August 2016 Central Italy earthquake

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August 2016 Central Italy earthquake
USGS shakemap of the earthquake.[1]
August 2016 Central Italy earthquake is located in Umbria
August 2016 Central Italy earthquake
August 2016 Central Italy earthquake is located in Italy
August 2016 Central Italy earthquake
UTC time 2016-08-24 01:36:32
ISC event 611462212
USGS-ANSS ComCat
Local date 24 August 2016 (2016-08-24)
Local time 03:36 CEST
Magnitude 6.2 ± 0.016 Mw[3]
Depth 4 ± 1 km (2.49 ± 0.62 mi)[2]
Epicenter 42°42′22″N 13°13′23″E / 42.706°N 13.223°E / 42.706; 13.223Coordinates: 42°42′22″N 13°13′23″E / 42.706°N 13.223°E / 42.706; 13.223[2]
Type Normal[1]
Areas affected Central Italy
Max. intensity IX (Violent)[1]
Casualties 299 deaths[4]
388 injured[5]
4,500 homeless[6]

An earthquake, measuring 6.2 ± 0.016[3] on the moment magnitude scale, hit Central Italy on 24 August 2016 at 03:36:32 CEST (01:36 UTC).

Its epicentre was close to Accumoli, with its hypocentre at a depth of 4 ± 1 km,[2] approximately 75 km (47 mi) southeast of Perugia and 45 km (28 mi) north of L'Aquila, in an area near the borders of the Umbria, Lazio, Abruzzo and Marche regions. As of 15 November 2016, 299 people had been killed.[4]

Background[edit]

The central Apennines is one of the most seismically active areas in Italy. The Apennines mountain belt were formed in the Miocene to Pliocene as a result of the ongoing subduction of the Adriatic Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate, forming a fold and thrust belt. During the Quaternary, thrust tectonics gave way to extensional tectonics, with the development of a zone of normal faulting running along the crest of the mountain range. The extension is a result of either subduction rollback or the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea.[1] In the Central Apennines the zone of extension is about 30 km wide, closely matching the zone of observed extensional strain as shown by GPS measurements. Recent large earthquakes in this area have been caused by movement on SW-dipping normal faults.[7]

This was the largest tremor since 2009,[8] when an earthquake near L'Aquila in the Abruzzo region killed over 300 people and displaced about 65,000.

Earthquake[edit]

The earthquake was initially reported by INGV to have occurred at a depth of approximately 5 km (3.1 mi), with a magnitude of 6.0 Mw and epicentre in the comune of Accumoli.[2] The USGS first reported an earthquake at a depth of 10.0 km (6.2 mi) with a magnitude of 6.4 Mw and epicentre southeast of Norcia,[1][9] but subsequently revised the magnitude to 6.2 Mw. The European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre put the magnitude at 6.1.[10][11] The discrepancies between the different estimates of the magnitude led INGV to explain in a blog post that they use a crustal velocity model specifically calibrated for Italy and give more weight to the seismometric stations situated close to the epicentre. Using global models, INGV further stated that it can reproduce the values reported by foreign agencies.

As of 30 August 2016, the initial earthquake was followed by at least 2,500 aftershocks.[12] The tremor and a number of aftershocks were felt across the whole of central Italy (from Rimini to Naples), including Rome, Florence and Bologna.[13]

Magnitude of the Central Italy earthquake (6.0) (red dot) and its aftershocks (most were less than 4.0); aftershocks continued to occur after the period shown here
Number of earthquakes by magnitude[14]
Date 6.0– 5.0–5.9 4.0–4.9 3.0–3.9 2.0–2.9 1.0–1.9 –0.9 Total
24 Aug 1 1 7 83 214 46 0 352
25 Aug 0 0 2 8 228 233 1 472
26 Aug 0 0 1 14 190 178 2 385
27 Aug 0 0 1 9 130 330 6 476
28 Aug 0 0 1 9 86 351 6 453
29 Aug 0 0 0 5 71 268 8 352
30 Aug 0 0 0 4 69 308 22 403
31 Aug 0 0 0 9 53 355 22 439
Earthquakes with a magnitude of 4.0 or higher
Date Local time
(CEST)
Moment
magnitude
Hypocenter
depth
Epicenter
Municipality Latitude Longitude
24 August 2016 03:36:32[15] 6.2 10 km (6.2 mi) Norcia 42.71 13.17
24 August 2016 03:56:02[16] 4.6 10 km (6.2 mi) Amatrice 42.61 13.28
24 August 2016 04:33:29[17] 5.5 10 km (6.2 mi) Norcia 42.79 13.15
24 August 2016 04:59:35[18] 4.3 9 km (5.6 mi) Norcia 42.80 13.14
24 August 2016 05:40:11[19] 4.3 10.7 km (6.6 mi) Amatrice 42.62 13.25
24 August 2016 06:06:53[20] 4.4 10 km (6.2 mi) Cascia 42.75 13.03
24 August 2016 13:50:31[21] 4.9 10 km (6.2 mi) Visso 42.87 13.11
24 August 2016 13:50:57[22] 4.1 8 km (5.0 mi) Arquata del Tronto 42.82 13.15
24 August 2016 19:46:09[23] 4.6 10 km (6.2 mi) Arquata del Tronto 42.72 13.19
25 August 2016 01:22:06[24] 4.1 7.3 km (4.5 mi) Maltignano 42.67 13.14
25 August 2016 05:17:16[25] 4.7 10 km (6.2 mi) Norcia 42.78 13.18
25 August 2016 05:36:07[24] 4.3 10 km (6.2 mi) Maltignano 42.65 13.16
26 August 2016 06:28:27[26] 4.7 10 km (6.2 mi) Amatrice 42.66 13.25
27 August 2016 04:50:59[27] 4.2 12.2 km (7.6 mi) Norcia 42.83 13.15
28 August 2016 15:07:34[28] 4.3 11.7 km (7.3 mi) Amatrice 42.66 13.24
28 August 2016 17:55:36[29] 4.6 5.7 km (3.5 mi) Norcia 42.78 13.15
28 August 2016 18:42:02[21] 4.3 10 km (6.2 mi) Visso 42.86 13.03

Casualties and rescue work[edit]

Nationalities of victims
Nationality Dead Injured
 Italy 276 376
 Romania 11 6
 United Kingdom 3 2
 United States 1 2
 Albania 1 7[30]
 El Salvador 1 1
 Canada 1 1
 Afghanistan 1[31]
 Spain 1
 Republic of Macedonia 1[30]

As of 26 August 2016, the official figures of the Protezione Civile report that the earthquake caused the death of 297 people: 234 in Amatrice, 11 in Accumoli and 49 in Arquata del Tronto.[32] At least 365 injured had to be treated in hospitals, mainly in Rieti and Ascoli Piceno, while people with less serious injuries were treated on the spot.[33]

In addition to those rescued with the help of other inhabitants or escaped by themselves, 238 people were pulled alive from the rubble by the timely intervention of the authorities, 215 by the Vigili del Fuoco and 23 by the Soccorso Alpino.[34][35]

Approximately 2,100 people found shelter in the emergency camps.[32] Approximately 4,400 people were involved in the search and rescue operations, including 70 teams with rescue dogs. Logistics made use of 12 helicopters, with 9 more in stand-by.[36]

The earthquake killed 276 Italians, 11 Romanians, and several others. The complete list is seen to the right.

Damage[edit]

Amatrice town center was destroyed by the earthquake
Rubble in the town center of Amatrice.
Rescuers during an operation in Amatrice.

Early reports indicated severe damage in the town of Amatrice, near the epicentre,[37] and in Accumoli and Pescara del Tronto. Sergio Pirozzi, the mayor of Amatrice, stated that "Amatrice is not here anymore, half of the town is destroyed."[38][39] Photos of the destruction depicted a massive pile of rubble in the town's centre with only a few structures still standing on the outskirts.[40] It also cost an estimated economic loss between $1 billion to $11 billion.[41]

Cultural heritage[edit]

In addition to the loss of human life, widespread destruction of cultural heritage is also reported.[42][43][44]

In Amatrice, the facade and rose window of the Church of Sant'Agostino were destroyed, and the museum dedicated to the painter Nicola Filotesio, student and companion of Raphael, collapsed.[43] The earthquake also created cracks in the Baths of Caracalla in Rome.[42] The earthquake was so broad that authorities made structural tests on the Colosseum as well, which was not damaged.[44]

The Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi – a UNESCO World Heritage site with frescoes by Giotto and Cimabue that were partly destroyed by an earthquake in 1997 – was declared safe after an extensive survey by the head restorer.[45][46]

Robot-assisted disaster response in Amatrice[edit]

3D computer models were used to help damage assessment of the Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi and the Church of Sant'Agostino. The data for building the models was collected by robots deployed by the European project TRADR. Two ground robots and one drone were used inside the San Francesco Basilica, one drone was used inside the Sant'Agostino church, and two drones were used on the outside of both churches.[47][48]

Controversies[edit]

After the earthquake in Central Italy, the court of Rieti discovered that not all the buildings of those cities were constructed or renovated under the antiseismic law of 1974 in which it explained all the construction techniques of an earthquake resistant building. In fact, a family was killed that night by the rubble of a church that was not renovated under that law.[49] Similarly, the Romolo Capranica elementary school in Amatrice partially collapsed, even if in 2013 the town spent 160,000 euros in a seismic retrofit operation that improved the building's seismic resistance, but wasn't enough to comply with 2012 earthquake standards in Italy.[50] The investigation is ongoing to discover the causes that allowed buildings to become reduced to rubble instead of sustaining damage attributed to buildings following anti-seismic regulations, especially Amatrice.

French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo published a cartoon depicting Italian earthquake victims as pasta dishes, causing "shock and outrage."[51]

October 2016 and January 2017 earthquakes[edit]

A magnitude 6.1 intraplate earthquake struck Italy 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) west of Visso on 26 October at 9:18 p.m. local time. The earthquake, initially considered an aftershock of the magnitude 6.2 earthquake in August, struck about 30 kilometres (19 mi) to the northwest of the August earthquake.[52] The civil protection, however, estimated the consequences less dramatically than feared. According to official data, a man died because he had suffered a heart attack as a result of the quake.[53] On 30 October, an earthquake larger than the 24 August shock struck Norcia with a USGS moment magnitude of 6.6.[54]

A magnitude 5.3 earthquake struck 25 km northwest of L’Aquila on 18 January at 10:25 local time at a depth of 9 km.[55] A stronger, 5.7 tremor hit the same epicentral area at 11:14 local time.[56] A third earthquake of preliminary magnitude of 5.6 struck 11 minutes later.[57] At 14:33 local time, the fourth tremor of a magnitude 5.2 was registered.[58] These earthquakes were followed by multiple aftershocks.

2016 Central Italy earthquake wide.svg
Earthquakes from August 2016 to January 2017.

Maps[edit]

2016 Central Italy earthquake aftershock distribution.svg
Aftershock distribution map, 24–25 August.
Red: Main shock, Orange: 4.0–5.9, Blue: 3.0–3.9, Light blue: 0–2.9

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "M6.2 – 10 km SE of Norcia, Italy". United States Geological Survey. 24 August 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Relazione di dettaglio: Rieti Mw 6.0 del 2016-08-24 01:36:32 UTC" (PDF). INGV (in Italian). 24 August 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "Origin". USGS Technical. USGS. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  4. ^ a b "Terremoto nell'Italia centrale. È morta una donna ricoverata: le vittime sono 299" (in Italian). Rai News24. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016. 
  5. ^ Santalucia, Paolo (26 August 2016). "Italy Earthquake: Death toll reaches 278 while road damage could see town 'isolated'". The Independent. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  6. ^ Terremoto, Curcio: 4500 nelle tende, ma presto via da lì. Per le casette 7 mesi
  7. ^ D'Agostino N.; Mantenuto S.; D'Anastasio E.; Avallone A.; Barchi M.; Collettini C.; Radicioni F.; Stoppini A.; Fastellini G. (2009). "Contemporary crustal extension in the Umbria–Marche Apennines from regional CGPS networks and comparison between geodetic and seismic deformation" (PDF). Tectonophysics. 476 (1–2): 3–12. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.09.033. 
  8. ^ Breslin, Sean (24 August 2016). "6.2 Magnitude Earthquake Hits Italy; Residents Trapped, Major Damage Reported". Weather.com. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  9. ^ Scherer, Steve (24 August 2016). "Magnitude 6.4 quake hits Italy near Perugia: USGS". Reuters. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  10. ^ Park, Madison; Karimi, Faith (24 August 2016). "Earthquake hits central Italy". CNN. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  11. ^ Santalucia, Paola; Winfield, Nicole (24 August 2016). "6.2-magnitude earthquake rattles Rome, central Italy". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  12. ^ "Terremoto: fino a questo momento più di 2500 scosse dopo quella principale" [Earthquake, up to now more than 2500 aftershocks after the main one]. meteoweb.eu (in Italian). Retrieved 31 August 2016. 
  13. ^ Palazzo, Chiara; Graham, Chris; Squires, Nick (24 August 2016). "Italy quake: 6.4 magnitude tremor rocks heart of the country". The Telegraph. United Kingdom. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  14. ^ "Earthquake list". Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia.  Data
  15. ^ "M6.2 – 10 km SE of Norcia, Italy". 
  16. ^ "M4.6 – 10 km W of Amatrice, Italy". 
  17. ^ "M5.5 – 4 km NE of Norcia, Italy". 
  18. ^ "M4.1 – 2 km NNE of Norcia, Italy". 
  19. ^ "M4.3 – 4 km W of Amatrice, Italy". 
  20. ^ "M4.5 – 4 km NNE of Cascia, Italy". 
  21. ^ a b "M4.9 – 5 km SSE of Visso, Italy". 
  22. ^ "M4.1 – 1 km ENE of Amatrice, Italy". 
  23. ^ "M4.6 – 10 km WSW of Arquata del Tronto, Italy". 
  24. ^ a b "M4.3 – 10 km ESE of Maltignano, Italy". 
  25. ^ "M4.7 – 7 km E of Norcia, Italy". 
  26. ^ "M4.7 – 5 km NW of Amatrice, Italy". 
  27. ^ "M4.2 – 6 km NE of Norcia, Italy". 
  28. ^ "M4.3 – 5 km NW of Amatrice, Italy". 
  29. ^ "M4.6 – 4 km E of Norcia, Italy". 
  30. ^ a b One of the injured had dual Macedonian–Albanian nationality
  31. ^ "Terremoto, Sayed non ce l'ha fatta Individuato cadavere del rifugiato afgano: il fratello attendeva da giorni". 5 September 2016. 
  32. ^ a b "Terremoto Centro Italia: aggiornamento del numero di vittime, feriti e popolazione assistita", Protezione Civile, 26 August 2016.
  33. ^ "Terremoto Centro Italia: aggiornamento del numero di vittime e feriti", Protezione Civile, 25 August 2016.
  34. ^ Terremoto, 281 morti e 388 i feriti, corriere.it; accessed 28 August 2016.(in Italian)
  35. ^ "Terremoto, Alfano: "I Vigili del Fuoco e il sistema della sicurezza hanno garantito un'azione pronta di recupero e di salvataggio di tante persone"". Ministry of Interior of Italy. 25 August 2016. 
  36. ^ Terremoto Italia centrale: le forze in campo, Protezione Civile, 25 August 2016
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  40. ^ "Terremoto ad Amatrice, la distruzione vista dall'alto" [Earthquake at Amatrice, the destruction seen from above]. Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
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  42. ^ a b Kennedy, Maev (24 August 2016). "Art experts fear serious earthquake damage to historic Italian buildings". The Guardian. United Kingdom. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
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  44. ^ a b "Terremoto Centro Italia, chiese e monumenti storici danneggiati. Sopralluogo anche al Colosseo: "Tutto ok"" [Earthquake in Central Italy, churches and historical monuments damaged. Inspection also at the Coliseum: "Everything ok"]. Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 24 August 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
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  47. ^ Ivana Kruijff-Korbayová; Luigi Freda; Mario Gianni; Valsamis Ntouskos; Vaclav Hlavac; Vladimir Kubelka; Erik Zimmermann; Hartmut Surmann; Kresimir Dulic; Wolfgang Rottner; Emanuele Gissi (2016). Deployment of Ground and Aerial Robots in Earthquake-Struck Amatrice in Italy (brief report). In: Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, October 23–27, 2016. Lausanne, Switzerland: IEEE. pp. 278–279. ISBN 978-1-5090-4349-1. 
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  49. ^ "Sisma, nel mirino della procura di Rieti appalti e collaudi: occhi puntati sul campanile killer" [Earthquake, the court of Rieti is concentrating on construction sites and tests, eyes on the bell tower killer]. tgcom24 (in Italian). Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  50. ^ "Il crollo della scuola di Amatrice" [The collapse of the school in Amatrice]. Il Post (in Italian). 
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  52. ^ "M6.1 - 2km NNW of Visso, Italy". United States Geological Survey. 2016-10-26. Retrieved 26 October 2016. 
  53. ^ "Ein Toter nach schweren Erdbeben in Mittelitalien". www.t-online.de. Retrieved 2016-10-27. 
  54. ^ "M6.6 - 6km N of Norcia, Italy". United States Geological Survey. 30 October 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016. 
  55. ^ "Earthquake, Magnitude 5.3 - CENTRAL ITALY - 2017 January 18, 09:25:40 UTC". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  56. ^ "Earthquake, Magnitude 5.7 - CENTRAL ITALY - 2017 January 18, 10:14:10 UTC". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  57. ^ "Earthquake, Magnitude 5.6 - CENTRAL ITALY - 2017 January 18, 10:25:25 UTC". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  58. ^ "Earthquake, Magnitude 5.2 - CENTRAL ITALY - 2017 January 18, 13:33:37 UTC". Retrieved 18 January 2017. 

External links[edit]