of Ain Ebel in the Wadi Koura, with tools found suggested to be part of a forest dweller's toolkit at the start of the Neolithic Revolution.[5] On the outskirts of the village is an area called Chalaboune where Ernest Renan, a French historian and philosopher who was sent by Emperor Napoleon III to Lebanon, found ancient graves.[6] On one of the graves, Renan discovered a bas-relief of Apollo and Artemis. The relief was transported to France where it remains today at the Louvre[7]. In 2011 and after months of negotiation, the Musée du Louvre agreed to make an exact replica of the bas-relief, which was delivered to the municipality of Ain Ebel in November.[8]

It is believed that the village has been inhabited since the 15th century when Christians from the north of Lebanon migrated to lower elevations in the south to cultivate feudal lands[9].

In his book, Salut Jerusalem: Les memoires d'un chretien de Tyr a l'epoque des Croisades, the Lebanese historian, Bechara Menassa, wrote that the people of Ain Ebel were in touch with the Crusaders in Toron, modern Tebnine. Menassa described how a Frankish monk killed a wild animal in Ain Ebel.

Ain Ebel is mentioned in a Christian anthology, containing contributions from ministers and members of various evangelical denominations published in the United Kingdom in 1866:

Forwards we marched, with light spirits, through close woods, varied by occasional clearings, like what are called the 'rides' in old English forests; and sometimes we arrived at snug villages or prospects of such by the names of Teereh, Hhaneen and Ain Ibil, the latter at two hours from Tibneen. The people are Christians, and they cultivate silk and tobacco... A poor Maronite priest in his black robes and dark blue turban, came up to me, and, leaning on his staff, represented the sad story of his village (Ain Nebel) the day before, when of the subordinate officers of Tamar Bek, going round to inspect the Christians in their compulsory and unpaid labour at the lime-kilns, and finding the work of one of the men not equal to the task exacted, shot him dead on the spot.

— Johnstone, John, "Byeways in Palestine by a British Consul, Upper Galilee, Forest Scenery", page 188, The Christian Treasury, Volume 22 (1866)

In 1875 Victor Guérin visited, and noted 800 Maronite and 200 Greek Orthodox villagers.[10]

In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described 'Ain Ibl as a: "Well-built modern village, with a Christian chapel ; contains about 1,000 Christians (800 Maronites and 200 United Greeks). It has vineyards on the slope of the hill on which the village is placed, and olives in the valley below. Good water supply from springs in the valley."[11]

During World War II, the Vichy French had a line of widely-spaced blockhouses that stretched from the coast to the inland heights, reaching Ain Ebel[12]. During the Syria–Lebanon Campaign to liberate Lebanon and Syria from the Vichy, Australian Captain Douglas George Horley was ordered to clear Ain Ebel [13].

By 1920, Ain Ebel had a population of 1,500, living in about 300 houses[14]. That year, while delegates from The Shia Conference of El-Hujair were in Damascus swearing allegiance to King Faisal, an act the Maronites of Jabal Amel considered threatening, Mahmoud Bazzi's gang attacked Ain Ebel on May 5, 1920, pillaging and killing more than 50 people[15][16]. The people of Ain Ebel defended the town from sunrise to sunset until they ran out of ammunition[17] The town was completely destroyed, and the damage done to the church and convent, were evidence of sectarian malice[18]. The neighboring village of Debel was also attacked so the French had to intervene and suppress all activities in Jabal Amel region[19]

In July 2006, Ain Ebel, like other villages that string Lebanon's southern border, such as Debel, Qaouzah, Rmaich, and Yaroun, was caught in the 2006 Lebanon War of Hezbollah and the Israeli army.[20] Due to the conflict between Hezbollah and Israel in South Lebanon, many houses in Ain Ebel were destroyed.

Geography[edit]

Ain Ebel occupies several hills with elevation ranging from 750 to 850 meters above sea level. The village enjoys four seasons with autumn and spring being mild but rainy, winter being cold and sometimes snowy and summer being dry and very pleasant with average temperatures between 25–27 °C (77–81 °F). The people of Ain Ebel cultivate their land and produce olives, almonds, chestnuts, pecans, grapes, figs, pomegranates, and apples. There are three natural springs in Ain Ebel, including Tarabnine, Tahta and Hourrié (Freedom Spring).[citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

The people of Ain Ebel are mainly Maronite Catholics, Greek Catholics and Armenian Catholics[21].

Families[edit]

  • Atmé
  • Alam
  • Akh
  • Abu Ghannam
  • Ajaka
  • Amouri
  • Ammar
  • Andraos
  • Ayoub
  • Ghostine (also Lubbos and Lopes in Brazil)
  • Barakat
  • Berberian
  • Chaaya (also spelled Shaaya)
  • Chbat
  • Chehadé
  • Diab (Diap and Diep in Argentina)
  • Dick (also spelled Deek)
  • Eid
  • Farah
  • Haddad
  • Hasrouny (also spelled Hasrouni)
  • Jichy (also spelled Jichi)
  • Khalifé
  • Khoreich (also spelled Khreiche, Khraish in the US and Canada and Kreis in Argentina)
  • Lallous
  • Matar
  • Najm (also spelled Najem)
  • Sader
  • Sakr (also spelled Saqr or Sacre)
  • Sidaoui
  • Zarqa

Schools[edit]

There are three schools in the village: two private schools (Saints-Cœurs and Saint Joseph) and one public school. Of the three, the oldest is Saints-Cœurs, which was established by the Jesuits in 1881[22].

Religious Structures[edit]

There are three historic churches, built in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, and a convent that was built in 1857[23].

Notre Dame d'Ain-ebel

Chapels

  • Chapel of the Sacred Heart
  • Saint Mary's Chapel

Churches

  • Our Lady of Ain Ebel Maronite Catholic Church
  • Saint Elie Greek Catholic Melkite Church
  • The New Saint Elie Greek Catholic Melkite Church

Convents

Shrines

Holidays[edit]

Each summer, a grand festival is organized in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The festival culminates on the Assumption of Mary on August 15. Outdoor events and open-air concerts are held in the village's square. The festivities peak with a procession of the Virgin Mary icon.

Notables from Ain Ebel[edit]

Academia

Arts

Clergy

  • Monsignor Elie Barakat
  • Monsignor Elias Farah
  • Clementine Khayat, a Catholic nun from Ain Ebel who wrote several articles in the journals, El-Mashriq and El-Bashir recounting the events of the massacre of May 5, 1920 that she witnessed[24].
  • Monsignor Albert Khoraich
  • Anthony Peter Khoraich, the late Cardinal, is the most prominent modern figure from Ain Ebel. He was the second Lebanese Patriarch to become cardinal of the Catholic Church.
  • Bishop Maroun Sader
  • Archimandrite Boulos Samaha

Journalism

  • Jean Diab, who wrote for the Revue du Liban
  • Wafai Diab, who was believed to be the first Arabic-language journalist to interview an American President at the White House.
  • Nasrat Khoreich, who wrote for both Annahar and L'Orient Le Jour

In Literature[edit]

  • In Half a Lira's Worth: The Life and Times of Vivronia by Mick Darcy
"The Kazzy family, in the early 1920s, were small landholders in the village of Ain Ebel, in Southern Lebanon...

References[edit]

  1. ^ Khalaf, Taissier (2006). al-Masīḥ fī al-Jūlān : Tārīkh wa-Athār (Christ in the Golan: History and Traces) (in Arabic). Dār Kanʻān
  2. ^ Freedman, David Noel, ed. (1992), The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary, Vol. 1, New York: Doubleday
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2003-12-02. Retrieved 2008-10-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ From A Personal name, according to Palmer, 1881, p. 62
  5. ^ L. Copeland; P. Wescombe (1966). Inventory of Stone-Age Sites in Lebanon: North, South and East-Central Lebanon, p. 88. Impr. Catholique. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  6. ^ Renan, 1864, pp. 677-8
  7. ^ Conder, C.R.; Kitchener, H.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology 1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund., page 236
  8. ^ Al-Amin, Danny. "عين ابل تفاوض اللوفر وتستعيد نسخة عن تحفتها", Al-Akhbar, Issue 1565, 18 November 2011
  9. ^ Jalabert, Henri and Joseph Goudard. Lebanon, the Land and the Lady, First Edition, Translated to English by Eugene P. Burns, SJ. Catholic Press, Beirut, January 1, 1966, page 24
  10. ^ Guérin, 1880, pp. 120-121
  11. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 200
  12. ^ Long, Gavin. Australia in the War of 1939–1945: Greece, Crete and Syria, Australian War Memorial (1953),page 342
  13. ^ Long, Gavin. Australia in the War of 1939–1945: Greece, Crete and Syria, Australian War Memorial (1953),page 349
  14. ^ The New Near East, Volumes 6-8. The Near East Relief, New York, NY, June 1921, page 12
  15. ^ Chalabi, Tamara. The Shi'is of Jabal 'Amin and the New Lebanon: Community and Nation-State, 1918–1943. Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2006, page 79
  16. ^ Gharbieh, Hussein. Lebanese Confessionalism and the Creation of the Shiʻi Identity, Dar El-Manhal El-Lubnani, Lebanon, 2010, page 59, 63
  17. ^ The New Near East, Volumes 6-8. The Near East Relief, New York, NY, June 1921, page 12.
  18. ^ The New Near East, Volumes 6-8. The Near East Relief, New York, NY, June 1921, page 12
  19. ^ Gharbieh, Hussein. Lebanese Confessionalism and the Creation of the Shiʻi Identity, Dar El-Manhal El-Lubnani, Lebanon, 2010, page 60.
  20. ^ USATODAY.com – Archbishop tells church to stay in Lebanon: 'You'll make it'
  21. ^ Santoro, Nicholas Joseph. Mary in Our Life: Atlas of the Names and Titles of Mary, the Mother of Jesus, , Bloomington, (August 5, 2011)page 150
  22. ^ Abu Saibi, Saif Najah, Jabal Am3l in the Ottoman Era: 1882 – 1914, Historical – Intellectual Study, Opus Publishers, Ontario, Canada, 2017, page 226
  23. ^ Abu Saibi, Saif Najah, Jabal Am3l in the Ottoman Era: 1882 – 1914,Q Historical – Intellectual Study, Opus Publishers, Ontario, Canada, 2017, page 227
  24. ^ Chalabi, Tamara. The Shi'is of Jabal 'Amin and the New Lebanon: Community and Nation-State, 1918–1943. Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2006, page 79-80

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]