Bắc Kạn

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Bắc Kạn

Thành phố Bắc Kạn
Bắc Kạn City
Bắc Kạn is located in Vietnam
Bắc Kạn
Bắc Kạn
Location of in Vietnam
Coordinates: 22°08′N 105°50′E / 22.133°N 105.833°E / 22.133; 105.833
Country Vietnam
ProvinceBắc Kạn
Established city11 March 2015
Area
 • Total137 km2 (53 sq mi)
Population
(2015)
 • Total57,800
 • Density421.8/km2 (1,092/sq mi)
ClimateCwa

Bắc Kạn (About this soundlisten) is the capital of Bắc Kạn Province, Vietnam. The province's only city, it is bordered by Bạch Thông District to the north, north-east and west and Chợ Mới District to the south-east and south-west.[1]

The town traces its origins to a fort established in 1880 and upgraded to city on 11 March 2015. It is divided into six wards: Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai, Đức Xuân, Sông Cầu, Phùng Chí Kiên, Huyền Tụng and Xuất Hóa and 2 communes: Dương Quang, Nông Thượng.

History[edit]

Bắc Kạn (chữ nôm: 北𣴓) was established as a fort in 1880 for troops of the Nguyễn government during the 1878 revolt of Li Yung Choï (Vietnamese: Lý Dương Tài) coincident with the Black Flag Army. Following Li's capture and decapitation, the remains of his group reformed under Liu Zhiping (Vietnamese: Lục Chi Bình) and with 5,000 men attacked the fort defended by 300 Annamite soldiers in 1881.[2][3]

The town of Bắc Kạn was one of the early headquarters of the Viet Minh in the war against the French. Jean-Étienne Valluy aimed to surround the area and capture the town in Operation Léa between 7 October and 22 December 1947.[4] A parachute drop caught the Viet Minh by surprise and seized letters left on the desk of Ho Chi Minh.[5] Both Ho and Võ Nguyên Giáp escaped only by hiding in camouflaged holes nearby.[5] It was also an area of fighting between the communists and Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng armed forces.[6]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Bắc Kạn
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.8
(87.4)
35.8
(96.4)
36.4
(97.5)
37.3
(99.1)
40.5
(104.9)
39.4
(102.9)
37.8
(100.0)
37.4
(99.3)
36.7
(98.1)
34.2
(93.6)
32.9
(91.2)
31.9
(89.4)
40.5
(104.9)
Average high °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
19.9
(67.8)
23.1
(73.6)
27.3
(81.1)
31.2
(88.2)
32.3
(90.1)
32.4
(90.3)
32.4
(90.3)
31.4
(88.5)
28.6
(83.5)
25.0
(77.0)
21.6
(70.9)
27.0
(80.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.8
(58.6)
16.1
(61.0)
19.3
(66.7)
23.1
(73.6)
26.2
(79.2)
27.4
(81.3)
27.5
(81.5)
27.1
(80.8)
25.9
(78.6)
23.1
(73.6)
19.3
(66.7)
16.0
(60.8)
22.2
(72.0)
Average low °C (°F) 12.1
(53.8)
13.7
(56.7)
16.9
(62.4)
20.3
(68.5)
22.7
(72.9)
24.1
(75.4)
24.4
(75.9)
24.1
(75.4)
22.6
(72.7)
19.8
(67.6)
15.9
(60.6)
12.6
(54.7)
19.1
(66.4)
Record low °C (°F) −0.9
(30.4)
2.4
(36.3)
4.9
(40.8)
10.4
(50.7)
14.9
(58.8)
16.5
(61.7)
18.7
(65.7)
19.8
(67.6)
13.7
(56.7)
8.5
(47.3)
4.0
(39.2)
−1.0
(30.2)
−1.0
(30.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 22
(0.9)
29
(1.1)
55
(2.2)
113
(4.4)
184
(7.2)
272
(10.7)
280
(11.0)
277
(10.9)
149
(5.9)
86
(3.4)
42
(1.7)
19
(0.7)
1,527
(60.1)
Average precipitation days 9.2 9.8 13.2 14.2 15.5 17.4 19.1 18.9 13.0 10.1 7.3 5.9 153.6
Average relative humidity (%) 81.7 81.4 83.0 83.3 82.1 84.0 85.7 86.3 84.3 82.8 82.1 81.0 83.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68 54 61 95 167 157 174 175 181 154 127 115 1,528
Source: Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jean Michaud, Tim Forsyth Moving Mountains: Ethnicity and Livelihoods in Highland China, Vietnam, and Laos 2011 "Bắc Kạn province, a predominantly Tày area"
  2. ^ Bradley Camp Davis, States of banditry: The Nguyen government, bandit rule, and the culture of power in the post-Taiping China-Vietnam borderlands. 2008 University of Washington Page 84 "Lục Chi Bình" Page 213 "De Kergaradec to Lafont, 22/Juli/1880; AGC13038: "Rapports du Consul de France a Hanoi, Renseignements sur la Bande Chinoise de Luc chi Binh, sur la Recolte des riz, et sur le voyage de la 'Massue' au Haut Fleuve Rouge."
  3. ^ Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel La question du Tonkin in Revue bleue - Revue politique et littéraire 1883 Page 679 pamphlet Page 91 "de la bande de Ly-Yung-Choï se reformèrent sous le commandement d'un chef appelé Luc-Chi-Binh. Secondé par des sauvages des tribus voisines, ce chef attaqua, avec 5,000 ou 6,000 hommes, le fort de Bac-Can, défendu par 300 soldats annamites, et s'en empara après une assez vive résistance; ce fort, situé à trois journées de marche au nord de Thaï-Nguyên, avait été établi quelques mois auparavant pour servir de centre aux troupes chargées de maintenir l'ordre dans toute cette région mal famée. La levée de boucliers de Luc-Chi-Binh n'offrait aucun danger politique sérieux; mais Hoang exagérait à dessein l'importance de ce mouvement, et s'en servait comme d'argument pour essayer de démontrer à... "
  4. ^ Anthony James Joes, Victorious Insurgencies: Four Rebellions That Shaped Our World 2010 Page 102 - "Nevertheless, in October 1947, CEF commanding General Jean-Etienne Valluy launched Operation LEA: the aim was to surround the Viet Bac and then capture the Viet Minh Army and political headquarters in the town of Bac Kan."
  5. ^ a b Davidson, Philip, Vietnam at War: The History, 1946-1975, pp. 47-48.
  6. ^ Van Dao Hoang, Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang: A Contemporary History Page 407 2008 "Meanwhile, the Communists mobilized their troops from Bắc Giang, Bắc Kạn, and Thái Nguyên (a total of 5,000 troops) to attack the VQAF in Ban Hoc
  7. ^ "Vietnam Building Code Natural Physical & Climatic Data for Construction" (PDF). Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.

Coordinates: 22°08′N 105°50′E / 22.133°N 105.833°E / 22.133; 105.833