Bagua

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For other uses, see Bagua (disambiguation).
Bagua diagram from Zhao Huiqian's (趙撝謙) Liushu benyi (六書本義, 1370s).

The Bagua (Chinese: 八卦; literally: "eight symbols"), or Pa Kua, are eight trigrams used in Daoist cosmology to represent the fundamental principles of reality, seen as a range of eight interrelated concepts. Each consists of three lines, each line either "broken" or "unbroken," respectively representing yin or yang. Due to their tripartite structure, they are often referred to as "trigrams" in English.

The trigrams are related to Taiji philosophy, Taijiquan and the Wu Xing, or "five elements".[1] The relationships between the trigrams are represented in two arrangements, the Primordial (先天八卦), "Earlier Heaven"[2] or "Fu Xi" bagua (伏羲八卦), and the Manifested (後天八卦), "Later Heaven,"[2] or "King Wen" bagua. The trigrams have correspondences in astronomy, astrology, geography, geomancy, anatomy, the family, and elsewhere.[3][4]

The ancient Chinese classic, I Ching (Pinyin: Yi Jing), consists of the 64 pairwise permutations of trigrams, referred to as "hexagrams", along with commentary on each one.

Trigrams[edit]

八卦 Bāguà—The eight trigrams
乾 Qián
兌 Duì
離 Lí
震 Zhèn
巽 Xùn
坎 Kǎn
艮 Gèn
坤 Kūn
Heaven/Sky Lake/Marsh Fire Thunder Wind Water Mountain Earth
天 Tiān 澤(泽) Zé 火 Huǒ 雷 Léi 風(风) Fēng 水 Shuǐ 山 Shān 地 Dì

Relation to other principles[edit]

Derivation of the bagua

There are two possible sources of bagua. The first is from traditional Yin and Yang philosophy. This is explained by Fuxi in the following way:

無極生有極、有極是太極、
太極生兩儀、即陰陽;
兩儀生四象: 即少陰、太陰、少陽、太陽、
四象演八卦、八八六十四卦

The Limitless (無極; wuji) produces the delimited (有極; youji), and this demarcation is equivalent to the Absolute (太極; taiji).
The Taiji (the two opposing forces in embryonic form) produces two forms, named yin-yang (陰陽) which are called Liangyi (the manifested opposing forces).
These two forms produce four phenomena: named lesser yin (少陰, shaoyin), greater yin (太陰; taiyin, which also refers to the Moon), lesser yang (少陽, shaoyang), and greater yang (太陽; taiyang, which also refers to the Sun).
The four phenomena (四象; Sìxiàng) act on the eight trigrams (八卦; Bagua).
Eight 'eights' results in sixty-four hexagrams.


Another possible source of bagua is the following, attributed to King Wen of Zhou Dynasty: "When the world began, there was heaven and earth. Heaven mated with the earth and gave birth to everything in the world. Heaven is Qian-gua, and the Earth is Kun-gua. The remaining six guas are their sons and daughters".

The trigrams are related to the five elements of Wu Xing, used by Feng Shui practitioners and in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Those five elements are Water, Wood, Fire, Earth and Metal. The Water (Kan) and Fire (Li) trigrams correspond directly with the Water and Fire elements. The element of Earth corresponds with both the trigrams of Earth (Kun) and Mountain (Gen). The element of Wood corresponds with the trigrams of Wind (Xun) (as a gentle but inexorable force that can erode and penetrate stone) and Thunder (Zhen). The element of Metal corresponds with the trigrams of Heaven (Qian) and Lake (Dui).

There are eight possible combinations to render the various trigrams (八卦 bāguà):

Trigram Figure possible Binary Value Name Translation: Wilhelm[5] Image in Nature (pp.l-li) Direction (p. 269) Family Relationship (p. 274) Body Part (p. 274) Attribute (p. 273) Stage/ State (pp.l-li) Animal (p. 273)
1 111
qián
the Creative, Force heaven, sky
northwest father head strong creative
horse
2 110
duì
the Joyous, Open lake
west third daughter mouth pleasure tranquil (complete devotion)
sheep, goat
3 101
the Clinging, Radiance fire
south second daughter eye light-giving, dependence clinging, clarity, adaptable
pheasant
4 100
zhèn
the Arousing, Shake thunder
east first son foot inciting movement initiative
dragon
5 011
xùn
the Gentle, Ground wind
southeast first daughter thigh penetrating gentle entrance
fowl
6 010
kǎn
the Abysmal, Gorge water
north second son ear dangerous in-motion
pig
7 001
gèn
Keeping Still, Bound mountain
northeast third son hand resting, stand-still completion
wolf, dog
8 000
kūn
the Receptive, Field earth
southwest mother belly devoted, yielding receptive
cow

Hexagram lookup table[edit]

Upper →
Lower ↓
乾 Qián
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Heaven
坤 Kūn
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Earth
震 Zhèn
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Thunder
坎 Kǎn
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Water
艮 Gèn
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Mountain
巽 Xùn
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Wind
離 Lí
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Flame
兌 Duì
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Lake
乾 Qián
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Heaven
01
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Force
11
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Pervading
34
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Great Invigorating
05
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Attending

26
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Great
Accumulating

09
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Small
Harvest

14
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Great
Possessing
43
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Displacement
坤 Kūn
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Earth
12
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Obstruction
02
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Field
16
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Providing-For
08
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Grouping
23
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Stripping
20
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Viewing
35
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Prospering
45
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Clustering
震 Zhèn
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Thunder
25
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Innocence
24
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Returning
51
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Shake
03
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Sprouting
27
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Swallowing
42
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Augmenting
21
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Gnawing Bite
17
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Following
坎 Kǎn
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Water
06
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Arguing
07
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Leading
40
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Deliverance
29
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Gorge
04
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Enveloping
59
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Dispersing
64
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Before Completion
47
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Confining
艮 Gèn
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Mountain
33
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Retiring
15
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Humbling
62
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Small Exceeding
39
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Limping
52
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Bound
53
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Infiltrating
56
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Sojourning
31
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Conjoining
巽 Xùn
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Wind
44
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Coupling
46
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Ascending
32
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Persevering
48
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Welling
18
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Correcting
57
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Ground
50
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Holding
28
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Great Exceeding
離 Lí
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Flame
13
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Concording
People
36
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Intelligence
Hidden
55
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Abounding
63
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Already
Fording
22
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Adorning
37
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Dwelling
People
30
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Radiance
49
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Skinning
兌 Duì
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Lake
10
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Treading
19
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Nearing
54
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Converting the Maiden
60
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Articulating
41
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Diminishing
61
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Inner Truth
38
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Polarising
58
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Open

Fu Xi "Earlier Heaven"[edit]

Fuxi "Earlier Heaven" bagua arrangement
卦名
Name
自然
Nature
季节
Season
性情
Personality
家族
Family
方位
Direction
意義
Meaning
 Qián 天 Sky (Heaven) Summer Creative 父 Father 南 South Expansive energy, the sky. For further information, see tiān.
 Xùn 風 Wind Summer Gentle 長女 Eldest Daughter 西南 Southwest Gentle penetration, flexibility.
 Kǎn 水 Water Autumn Abysmal 中男 Middle Son 西 West Danger, rapid rivers, the abyss, the moon.
 Gèn 山 Mountain Autumn Still 少男 Youngest Son 西北 Northwest Stillness, immovability.
 Kūn 地 Earth Winter Receptive 母 Mother 北 North Receptive energy, that which yields. For further information, see .
 Zhèn 雷 Thunder Winter Arousing 長男 Eldest Son 東北 Northeast Excitation, revolution, division.
 Lí 火 Fire Spring Clinging 中女 Middle Daughter 東 East Rapid movement, radiance, the sun.
 Duì 澤 Lake Spring Joyous 少女 Youngest Daughter 東南 Southeast Joy, satisfaction, stagnation.

King Wen "Later Heaven"[edit]

King Wen "Later Heaven" bagua arrangement
卦名
Name
自然
Nature
季节
Season
性情
Personality
家族
Family
方位
Direction
意義
Meaning
 Li 火 Fire Summer Clinging 中女 Middle Daughter 南 South Rapid movement, radiance, the sun.
 Kun 地 Earth Summer Receptive 母 Mother 西南 Southwest Receptive energy, that which yields.
 Dui 澤 Lake Autumn Joyous 少女 Youngest Daughter 西 West Joy, satisfaction, stagnation.
 Qian 天 Heaven Autumn Creative 父 Father 西北 Northwest Expansive energy, the sky.
 Kan 水 Water Winter Abysmal 中男 Middle Son 北 North Danger, rapid rivers, the abyss, the moon.
 Gen 山 Mountain Winter Still 少男 Youngest Son 東北 Northeast Stillness, immovability.
 Zhen 雷 Thunder Spring Arousing 長男 Eldest Son 東 East Excitation, revolution, division.
 Xun 風 Wind Spring Gentle 長女 Eldest Daughter 東南 Southeast Gentle penetration, flexibility.

龍圖[edit]

連山.jpg
卦名
Name
節氣
Solar Term
屬性
Elements
器官
Organs
方位
Direction
顏色
Color
味道
Taste
星相
Constellations
體液
Humorae
二進制
Binary
Winter Solstice 冬至 陽火(Fire) 腎 Kidneys 北 North 丹 Red 鹹 Salty 虛(Aquarius) 血 Blood 011
Start of Winter 立冬 陰火(Fire) 腸 Intestines 西北 North West 洋紅 Magenta 鹹 Salty 斗(Sagittarius) 血 Blood 010
Autumn Equinox 秋分 陰水(Water) 肝 Liver 西 West 藍 Blue 苦 Bitter 房(Scorpio) 津 Body Liquid 110
Start of Autumn 立秋 陽水(Water) 膽 Gallbladder 西南 South West 黑 Black 苦 Bitter 角(Virgo) 津 Body Liquid 111
Summer Solstice 夏至 陰木(Wood) 肺 Lungs 南 South 青 Cyan 辛 Spicy 星(Leo) 氣 Air 100
Start of Summer 立夏 陽木(Wood) 心 Heart 東南 South East 綠 Green 辛 Spicy 井(Gemini) 氣 Air 101
Spring Equinox 春分 陽金(Metal) 脾 Spleen 東 East 黃 Yellow 酸 Sour 昴(Taurus) 精 Essence 001
Start of Spring 立春 陰金(Metal) 胃 Stomach 東北 North East 白 White 酸 Sour 奎(Pisces) 精 Essence 000

火生水,水生木,木生金,金生火

火剋金,金剋木,木剋水,水剋火

龜書[edit]

歸藏八卦圖.jpg
卦名
Name
節氣
Solar Term
屬性
Elements
家族
Family
方位
Direction
顏色
Color
脈搏
Pulse
二進制
Binary
四馬與治療法
Four horses &Therapy
Winter Solstice 冬至 太陽陽水(Water) 父 Father 北 North 黑 Black 沉 Deep 111 11太陽,寒者熱之
Start of Winter 立冬 太陽陰水(Water) 長女 Eldest Daughter 西北 North West 藍 Blue 沉 Deep 110 11太陽,寒者熱之
Autumn Equinox 秋分 少陽陽木(Wood) 中男 Middle Son 西 West 綠 Green 細 Small 101 10少陽,涼者溫之
Start of Autumn 立秋 少陽陰木(Wood) 少女 Youngest Daughter 西南 South West 青 Cyan 細 Small 100 10少陽,涼者溫之
Summer Solstice 夏至 太陰陰金(Metal) 母 Mother 南 South 白 White 浮 Float 000 00太陰,熱者寒之
Start of Summer 立夏 太陰陽金(Metal) 長男 Eldest Son 東南 South East 黃 Yellow 浮 Float 001 00太陰,熱者寒之
Spring Equinox 春分 少陰陰火(Fire) 中女 Middle Daughter 東 East 洋紅 Magenta 大 Big 010 01少陰,溫者涼之
Start of Spring 立春 少陰陽火(Fire) 少男 Youngest Son 東北 North East 丹 Red 大 Big 011 01少陰,溫者涼之

水生木,木生金,金生火,火生水

水剋火,火剋金,金剋木,木剋水

Bagua used in Feng Shui[edit]

The Bagua is an essential tool in the majority of Feng Shui schools. The Bagua used in Feng shui can appear in two different versions: the Earlier Heaven Bagua, used for burial sites, and the Later Heaven Bagua, used for the residences.

Xiantian Bagua[edit]

In Xiantian Bagua, also known as Fu Xi Bagua or Earlier Heaven Bagua, the Heaven is in the higher part and the Earth is in the lower part. The trigram Qian (Heaven) is at the top, the trigram Kun (Earth) is at the bottom (in the past, the South was located at the top in Chinese maps). The trigram Li (Fire) is located on the left and opposite to it is the trigram Kan (Water). Zhen (Thunder) and Xun (Wind) form another pair, while being one opposite the other, the first on the bottom left next to Li while the second is next to Qian on the top right of the Bagua. Gen (Mountain) and Dui (Lake) form the last pair, one opposite the other, both in balance and harmony. The adjustment of the trigrams is symmetrical by forming exact contrary pairs. They symbolize the opposite forces of Yin and Yang and represent an ideal state, when everything is in balance.

Houtian Bagua[edit]

The sequence of the trigrams in Houtian Bagua, also known as the Bagua of King Wen or Later Heaven Bagua, describes the patterns of the environmental changes. Kan is placed downwards and Li at the top, Zhen in the East and Dui in the West. Contrary to the Earlier Heaven Bagua, this one is a dynamic Bagua where energies and the aspects of each trigram flow towards the following. It is the sequence used by the Luo Pan compass which is used in Feng Shui to analyze the movement of the Qi that affects us.

Bagua of the eight aspirations[edit]

Feng shui was made very popular in the Occident thanks to the Bagua of the eight aspirations. Each trigram corresponds to an aspect of life which, in its turn, corresponds to one of the cardinal directions. Applying feng shui using the Bagua of the eight aspirations made it possible to simplify feng shui and to bring it within the reach of everyone. The Masters of traditional feng shui call it Neo Feng Shui, for its simplicity, because it does not take into account the forms of the landscape or the temporal influence or the annual cycles. The Bagua of the eight aspirations is divided into two branches: the first, which uses the compass and cardinal directions, and the second, which uses the Bagua by using the main door. It is clear that, not taking into account the cardinal directions, the second is even more simplified.

Bagua map[edit]

A bagua map is a tool used in modern forms of feng shui to map a room or location and see how the different sections correspond to different aspects in one's life. These sections are believed to relate to every area or aspect of life and are divided into such categories as: fame, relationships/marriage, children/creativity, helpful people/travel, career, inner knowledge, family/ancestors/health, and wealth/blessings.

In this system, the map is intended to be used over the land, one's home, office or desk to find areas lacking good chi, and to show where there are negative or missing spaces that may need rectifying or enhancing in life or the environment.

For example, if the bagua grid is placed over the entire house plan and it shows the toilet, bathroom, laundry, or kitchen in the wealth/blessings area it would be considered that the money coming into that particular environment would disappear very fast, as if to be 'going down the drain.'

In popular culture[edit]

A Tibetan "Mystic Tablet" containing the Eight Trigrams on top of a large tortoise (presumably, alluding to the animal that presented them to Fu Xi), along with the 12 signs of Chinese zodiac, and a smaller tortoise carrying the Lo Shu Square on its shell
Film
  • The Filipino horror film Feng Shui is about a cursed Bagua mirror that involves a person getting killed in a way that relates to their Chinese zodiac if they stare at the Bagua mirror.
  • In the film G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra, Snake-Eyes has the Bagua symbols for water and fire printed on the arm of his uniform, since the original comics had the same symbols as the arm tattoo used by members of the Arashikage clan (Snake-Eyes and Storm Shadow's clan).
  • In the 2010 remake of The Karate Kid, the matches in the final contest sequence take place on large circular Bagua arrangements that delimit the combat area.
  • In the John Woo historical movie, Red Cliff, Dong Wu Princess Sun Shang Xiang baited a Cao general and his entire cavalry unit into a Bagua formation, which was set up by Zhuge Liang and Zhou Yu as a counter-attack to Cao Cao's intended ambush on Red Cliff Fortress.
Television
  • In Jackie Chan Adventures, the trigrams are each written on a face of the Pan'ku Box and each of the trigrams represent their own demon sorcerer with corresponding nature.
  • The television series Lost incorporated the Bagua into the logos for the DHARMA Initiative.
Cartoons, manga and anime
Games
  • In Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb, there is a level where the player is tasked with solving a puzzle based on the Earlier Heaven Bagua.
  • Ling Xiaoyu, a character from the Tekken series, uses various forms of Chinese martial arts, Bagua being one of those styles.
  • In Touhou Project, a bullet hell series, the character Marisa Kirisame uses a "mini-Hakkero" with one of the Bagua diagrams on it.
  • In Dynasty Warriors 7: Empires, the main menu uses the "Earlier Heaven" Bagua arrangement as the "floor" for the selections.
  • In Elsword, the character Ara Haan receives a skill called "Eight Trigram Palm" (or "Double Collision") upon advancing to a "Little Hsien".
  • In Battlefield 4, many trigrams are found on the four maps of the "Dragon's Teeth" expansion pack. Some players believe the trigrams could be used to decrypt the password that will unlock the "Phantom Initiate" assignment.
  • In Blade & Soul, Bagua are used as accessories to increase players' stats. They are found throughout the game in tiles and a complete Bagua is made by combining eight tiles.
Music
Other
  • The Unicode character set has characters for each of the eight trigrams at codepoints U+2630 to U+2637:[6] (☰ ☱ ☲ ☳ ☴ ☵ ☶ ☷).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ CHEN, Xin (tr. Alex Golstein). The Illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan, INBI Matrix Pty Ltd, 2007. page 11. (accessed on Scribd.com, December 14, 2009.)
  2. ^ a b Wilhelm, Richard (1950). The I Ching or Book of Changes. translated by Cary F. Baynes, forward by C. G. Jung, preface to 3rd ed. by Hellmut Wilhelm (1967). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 266, 269. ISBN 069109750X. 
  3. ^ TSUEI, Wei. Roots of Chinese culture and medicine Chinese Culture Books Co., 1989.
  4. ^ ZONG, Xiao-Fan and Liscum, Gary. Chinese Medical Palmistry: Your Health in Your Hand, Blue Poppy Press, 1999.
  5. ^ Wilhelm, R. & Baynes, C., (1967): "The I Ching or Book of Changes", With foreword by Carl Jung, Introduction, Bollingen Series XIX, Princeton University Press, (1st ed. 1950)
  6. ^ http://unicode.org/charts/PDF/U2600.pdf

External links[edit]