Physical therapy education
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Physical therapy education varies greatly from country to country. Worldwide, physical therapy training ranges from basic work site education in hospitals and outpatient clinics to professional doctoral degree and masters programs.
- 1 Africa
- 2 Asia and Oceania
- 3 Europe
- 4 Middle East
- 5 North America
- 6 References
- 7 External links
In Egypt physical therapy is a vital form of professional patient care that can be applied in most disciplines of medicine. A total of 190 credit hours are to be completed through ten semesters (5 years) before graduation and the study is in English language. These are followed by a 12-months training (internship) at the university and other educational hospitals before they can be allowed to register as physical therapist . New applicants are required to have an interview with the college dean.
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In Nigeria, Physiotherapy training is a 5-year Bachelor of Physiotherapy (BPhysio) or Bachelor of Medical (BMR) degree programme. A 1-year clinical intership program under the supervision of senior and experienced clinician physiotherapists is required upon graduation from an accredited University before the new graduate can be licensed to practice as a physiotherapist. The first training program in Nigeria was started at the University of Ibadan in 1966, followed by the University of Lagos in 1971. A training program was also started at the University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University) in 1978, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus in 1987, Bayero University, Kano in 1989, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri in 2003. Other training programs are also available at University of Maiduguri and the Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi. Advanced Masters and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Physiotherapy (MSc Physio and PhD) are available at the University of Ibadan, University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University and the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Presently, the Nigeria Society of Physiotherapy (Professional body representing Nigerian physiotherapists) and the Medical Rehabilitation Therapists (Registration) Board (the Government body that regulates the training and practice of rehabilitation therapy professionals in Nigeria) are making plans to transit the Nigerian entry level Bachelors programs to entry level Doctorate programs.
- See also: Healthcare in South Africa; Category:Teaching hospitals in South Africa; List of universities in South Africa
In South Africa Physiotherapists are First line practitioners (i.e. a health professional who can autonomously diagnose and treat), can refer patients to medical practitioner specialists and X-Ray imaging and issue a certificate of illness. There are eight schools of physiotherapy, usually attached to the corresponding medical school.
The bachelor's degree (B.PhysT, B.Sc.(Physio) or B.Physio) consists of four years of general practice training, involving all aspects of the discipline. Typically, the first year comprises largely theoretical ("basic sciences") instruction, while the second includes a focus on human anatomy and -physiology. Gradually, time spent in supervised practice increases until the fourth year, in which the student generally spends about 80% in practice. In their final year, students are also expected to complete various research projects, which fulfill the requirements of an Honours degree. At the postgraduate level, several of the universities offer [[course work]-based master's degrees (MPhysT, M.Sc. (Physio)) focused on a specific area of practice, and including a "mini-dissertation". Research-based degrees are the MSc. and Ph.D. (Physio).
After graduation, professional practice can only be entered into after completing a state governed, compulsory year of community service. Practicing physiotherapists are also required to register with the Health Professions Council of South Africa, the registering body for physiotherapists being the Professional Board for Physiotherapy, Podiatry and Biokinetics. They are often required to be trained in advanced life support for emergencies in their departments and private practices.
Training physiotherapists in Uganda started in 1972. This three-year diploma course is still running at the Uganda Institute of Allied Health and Management Sciences (previously Mulago Paramedical Training School).
The first degree-level course at a public institution was started at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in 2012.
All graduates need to be registered with the Uganda Allied Health Professionals Council and then are able to work as autonomous practitioners in both private and government health facilities.
Asia and Oceania
In Australia, a few different programs are available at both undergraduate and post graduate level. The physiotherapy degree can be undertaken over a four-year period as an undergraduate or two to three years post graduate with the early components being predominantly theoretical including basic anatomy, biology, physics, psychology, kinesiology, goniometry and physiology. In the latter half of the degree students partake in practical components focusing on musculoskeletal physiotherapy, neuromuscular physiotherapy, paediatric physiotherapy, geriatric physiotherapy, cardiothoracic physiotherapy, and women's health. The program generally progresses with an increasingly clinical focus and usually the final year involves practical placements at clinics, and research. Australian programs include the B.Physio, B.App.Sc.Physio, B.Sc.Physio, M.Physio, or D.Physio degrees.
In Bangladesh, the Bachelor of Science in Physiotherapy (BPT) course is provided by the Medicine Faculty of University of Dhaka, University of Rajshahi and Gono University.
The BPT curriculum includes Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Pathology & Microbiology, Biomechanics, Radiology & Imaging, Orthopedics & Rheumatology, Paediatric, Pharmacology, Neurology, Kinesiology, Electrotherapy, Therapeutic Exercise, Community Medicine, Psychology, Cardiopulmonary, General Surgery, Research Methodology, Geriatric, Psychiatry, Sports Physiotherapy, Orthopedic Medicine, Professional Ethics and Management, Teaching Methodology, Rehabilitation Medicine (Disability & Development), Prosthetics & Orthotic and Research Project. This curriculum has designed so that graduate physiotherapists can practice independently and autonomously in their clinical field.
There are seven affiliated institutes:
- National Institute of Traumatology Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation (NITOR) (government institute)
- Bangladesh Health Professions Institute (private)
- State College of Health Sciences (SCHS) (private)
- The Institute of Health Technology (IHT) – Dhaka (government)
- Institute of Health Technology (IHT) – Rajshahi (government)
- Gono Bishwabidyalay (GONO University) (private)
- SAIC Institute of Medical Technology (SIMT) (private), which provide five years of professional education including a one-year mandatory internship.
Peoples University Of Bangladesh was the pioneer in private sector but they stopped all health Science courses due to some unexpected legal problems.
Two institutes are offering post graduation in Physiotherapy. Gono Bishwabidyalay (GONO University) is offering the only clinical Master of Physiotherapy (MPT) and BHPI is offering a non-clinical postgraduate MSc.Pt. Bangladesh Physical Therapy Association  is the only professional and trade organization of Bangladeshi physical therapists. Another organization recognized under social Ministry is named Bangladesh Physiotherapy Association working as a social welfare organization.Bangladesh Physiotherapy Association received international recognition from WCPT (2007) in Vancouver which is led by some condensed physiotherapist (one year BSc). Just after liberation war Bangladesh started three-year Physiotherapy Graduation course in 1972. It was initiated by Professor Dr R J Garst first time at National Institute of Traumatology & Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation (NITOR). After that BHPI started a one-year BSC (Hons) course to uplift the technologist which was the main fallback of the profession there.
In Bangladesh physical therapists are using prefix of Dr and suffix as PT. Still there is no regulatory body for professional physical therapists. Bangladesh Government initiated a combined council named "Therapy and Rehabilitation Council" in this country.
In 1978, the Hong Kong Polytechnic first offered higher diploma programme in Physiotherapy under the Institute of Medical and Health Care (IMHC), Hong Kong Polytechnic. In 1991, the PT programme was converted to the Bachelor of Science degree programme (BSc programme). In Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University is the sole provider of full-time degree in Physiotherapy.
In India, universities offer diploma, bachelor's, master's and PhD in Physiotherapy. Diploma course is usually three years and the enrollment has reduced since the introduction of Bachelor's in Physiotherapy (BPT) in the early 1990s in India. Most students with diploma has opted for lateral entry to Bachelor programme.
Bachelor in Physiotherapy (BPT) is a 4-year undergraduate program in physiotherapy with 6 months of mandatory clinical internship; that is typically rotatory. They have almost similar subjects like graduation course in developed countries and can practice either with Physician or independently. However, due to lack of National Council the syllabus of BPT varies from state to state in the country.
After the graduation Physiotherapist (PTs') could go for further specialization in Cardiovascular & pulmonary physiotherapy , Neurology, Musculoskeletal, Hands, Sports, Obs-Gynaecology, or undertake Research.
PTs in India use the title 'Doctor' and prefix it before their name with a suffix P.T. (Physiotherapist) so as to make their stand clear they are not medical doctors. However, the use of the title 'Dr' according to the IAP (Indian Association of Physiotherapist) is by tradition and convention and is used in the same manner as it is used by the MBBS/MS/BDS/MDS/BHMS/BAMS/BNYS/BUMS degree holders. PTs argue that they are not breaching any law prevailing in India as legally only one who has earned a degree in MD/DM or Phd is justified to use and prefix the 'Doctor' title.
There are well over 250 colleges offering undergraduate program in physiotherapy (BPT) and more than 50 colleges offering masters in Physiotherapy (MPT) with two years' duration. MUHS (Maharashtra) and some other universities in India run a 3-year MPT postgraduate degree. PhD in Physiotherapy is also offered in some selected universities of the states Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and Delhi.
A.M.U. Aligarh started Diploma in Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation very early but they did not upgrade it yet.
Jamia Hamdard took the lead in starting Post-Graduate course in Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy in North India in 1998. The courses were very well received and are in great demand. The Faculty receives help and active support from the renowned hospitals in Delhi for training the students, besides utilizing Majeedia Hospital. The Jamia is in the process of constructing a separate building for the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences with the help of generous grant from the UGC. The Faculty offers Masters and Bachelors programmes of study in Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy.
Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya Institute for the Physically Handicapped is an autonomous organization under the administrative and financial control of Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, Government of India. The Institute for the Physically Handicapped came into being when the erstwhile Jawahar Lal Nehru Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and other allied institution run by the council for the Aid of crippled and handicapped were taken over by the Government of India on 22 May 1975 and converted into an autonomous body in the year 1976. It was renamed after Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya in the year 2002. The institute provides Bachelor of Physical Therapy, Bachelor of Occupational Therapy and Bachelor of Prosthetics & Orthotics, 4 ½ years duration course in affiliation with University of Delhi.
The Amar Jyoti Institute of Physiotherapy (affiliated to University of Delhi) opened its doors to the first batch of students in the year 1999, with an aim to serve health-care needs of the community through education and training of Physiotherapy practitioners. The mission of the Institute is to: "Provide leadership, management and resources for the advancement of education, scholarship, public service, and the practice of physiotherapy" The B.Sc. (H) Physiotherapy degree course at Amar Jyoti is especially designed to produce graduates who will be competent and confident physiotherapy practitioners who will be able to provide evidence-based physiotherapy to their patients and community at large.
All India Institute of Medical Sciences,Singhania University, Jamia Millia Islamia and many other universities are offering PhD in Physiotherapy.
In New Zealand, there are currently two schools of physiotherapy offering four-year undergraduate programs. Many New Zealand physiotherapists work in the private health care system as musculoskeletal physiotherapists and the curriculum reflects the need to prepare graduates for autonomous practice. Students follow an educational program similar to Australia with an emphasis on biomechanics, kinesiology and exercise. Postgraduate study typically involves three years of subject specific learning. The New Zealand Society of Physiotherapists Incorporated (NZSP) is the professional body that physiotherapists may optionally be a member of in New Zealand.
Physical therapy (Physiotherapy) is a branch of medical science and an essential segment of modern health care system. It is a “science of healing and art of caring”. It pertains to the clinical examination, evaluation, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of so many disorders which covers 24 specialties of medicine out of 27. According to American Board of Physical Therapy Specialist there are some major areas of Physical therapy as Musculoskeletal (Orthopaedic), Neurology, Cardiopulmonary, Sports Physical Therapy, Pediatric Physiotherapy, Electrophysiology, Integumentary Physical Therapy, Hydrotherapy and Women’s Health. Physical Therapy is the most flourishing discipline that cultivates at the cross road of new trends in Rehabilitation Science. It is an independent health care profession concerned with identifying & maximizing quality of life & movement potential within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment & rehabilitation specialty which has physical means of treating patients suffering from different diseases. Though the field is as old as human is; physical therapy was practiced in 460B.C & it was the first time in 1894 in the history of England when a regulatory body under the name of “Chartered Society of Physiotherapy” was formed and it got its recognition in New Zealand in 1913 & then by USA in 1914. In Pakistan to cure Physical ailments, The First School regarding Physical Therapy Education was established in 1956 by the Federal Government, Ministry of Health & Social Welfare with the assistance of World Health Organization (WHO) at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi. Initially, the school offered a 2 years Diploma course with the minimum entrance qualification of matriculation (science group). In 1961, the 2 years program was upgraded to a 3 years Diploma. Later on, the program was raised to BSc Physiotherapy Degree (3 years) in 1963 after FSc Pre-Medical, affiliated with the University of Karachi, and pertinent changes were added & made in the syllabus according to the need. In Punjab, The School of Physiotherapy, Mayo Hospital, Lahore was established in 1985 for Physical Therapy education. When International faculties of Physiotherapy had upgraded their syllabi, In order to match those standards; in 1999, BSc Physiotherapy course was upgraded to 4 years BS Physiotherapy Degree Course. Recently, following the “Vision 2020 of American Physical Therapy Association”, the 4 years BSPT Program was upgraded to 5 years DPT (Doctor of Physiotherapy) Program in 2008 to meet the International standard. Pakistan the 3rd country in the world which is offering Doctor of Physical Therapy Course. In past, until 2007, there were only seven to eight institutions those offer physiotherapy education but now at present, more than 60 Institutions of Pakistan offering this education under the umbrella of different universities. There is only one association in Pakistan under the name of Pakistan Physical Therapy Association which is affiliated with World Confederation Physical Therapy but at government level there is no statuary regulatory and registration authority (Pakistan Physical Therapy Council) for Physical therapy education and for physical therapy Practitioners of Pakistan. The question arises why is there need of council for physical therapy? The answer is very simple. The council will provide guiding principles for use in every day practice for Physical Therapy professionals in their roles in regard to patients, students, community, colleagues, researchers and Pakistani citizens. The Code of Ethics of this council will be a public document which will endeavors to educate its members and the public on professional ethics. It will plan for the welfare and protection of the individuals and societies. It will state the responsibility of Physical therapy professionals to society and individuals; and the rights of an individual. It will serve for professionals and public interest. This regulatory body will also register all physiotherapy professionals and educational institutions all over the Pakistan. In Pakistan, Doctors, Pharmacists, Vet. Doctors, Homeopathics, Hakims (Tibb) and Nurses all have their statuary regulatory authorities under the manes of Pakistan Medical & Dental Council, Pakistan Pharmacy Council, Pakistan Veterinary Medical Council, National Council for Homeopathic, National Council for Tibb and Pakistan Nursing Council respectively. Then why there is no council for Physical Therapists who gain education from under graduation (DPT) to post graduation (PhD) in Pakistan. Due to the absence of a regulatory body, it had negatively impacted the quality of education at institutions and quackery was also on the rise and the “Technicians, who have only worked for a few weeks with a qualified physiotherapist, open their own clinics and start treating patients. Around two years back our professionals prepared a draft law for the establishment of Physiotherapy Council and submitted it to the Ministry of National Health Services (NHS) but in vain. Due to lack of structure and regulatory authority, after graduation most of our professional leave the country and Pakistan is facing shortage of skilled professionals like other disciplines. The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) regulates physical therapy education in Pakistan. All the members of the HEC and the National Curriculum and Revision Committee (NCRC) played a significant role in approving unanimous curriculum for entry level physical therapy education throughout the country. A mature entry level degree was introduced and recognised by the HEC resulting to the autonomous status of the profession in the country.8 DPT curriculum as approved by the HEC consists of 10 semesters of at least 175 credit hours. In Pakistan, DPT and PP-DPT were initiated in 2008 and the institutions offering these courses have increased rapidly in number. However, due to the absence of a regulatory body, this rapid growth has not been regulated and monitored. The HEC or the WCPT can propose guidelines regarding curriculum and physical therapy practice but those guidelines can be implemented and ensured by a regulatory body, which unfortunately does not exist. The faculty for different physical therapy programmes is usually blended containing local and international professionals from medical, allied and social sciences for their respective subjects. In Pakistan there are 69 Institutions offering DPT, 12 are offering t-DPT/PP-DPT, 12 universities are offering MSPT/M.Phil in Physiotherapy and 2 Universities offering PhD in Physiotherapy. Physiotherapists have a good scope in government and private hospitals and they are awarded 17 grade pay scale on entry level. In this way Pakistan has become the third country offering DPT in the world.
In Sri Lanka, Physiotherapy is available as a Diploma course for two years in School of Physiotherapy & Occupational Therapy, which is affiliated to the National Hospital of Colombo from 1957. After the six months of classroom training students are sent to hospitals for clinical practice. During the 1980s foreign students from Australia, Belgium have studied at the Physiotherapy School. From the year 2006 Allied health sciences faculty of University of Peradeniya and Medical faculty of University of Colombo[Visit http://www.cmb.ac.lk/academic/medicine/ext_pages/ahsu_web/index.html or "Physio-MFC" on Facebook] have started the undergraduate course for four years. 2011 is the remarkable year in Sri Lankan physiotherapy field. First-ever physiotherapy graduate batch is to pass-out in this year. They are from both University of Colombo and University of Peradeniya. At the moment BSc. physiotherapy degree program has been one of the most favourite courses among Sri Lankan students. It is necessary to get more than 1.8 Z-score marks to be selected to this course.
In Taiwan, Physical Therapy is available as a four-year undergraduate course in 14 universities. There are also three junior colleges to provide a five-year program. Clinical practice is required in the final year of the both programs mentioned above. Once a student graduates from the PT program, he/she is then required to pass a national licensure exam administered by the Ministry of Examination, Taiwan, R.O.C. Many universities also offer graduate programs in physical therapy, rehabilitation, or related disciplines at the masters or doctoral level.
In Italy, known as "Laurea in Fisioterapia (abilitante alla professione sanitaria di Fisioterapista)", it is a three-year full-time degree taught in the Faculty of Medicine of many Italian Universities. The course is an intensive mix of class time and mandatory internship right from the first year. Internship is such an important part that the number of hours dedicated to practice progressively increases reaching half of the program by the third year. There are no special requirements to be admitted to the Bachelor's degree; students from various backgrounds can access the program, previous passing an 80 question pre selection test. This test is implemented to all those courses known as "numero chiuso" or close access to limit the number of participants. Depending on the Faculty and course between 30 to 400 positions are available each year. To be selected one has not only pass the examination but finish in the top positions required to enter. For all para-medical degrees each Institution can select its own test which it held simultaneously in all Universities, whereas for Medicine the test are administered by the Ministry of Education.
Importance is given to the initial exam and a "close number" is paramount. This maneuver is intended to control the job market, hence providing secure occupation to those who finish.
Yet between 2010 and 2011 the public funds to national health care were cut drastically, resulting in a national wide job loss and impossibility for newly formed students to be hired, contemporary to a large portion of the population in need of medical care yet unable to pay for the private service, which is regulated with minimum fees by imposition of law, therefore not allowing that portion of unemployed physiotherapists to lower their own fees so to offer their services and provide that portion of the population with the needed assistance.
Republic of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland, Physiotherapy is available as an undergraduate course in four universities, Trinity College, University College Dublin, Royal College of Surgeons and University of Limerick. Courses are four years in length with clinical practice in the final two years. Students are required to complete 1000 hours of clinical practice before graduation.
In Malta, Physical Therapy B.Sc. (honours) is available as a course which can be obtained after finishing a four-year course at the Institute of Health Care of the University of Malta. This course involves all aspects of Physiotherapy. Students have an intensive three-year theoretical course after whom s/he spends the last year doing clinical placements (in total = four years). Students learn how to assess and treat patients. To be able to secure a license to practice as a physiotherapist, one must be able to pass some practical exams which involves both assessment and treatment. In the fourth year, students are also expected to complete a physiotherapy research project, which fulfills the requirements of an Honours degree.
In Spain a physiotherapy student is required to complete 3 years of training after having passed a university entrance exam. After completing a physiotherapy program, another exam can be taken to work for the public health system of an autonomous community, or a graduate can work for private hospitals, clinics, etc. There are 43 universities with physiotherapy faculties in Spain. Since 2009 physiotherapy has become a four-year career. Physiotherapists who have finished their 3 years of training can also take one more year.
In the United Kingdom, pre-registration undergraduate and postgraduate Physiotherapy degree courses are offered by thirty five universities. Undergraduate degree programs are three years in duration in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and four years in Scotland, whilst pre-registration master's degrees are spread over two extended academic years. The difference in the length of degree courses within Scotland compared to the rest of the UK, reflects the nature of the education system within that country and the content of all UK degree programs is essentially the same. All courses are approved by the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy and the UK Health and Care Professions Council - the latter allowing registration and entitlement to use the protected title of Physiotherapist upon successful completion of the degree program. All physiotherapy degree courses consist of a mix of theoretical and practical teaching sessions and include a compulsory 1000 hours of clinical practice spread across each of the academic years. Pre-registration Physiotherapy training consists of advanced study within each of three distinct areas of UK Physiotherapy practice - Musculoskeletal, Neurological and Cardio-respiratory care. Typical entry requirements for undergraduate degree courses are three academic GCE 'A' Level courses (or equivalents) at grades between ABB - AAA dependent upon the higher education institution. Postgraduate programs require a degree within a relevant subject (e.g. Biology, Anatomy and Physiology etc.) with a minimum grade of an upper second class honours.
In Iran, the physical therapy degree is offered in bachelor level and master's and PhD level, which usually takes four years for BSc and 2 year for MSc, 4 year for PhD.
The physical therapy degree is a master part of orthopaedic surgery board that given by the medical school after the B.Sc. degree, it requires a full B.Sc. degree in medicine (six years) and is not a separate allied health field. The Physical therapy degree is B.Sc. College of Medical and Health technology-Baghdad has a graduate program in physical therapy, 4-year period after high school. Summer training courses in many hospitals (graduation requirement). The only college in Iraq is located in the medical city in Baghdad, in front of Ministry of Health. The students receive a B.Sc. degree in physical therapy.
In Jordan, a physiotherapist at diploma level can still practice. However, such diploma programmes are not offered any more. Practitioners at diploma level are encouraged to bridge their degree into B.Sc. in Physiotherapy in order to get financial and professional benefits. Three universities are currently offering this degree: University of Jordan, Jordan University of Science and Technology and Hashemite University. B.Sc. in Physiotherapy programmes take 4 years that include clinical component. No internship is required from students to start practice upon graduation. Currently no specific M.Sc. or PhD programmes in physiotherapy are available. However, students can register in others medical master degrees like anatomy, physiology, and public health.
In Kuwait, physical therapy B.Sc. degrees can be obtained after graduating from Kuwait University (four-year program). Students learn to assess patients and document their progress in their second year of study and start going on to hospitals to have their practical learning beginning at the start of their third year. After graduating further training in hospitals is available. There are no formal post-graduation programs.
In Turkey, the Physiotherapy (BPT) education is provided by physiotherapy schools in universities (Hacettepe University, Dokuz Eylül University, Istanbul University, Marmara University, Baskent University, Pamukkale University, Dumlupınar University, Süleyman Demirel University, Bezmi Alem University, Acıbadem University,Trakya Üniversity(the best according f.s. ), Medipol University, Yeni Yuzyil University) after high school education. Education takes four years or five years with prep classes. M.Sc. and Ph.D. education is given by institutes of medical sciences.
United Arab Emirates
In the United Arab Emirates the Bachelor Of Physiotherapy (BPT) consists of a four-year undergraduate degree program. In the first year of the program they are introduced to pre-clinical subjects such as Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Human Behaviour & Socialisation & Basic Medical Electronics & Computers. The students also get hands-on experiences in cadaveric dissections while learning Human Anatomy during the first year of the program. The students progressively are introduced to supervised clinical practice and the integrated curriculum offers the best learning experiences in addition to extensive in-house elearning programs. The course offers Case Based Learning experiences and focuses on Evidence Based Practices. The program culminates with a six-month internship ending with a research project work.
In Canada, entry-level physiotherapy education is offered at 14 universities. All of these university programs are at the Master's level, meaning that applicants must have already completed an undergraduate degree prior to applying. Many universities also offer graduate programs in physiotherapy, rehabilitation, or related disciplines at the masters or doctoral level. Many physiotherapists may advance their education at these levels in such Clinical Practice Areas as cardiorespiratory, geriatrics, neurosciences, orthopaedics, pediatrics, rheumatology, oncology, sports physiotherapy, and women's health.
In the province of Quebec, physiotherapists are required to complete a master's degree specializing in physiotherapy to meet the eligibility criteria to gain membership with the Ordre professionnel de la physiothérapie du Québec. However, physiotherapy students must first obtain a bachelor's degree majoring in physiotherapy to submit their application to the master's program, which will provide them with several internships in hospitals or rehabilitation centers. Some students may even have the opportunity to be trained in European countries. Following the completion of a master's degree, most often named "Master of Science" or "Master of Physical Therapy," one may pursue studies at the doctoral level in such fields as rehabilitation, kinesiology, or exercise science. universities offer physiotherapy programs. The Université de Montréal and the Université de Sherbrooke offer a joint bachelor's and master's degree program that leads to the obtention of a Bachelor of Science and a Master of Science. McGill University's School of Physical and Occupational Therapy and the Université Laval both offer the Bachelor of Physical Therapy at the undergraduate level and the Master of Physical Therapy at the graduate level.
In the United States, curricula for Physical Therapists and Physical Therapist Assistants are accredited by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE). While currently 226 of the 227 programs offer the Doctor of Physical Therapy degree, there are still many physical therapists currently practicing in the US who were trained with a Bachelor of Science (BSPT) or Master of Physical Therapy degree. According to the American Physical Therapy Association, the number of DPT programs offered in the US rose from 19 out of 212 accredited programs (along with 184 MSPT and 9 BSPT programs) in 2000, to 222 out of 227 programs in 2011.
Doctorate programs utilize different teaching strategies to prepare students for direct access care. Strategies include, case-based studies,role playing, practical examinations and computer assisted learning. 
Physical Therapist Assistants typically graduate with an Associate of Applied Science degree. As of August 2011, there were 276 accredited two-year (Associate degree) programs for Physical Therapist Assistants In the United States.
After graduating an accredited program, PTs and PTAs are required to pass the National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE) before they can obtain a license to practice. Each state regulates physical therapy licenses independently, so precise requirements for licensure and renewal vary from state to state.
Physical Therapist education includes clinical internships that normally occur toward the end of the professional degree. Clinical internship allows students to incorporate their critical thinking skills, hands-on practice, and professional behaviors into actual clinical scenarios.  During this time, the doctoral intern will rotate between different settings for a given time period of a month or more. For example, a doctoral intern may have a rotation in orthopedics during one month and then in wound care the next month. This would continue in different settings for a predetermined amount of time, which is usually around a year.Throughout these rotations the student is paired with a clinical instructor. The role of the clinical instructor is to supervise the student as they apply the knowledge and skills learned in the classroom.  In order to become a clinical instructor, one has to be a practicing Physical Therapist for at least one year.  After graduating from an accredited program and becoming licensed, a Doctor of Physical Therapy may continue his or her education by entering a residency and then fellowship. Residencies and fellowships are not required at this time, but are becoming more common in physical therapy education. Currently there are 162 residencies and fellowships in the United States.
A residency is usually undertaken after the student completes a Doctor of Physical Therapy degree and passes the initial licensure exam. A Residency continues physical therapy education with evidence based training to better equip the resident to be able to help the patients that they will serve. A residency is a specialty designed to advance the residents knowledge in evaluation, examination, diagnosis, prognosis, intervention, and management of patients within the given subset of patients. Residencies for a Doctor of Physical Therapy are between 9 and 36 months and must be completed within a minimum of 1,500 hours. Residencies may involve community service, research, patient education, teaching opportunities, and the supervision of other health care providers. Residencies are currently offered in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary, Clinical Electrophysiology, Geriatrics, Neurology, Orthopaedics, Pediatrics, Sports, Women's Health, and Wound Care. Residencies prepare the Doctor to become a board-certified clinical specialist through the American Board of Physical Therapy Specialties (ABPTS).
A fellowship is designed to provide greater evidence based knowledge in a speciality or subspecialty. To gain acceptance to a fellowship a physical therapist must have one or more of the following qualifications 1) Completion of a residency 2) Board Certified Specialist certification 3) Demonstrate clinical skills within a particular speciality area. Fellowships must be completed between 6 and 36 months and completed with a minimum of 1000 hours. Fellowships are offered in Hand Therapy, Movement Science, Neonatal, Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy, and Sports-Division 1 Athletics. Those individuals who complete post doctoral residencies and fellowships are more marketable as specialized practitioners.
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