Poster for the 1977 Broadway revival by James McMullan
|Written by||Eugene O'Neill|
|Date premiered||November 2, 1921|
|Place premiered||Vanderbilt Theatre
New York City
|Subject||A former prostitute falls in love, but runs into difficulty in turning her life around|
|Setting||1910; a New York City saloon; on a barge at anchor in Provincetown|
Anna Christie is the story of a former prostitute who falls in love, but runs into difficulty in turning her life around.
- Johnny the Priest
- Two longshoremen
- A postman
- Larry — bartender
- Chris C. Christopherson — captain of the barge Simeon Winthrop
- Marthy Owen
- Anna Christopherson — Chris’s daughter
- Mat Burke — a stoker
- Johnson — deckhand on barge
The first act takes place in a bar owned by Johnny the Priest and tended by Larry. Coal-barge captain Old Chris receives a letter from his daughter, a young woman he has not seen since she was 5 years old and their family lived in Sweden. They meet at the bar and she agrees to go on the coal barge with him. The rest of the play takes place on the barge.
The barge crew rescues Mat Burke and 4 other men who were in an open boat after a shipwreck. After not getting along initially, Mat and Anna fall in love.
A confrontation among Anna, Chris and Mat. Mat wants to marry Anna, Chris does not want her to marry any sailor, and Anna doesn't want either of them to think they're in charge of her. She tells them the truth about her life: she was raped while living with her mother's relatives on a Minnesota farm, then became a prostitute after some time as a nurse's aide. Mat gets furious, and he and Chris leave.
Mat and Chris return. Anna forgives Chris for not being part of her childhood, and after a dramatic confrontation, Mat forgives Anna for being a prostitute after she promises to stop, and Chris agrees to their getting married. It turns out that Chris and Mat have both signed up for the same ship that is leaving for South Africa the next day, but they promise to return to Anna after the voyage.
O'Neill's first version of this play, begun in January 1919, was titled Chris Christopherson and performed as Chris in out-of-town tryouts. O'Neill revised it radically, changing the barge captain's daughter Anna from a pure woman needing to be protected into a prostitute who finds reformation and love from life on the sea. The new version, play, now titled Anna Christie, had its premiere on Broadway at the Vanderbilt Theatre on November 2, 1921, and ran for 177 performances before closing in April 1923. The production was staged by Arthur Hopkins and starred Pauline Lord.
Alexander Woollcott in the New York Times called it "a singularly engrossing play", and advised that "all grown-up playgoers should jot down in their notebooks the name of Anna Christie as that of a play they really ought to see."
- 1923: The London West End premiere was staged at the Strand Theatre (now the Novello) in 1923. This was the first time an O'Neill play was seen in the West End. The play starred Pauline Lord, who had been the original Anna Christie on Broadway. The play had a great reception. Time magazine wrote, "In London, the first night of Eugene O'Neill's Anna Christie, with Pauline Lord in the title role, received a tremendous ovation. After the first act the curtain was rung up a dozen times during the applause.
- 1952: The play was revived at the Lyceum Theatre on January 23, 1952, staged by Michael Gordon and designed by Emeline C. Roche with Celeste Holm as Anna, Kevin McCarthy, and Arthur O'Connell. It ran for 8 performances.
- 1955: According to actress Ellen Burstyn in the 2012 film "Marilyn in Manhattan," Marilyn Monroe performed a scene from Anna Christie at the Actors Studio with Maureen Stapleton. Calling the story "legendary," Burstyn said, "Everybody who saw that says that it was not only the best work Marilyn ever did, it was some of the best work ever seen at Studio, and certainly the best interpretation of Anna Christie anybody ever saw. She...achieved real greatness in that scene." (According to some biographers, Marilyn was molested by foster parents and worked as a prostitute.)
- 1977: The play was revived at the Imperial Theatre on April 14, 1977, directed by José Quintero and designed by Ben Edwards. It starred Liv Ullmann as Anna, Robert Donley, John Lithgow and Mary McCarty. It received Tony Award nominations for Liv Ullmann as Best Actress and for Mary McCarty as Best Featured Actress. It ran for 124 performances.
- 1993: The play was revived on Broadway on January 14, 1993 by The Roundabout Theatre Company at the Criterion Center Stage Right. It was directed by David Leveaux and designed by John Lee Beatty. It starred Natasha Richardson, Liam Neeson, Anne Meara, and Rip Torn. It received Tony Award nominations for Best Actress (Natasha Richardson), Best Actor (Liam Neeson), Best Featured Actress (Anne Meara), Best Direction (David Leveaux), and won the award for Best Revival. Neeson and Richardson both received the Theatre World Award. The production won the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actress in a Play for Richardson. It ran for 54 performances.
- 2011: The play was produced at the Donmar Warehouse, London, running from 4 August 2011 to 8 October 2011, with Ruth Wilson as Anna, Jude Law as Mat, and David Hayman as Chris. It was positively received by critics, with mostly 4 and 5 star reviews, and it won the 2012 Olivier Award for "best revival".
Another adaptation by Frances Marion, released in 1930, was directed by Clarence Brown and starred Greta Garbo, Charles Bickford, George F. Marion and Marie Dressler. This pre-Code film used the marketing slogan "Garbo Talks!", as it was her first talkie. Her first spoken line has become her most famous: "Give me a whiskey with ginger ale on the side, and don't be stingy, baby." George F. Marion performed the role of Anna's father in the original Broadway production and in both the 1923 and 1930 film adaptations.
The German language film was shot after the English version and was also released in 1930. This film was adapted by Frances Marion, translated by Walter Hasenclever and directed by Jacques Feyder, also starring Garbo, with Theo Shall, Hans Junkermann, and Salka Viertel.
Awards and nominations
- 1922 Pulitzer Prize for Drama
- 1993 Drama Desk Award for Best Revival of a Play
- 1993 Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play
- 2011 Olivier Award for Best Revival of a Play
- Alexander Woollcott (13 November 1921). "Anna Christie: Second Thoughts on First Nights". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
- Time writers (21 April 1923). "Notes". Time. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
- Girvan, Andrew (15 April 2012). "2012 Olivier Award winners". Whatsonstage.com. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- Billington, Michael (August 9, 2011). "Anna Christie – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- Spencer, Charles (August 10, 2011). "Anna Christie, Donmar Warehouse, Review". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- "Sharing the Stage". grinnell.edu.
- O'Neill, Eugene (1923). Anna Christie: A Play in Four Acts (First ed.). London: Jonathan Cape. OCLC 252007125.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anna Christie.|
- Anna Christie at the Internet Broadway Database
- Anna Christie (premiere) at the Internet Broadway Database
- Production: Anna Christie — Working in the Theatre Seminar video at American Theatre Wing
- Anna Christie at the Electronic Eugene O'Neill Archive
- Anna Christie public domain audiobook at LibriVox